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    Progress of schistosomiasis control in People’s Republic of China in 2021
    ZHANG Li⁃juan, XU Zhi⁃min, YANG Fan, HE Jun⁃yi, DANG Hui, LI Yin⁃long, CAO Chun⁃li, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 329-.  
    Abstract1691)      PDF(pc) (1069KB)(1720)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2021. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2021. A total of 451 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2021, with 27 571 endemic villages covering 73 250 600 people at risk of infections. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.17% (339/451), 22.17% (100/451) and 2.66% (12/451) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2021, 29 037 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2021, 4 405 056 individuals received serological tests and 72 937 were sero⁃positive. A total of 220 629 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive. In 2021, snail survey was performed in 19 291 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 026 villages, accounting for 36.42% of all surveyed villages, with 12 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 686 574.46 hm2 and 191 159.91 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 063.08 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 5 113.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. In 2021, 525 878 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 115 437 received serological examinations, with 231 positives detected. Among the 128 719 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2021, there were 19 927 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 729 113 person⁃time individuals and 256 913 herd⁃time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2021, snail control with chemicals was performed in 117 372.74 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 640.5 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 244.25 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2021, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in China in 2021; however, the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination was slowed and the areas of snail habitats rebounded mildly. Strengthening researches on snail diffusion and control, and improving schistosomiasis surveillance and forecast are recommended to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.
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    First report of invasive Pomacea snails in Shandong Province
    WANG Long-jiang, XU Yan, SUN Hui, ZHANG Ben-guang, KONG Xiang-li, HAN Hai-tao, LI Jin, LI Yue-jin, YANG Li-min, GUO Yun-hai, WANG Yong-bin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 407-.  
    Abstract1392)      PDF(pc) (1136KB)(252)       Save
    Objective To characterize the species of invasive Pomacea snails that were discovered for the first time in Shandong Province. Methods Pomacea snails samples were collected in the field of Jining City, Shandong Province on October 2021 for morphological identification. Pomacea snails were randomly sampled and genomic DNA was extracted from foot muscle tissues of Pomacea snails for multiplex PCR amplification. The PCR amplification product was sequenced. Then, the sequence was aligned and a phylogenetic tree was created using the software MegAlign 7.1.0. In addition, Angiostongylus cantonensis infection was detected in Pomacea snails with the lung microscopy. Results A total of 104 living Pomacea snails were collected, and all were characterized as Pomacea spp. based on morphological features. Of 12 randomly selected adult Pomacea snails, multiplex PCR assay and sequencing identified eleven snails as P. canaliculata and one as P. maculata. No A. cantonensis infection was detected in 104 Pomacea snails. Conclusion This is the first report of invasive Pomacea snails in Shandong Province, where P. canaliculata and P. maculata are found.
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    Progress of schistosomiasis control in People’s Republic of China in 2022
    ZHANG Lijuan, HE Junyi, YANG Fan, DANG Hui, LI Yinlong, GUO Suying, LI Shizhen, CAO Chunli, XU Jing, LI Shizhu, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 217-224,250.  
    Abstract1074)      PDF(pc) (939KB)(1136)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance program in the People’s Republic of China in 2022. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to maintain the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2022. A total of 452 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2022, with 27 434 endemic villages covering 73 424 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 452 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.89% (343/452), 23.45% (106/452) and 0.66% (3/452) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. In 2022, 4 317 356 individuals received serological tests for schistosomiasis, and 62 228 were sero⁃positive. A total of 208 646 individuals received stool examinations for schistosomiasis, with one positive and another two cases positive for urine microscopy, and these three 3 cases were imported schistosomiasis patients from Africa. There were 28 565 cases with advanced schistosomiasis documented in China by the end of 2022. Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 18 891 endemic villages in China in 2022 and O. hupensis snails were found in 6 917 villages (36.62% of all surveyed villages), with 8 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 655 703.01 hm2 and 183 888.60 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 110.58 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 844.35 hm2 re⁃emerging snail habitats. There were 477 200 bovines raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China in 2022, and 113 946 bovines received serological examinations for schistosomiasis, with 204 sero⁃positives detected. Among the 131 715 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2022, there were 19 726 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was performed in 714 465 person⁃time for humans and 234 737 herd⁃time for bovines in China. In 2022, snail control with chemical treatment was performed at an area of 119 134.07 hm2, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 825.27 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed at an area of 1 163.96 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance program of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections was both zero in humans and bovines in 2022, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in O. hupensis snails. These data demonstrated that the endemic status of schistosomiasis continued to decline in China in 2022, with 3 confirmed schistosomiasis patients that had a foreign nationality and all imported from Africa, and the areas of snail habitats remained high. Further improvements in the construction of the schistosomaisis surveillance and forecast system, and reinforcement of O. hupensis survey and control are required to prevent the re⁃emerging schistosomiasis.
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    Molluscicidal effect of immersion with 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt against Oncomelania hupensis on the soil surface and inside the soil layer in winter
    WANG Wei⁃chun, ZHAN Ti, FAN Ze⁃han, XIANG Ke⁃xia, ZHU Ying⁃fu, DUAN Yong⁃mei, CAO Zhi⁃guo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 396-.  
    Abstract1010)      PDF(pc) (1017KB)(218)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPNES) against Oncomelania hupensis on the soil surface and inside the soil layer by immersion method in winter. Methods O. hupensis snails were placed on the soil surface and 2, 5 cm and 10 cm under the soil layer outdoors in winter, and then immersed in 50% WPNES at concentrations of 1 mg/L and 2 mg/L for 1, 3 d and 7 d, while dechlorinated water served as controls. Snail mortality was observed following immersion with 50% WPNES on the soil surface and inside the soil layer. Results Following immersion with 50% WPNES at concentrations of 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L outdoors in winter, the 3-day corrected snail mortality rates were 98.0% and 76.0% on the soil surface, and the 7-day corrected snail mortality rate was both 100.0%. Following immersion with 50% WPNES at concentrations of 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L outdoors in winter, the 7-day corrected snail mortality rates were 95.5% and 85.6% 2 cm below the soil layer, 66.0% and 6.4% 5 cm below the soil layer. However, the 7-day snail mortality rate swere comparable between the 50% WPNES treatment group (at 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L) and controls 10 cm below the soil layer (both P > 0.05). Conclusion Immersion of 50% WPNES at a concentration of 2 mg/L for 7 days presents a high molluscicidal efficacy against O. hupensis on the soil surface and 5 cm within the soil layers in winter.
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    Progress of researches on schistosomiasis⁃associated pulmonary arterial hypertension
    ZHU Yong⁃hui, CAI Yu, JIANG Yuan⁃dong, DENG Wei⁃cheng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 432-.  
    Abstract834)      PDF(pc) (999KB)(114)       Save
    Schistosomiasis⁃associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (Sch⁃PAH) is categorized as WHO Group I PAH because its clinical manifestations, laboratory and hemodynamic features share with PAH of other etiologies, such as idiopathic, heritable, HIV and autoimmune disorders. Sch⁃PAH is usually a life⁃threatening complication of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis characterized by changes in the vascular wall, remodeling and vasoconstriction with lesions primarily located in the precapillary segments of the pulmonary vasculature, which may result in a marked and sustained increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure and ultimately death. Although egg deposition into lung and subsequent inflammatory cascades are key factors in the pathogenesis of Sch⁃PAH, the exact pathogenesis, course of disease and treatment of Sch⁃PAH remain largely uncertain. This review mainly discusses the pathophysiological and immunological mechanisms of Sch⁃PAH, so as to provide insights into the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Sch⁃PAH.
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    Analysis of the new WHO guideline to accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China
    GUO Zhao-yu, FENG Jia-xin, ZHANG Li-juan, ZHOU Yi-biao, ZHOU Jie, YANG Kun, LIU Yang, LIN Dan-dan, LIU Jian-bing, Dong Yi, WANG Tian-ping, WEN Li-yong, JI Min-jun, WU Zhong-dao, JIANG Qing-wu, LIANG Song, GUO Jia-gang, CAO Chun-li, XU Jing, LÜ Shan, LI Shi-zhu, ZHOU Xiao-nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 217-.  
    Abstract726)      PDF(pc) (6857KB)(276)       Save
    On February 2022, WHO released the evidence-based guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in disease-endemic countries by 2030 and promote the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission across the world. Based on the One Health concept, six evidence-based recommendations were proposed in this guideline. This article aims to analyze the feasibility of key aspects of this guideline in Chinese national schistosomiasis control program and illustrate the significance to guide the future actions for Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Currently, the One Health concept has been embodied in the Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Based on this new WHO guideline, the following recommendations are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China: (1) improving the systematic framework building, facilitating the agreement of the cross-sectoral consensus, and building a high-level leadership group; (2) optimizing the current human and livestock treatments in the national schistosomiasis control program of China; (3) developing highly sensitive and specific diagnostics and the framework for verifying elimination of schistosomiasis; (4) accelerating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases through integrating the national control programs for other parasitic diseases.  
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    Artificial intelligence technology enables ultrasonography in precision diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases
    ZHOU Bo⁃yang, SHI Yi⁃lei, GUO Le⁃hang, MOU Li⁃chao, ZHU Xiao⁃xiang, ZHAO Chong⁃ke
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 458-.  
    Abstract674)      PDF(pc) (1084KB)(1172)       Save
    Liver disease is one of the major problems affecting human health. Ultrasound plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diffuse and focal liver diseases. However, conventional ultrasound evaluation is subjective and provides limited information. Artificial intelligence (AI) technology may supplement the disadvantages of conventional ultrasound and has been widely used in the field of ultrasound in liver diseases. To date, remarkable progress has been achieved for the use of AI technology in the diagnosis, assessment of therapeutic efficacy and prognosis prediction of liver diseases. This paper reviews the research progress of ultrasound image⁃based AI technology in the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse and focal liver diseases.
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    Decoding the evolution of preventive chemotherapy schemes for schistosomiasis in China to improve the precise implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis
    XU Jing, LI Yi⁃feng, DONG Yi, ZHAO Zheng⁃yuan, WEN Li⁃yong, ZHANG Shi⁃qing, LIN Dan⁃dan, ZHOU Jie, LIANG Song, GUO Jia⁃gang, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 223-.  
    Abstract648)      PDF(pc) (7139KB)(242)       Save
    Preventive chemotherapy is one of the pivotal interventions for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis, which is effective to reduce the morbidity and prevalence of schistosomiasis. In order to promote the United Nations’ sustainable development goals and the targets set for schistosomiasis control in the Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis in 2022, with major evidence⁃based updates of the current preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis. In China where great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control, the preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis has been updated several times during the past seven decades. This article reviews the evolution of the WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy and Chinese national preventive chemotherapy schemes, compares the current Chinese national preventive chemotherapy scheme and the recommendations for preventive chemotherapy proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, and proposes recommendations for preventive chemotherapy during the future implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control among public health professionals engaging in healthcare foreign aid.
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    Contribution to global implementation of WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis by learning successful experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program in China
    WANG Xin⁃yao, ZHANG Jian⁃feng, GUO Jia⁃gang, LÜ Shan, JI Min⁃jun, WU Zhong⁃dao, ZHOU Yi⁃biao, JIANG Qing⁃wu, ZHOU Jie, LIU Jian⁃bing, LIN Dan⁃dan, WANG Tian⁃ping, DONG Yi, LIU Yang, LI Shi⁃zhu, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 230-.  
    Abstract640)      PDF(pc) (7023KB)(221)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously hinders socioeconomic developments and threatens public health security. To achieve the global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis on February, 2022, with aims to provide evidence⁃based recommendations for schistosomiasis morbidity control, elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and ultimate interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in disease⁃endemic countries. Following concerted efforts for decades, great achievements have been obtained for schistosomiasis control in China where the disease was historically highly prevalent, and the country is moving towards schistosomiasis elimination. This article reviews the successful experiences from the national schistosmiasis control program in China, and summarizes their contributions to the formulation and implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. With the progress of the “Belt and Road” initiative, the world is looking forward to more China’s solutions on schistosomiasis control.
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    Schistosomiasis control in China from 2012 to 2021: progress and challenges 
    XU Jing, CAO Chun⁃li, LÜ Shan, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (6): 559-.  
    Abstract538)      PDF(pc) (1317KB)(564)       Save
    Schistosomiasis has been endemic in China for more than 2 000 years, which causes huge morbidity, social and economic burdens. Guided by the national specific strategic programs and criteria for schistosomiasis, tremendous achievements have been gained for schistosomiasis elimination in China. This paper reviews the progress of schistosomiasis control and endemic status of schistosomiasis in China during the period from 2012 to 2021, analyzes the challenges to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China by 2030, and proposes suggestions for future schistosomiasis control programs.
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    Potential transmission risk of key parasitic diseases and responses to the risk during the construction of an ecological city in Shanghai Municipality
    YU Qing, PAN Hao, JIANG Li, ZHU Min, JIN Yan⁃jun, WANG Zhen⁃yu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 531-.  
    Abstract526)      PDF(pc) (1009KB)(256)       Save
    A blueprint on Shanghai’s ecological space design between 2021 and 2035 was released in 2021, aiming to build an ecological city and improve the development of ecological civilization. The transmission of parasitic diseases is strongly associated with climate and ecological environments. Currently, the prevalence of parasitic diseases has been maintained at extremely low⁃transmission levels, and there are almost no local cases; however, the alteration of ecological environments may results in a potential transmission risk of parasitic diseases. Hereby, the current status of key parasitic diseases in Shanghai Municipality was described, and the potential transmission risk of parasitic diseases and responses to this risk were analyzed during the construction of an ecological city in Shanghai Municipality. In addition, the suggestions pertaining to surveillance and management of parasitic diseases were proposed during the mid⁃ and long⁃term construction of an ecological city in Shanghai Municipality.
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    Oncomelania hupensis control strategy during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China
    YUAN Yi, CAO Chun⁃li, HUANG Xi⁃bao, ZHAO Qin⁃ping
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 337-.  
    Abstract513)      PDF(pc) (997KB)(372)       Save
    Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and O. hupensis control is an important measure for schistosomiasis control. With the progress of national schistosomiasis control program, the prevalence of schistosomiasis is low in China; however, there are still multiple challenges for O. hupensis breeding and schistosomiasis transmission risk. Considering the target of the national schistosomiasis elimination program and environmental protection in the new era, the introduction of precision identification, precision interventions and precision assessment into O. hupensis control may facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Microbiota structure and diversity in Aedes albopictus at different developmental stages
    ZHAO Yong⁃qiao, XIA Ao, ZHANG Mei⁃hua, LI Ju⁃lin, ZHU Guo⁃ding, TANG Jian⁃xia
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 475-.  
    Abstract507)      PDF(pc) (1932KB)(346)       Save
    Objective To investigate the diversity and composition of microflora in laboratory⁃reared Aedes albopictus at different developmental stages and larval habitat waters. Methods The larval habitat waters and different developmental stages of laboratory⁃reared A. albopictus were collected, and the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Illumina Miseq next⁃generation sequencing. The abundance and diversity of the microflora were examined using alpha diversity index in A. albopictus at different developmental stages, and the difference in the microflora compositions was compared in A. albopictus at different developmental stages using principal component analysis (PCA). In addition, the species composition and relative abundance of microflora in A. albopictus at different developmental stages were described using histograms and Venn diagrams. Results A total of 16 phyla, 30 classes, 72 orders, 129 families and 224 genera of bacteria were detected in larval habitat waters and different developmental stages of A. albopictus. The highest bacterial diversity was seen in larval A. albopictus, with Chao index of 125.20 ± 30.48 and Shannon diversity index of 2.04 ± 0.39, which were comparable to those (Chao index of 118.52 ± 15.07 and Shannon diversity index of 2.15 ± 0.30) in larval habitat waters (t = 0.35 and -0.41, both P values > 0.05). The bacterial abundance and evenness were significantly greater in female adults than in male adults (Chao index: 42.50 ± 3.54 vs. 18.50 ± 2.13, t = 8.23, P < 0.05; Shannon diversity index: 1.25 ± 1.67 vs. 0.50 ± 0.05, t = 6.00, P < 0.05). Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, Actinobacteriota and Firmicutes were four common phyla of bacteria at each developmental stage of A. albopictus, with Proteobacteria dominated at the pupal stage (90.36%), Bacteroidota dominated at the adult stage (46.01% in female adults and 86.11% in male adults), and Actinobacteriota dominated at the larval stage (32.10%). Elizabethkingia and Rahnella1 were common dominant genera of bacteria at each developmental stage of A. albopictus, with Rahnella1 as the major component at the pupal stage (87.56%), Elizabethkingia as the main component at the adult stage (46.01% in female adults and 86.11% in male adults, respectively), and Microbacteria as the dominant bacterial genus at the larval stage (12.11%). In addition, Delftia, Elizabethkingia, Romboutsia, Serratia, Rahnella1, Enterococcus and Microbacterium were common genera of bacteria at each developmental stage of A. albopictus, with Edaphobaculum dominated at the larval stage (17.54%) and Sphingobacterium dominated in larval habitat waters (13.93%). Conclusions There are differences in the composition of symbiotic bacteria at different developmental stages of A. albopictus; however, similar microflora diversity is maintained at the phylum level. The microflora diversity is comparable in larvae and larval habitat waters of A. albopictus.
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    Taxonomic rank of human parasites
    JIA Tie⁃wu, WANG Wei, ZHOU Yi⁃biao, ZHOU Jie, MEI Zhong⁃qiu, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 420-.  
    Abstract503)      PDF(pc) (4541KB)(240)       Save
    Biological category is effective to indicate the evolution of organism populations between past and present. Conventional taxonomy of human parasites mainly depends on important morphological features, which suffers from a problem of categorizing related⁃genera species with similar morphological characteristics. With recent advances in molecular biological technologies, the effective applications of mitochondrial and ribosomal biomarkers and sequencing greatly improve the development of the taxonomic rank of human parasites. Worldwide, the classification of human parasites have been continuously revised and improved. Hereby, we re⁃categorize parasitic Protozoa, Trematoda, Cestoda and Nematoda, so as to provide insights into the researches on molecular systematics and genetic evolution of human parasites.
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    Current status and prospects of artificial intelligence in schistosomiasis prevention and control
    LI Zi⁃ang, JIAO Yi⁃ping, XU Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 453-.  
    Abstract502)      PDF(pc) (1052KB)(543)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously endangers human health and affects socioeconomic developments. Artificial intelligence technology has been widely used in clinical medical sciences, including tumor screening, and electrocardiogram, imaging and pathological analyses, which has potential for precision control of schistosomiasis. Currently, artificial intelligence technology has been employed for clinical assessment of schistosomiasis⁃associated hepatic fibrosis and ectopic schistosomiasis, prognostic prediction of advanced schistosomiasis, automated identification of Oncomelania hupensis and Schistosoma japonicum eggs and miracidia, epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis, and drug discovery. This review summarizes the advances in the applications of artificial intelligence technology in the management of schistosomiasis and proposes the prospects for the use of artificial intelligence in schistosomiasis elimination.
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    Distribution of mosquito species and associated viruses in Hami City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2019 to 2020
    GAO Zhen⁃guo, WANG Dong, MAHE Mu⁃ti, CAO Zhi⁃xin, LIU Yan, Lina Turxunbayi, HUANG Rui⁃fang, MA Xin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 392-.  
    Abstract482)      PDF(pc) (1057KB)(272)       Save
    Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito species and their associated viruses, and identify Culex pipiens subspecies in Hami City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods Mosquitoes were captured using mosquito trapping lamps method in Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City in mi⁃July, 2019 and 2020. The species and subspecies of all captured mosquitoes were characterized. In addition, the flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick⁃borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus were detected using reverse⁃transcription PCR assay in captured mosquitoes. Results A total of 1 496 mosquitoes were captured from Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City, belonging to 3 genus and 3 species. Cx. pipiens was the dominant mosquito species (986 mosquitoes, 65.91%), followed by Aedes caspius (457 mosquitoes, 30.55%), while Culiseta alaskaensis had the lowest number (53 mosquitoes, 3.54%). All captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens based on the terminalia of male mosquitoes. RT⁃PCR assay tested negative for flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick⁃borne encephalitis or West Nile virus in captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. Conclusions There were 3 species of mosquitoes in Hami City from 2019 to 2020, including Cx. pipiens, Ae. Caspius and C. alaskaensis, with Cx. pipiens as the dominant mosquito species, and all captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens pipiens; however, no arboviruses were detected.
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    Analysis of causes of death among advanced schistosomiasis patients in Jiaxing City from 2010 to 2020
    HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hao⁃ran, CAI Chen⁃xiao, WU Yi⁃ming
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 307-.  
    Abstract471)      PDF(pc) (3443KB)(100)       Save
    Objective To analyze the cause of death among patients with advanced schistosomiasis in Jiaxing City of Zhejiang Province from 2000 to 2020. Methods The medical records of 167 dead patients with advanced schistosomiasis that were registered in Jiaxing First Hospital and received national medical assistance program from 2010 to 2020 were collected, and compared with the data of advanced schistosomiasis patients without national medical assistance program in the same city from 1998 to 2008. Results Among the 167 advanced schistosomiasis patients in Jiaxing City during the period from 2010 to 2020, the four most common causes of death included liver failure (22.16%), upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (17.37%), hepatic encephalopathy (14.97%) and liver cancer (14.37%), and the dead patients were predominantly at ages of 70 to 74 years, with a mean age of 74.8 years. The four most common causes of death included upper gastrointestinal bleeding (34.16%), hepatic encephalopathy (22.28%), unexplained causes (22.28%) and liver failure (4.46%) among advanced schistosomiasis patients without national medical assistance in Jiaxing City from 1998 to 2008, and the dead patients were predominantly at ages of 60 to 69 years, with a mean age of 69.3 years. There were significant differences between patients detected from 2010 to 2020 and from 1998 to 2008 in terms of causes of death ([χ2] = 63.42, P = 0.00) and age of death ([χ2] = 50.09, P = 0.00). Conclusion There are significant changes in the cause of death among patients with advanced schistosomiasis in Jiaxing City from 2010—2020, which may be attributed to the implementation of the national medical assistance program.
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    Artificial intelligence facilitates tropical infectious disease control and research
    SHI Liang, ZHANG Jian⁃feng, LI Wei, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 445-.  
    Abstract458)      PDF(pc) (2219KB)(372)       Save
    Since the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID⁃19) in late 2019, artificial intelligence technology has shown increasing values in the research and control of tropical infectious diseases. The introduction of artificial intelligence technology has shown remarkable effectiveness to reduce the diagnosis and treatment burdens, reduce missing diagnosis and misdiagnosis, improve the surveillance and forecast ability and enhance the medicine and vaccine development efficiency. This paper summarizes the current applications of artificial intelligence in tropical infectious disease control and research and discusses the important values of artificial intelligence in disease diagnosis and treatment, disease surveillance and forecast, vaccine and drug discovery, medical and public health services and global health governance. However, artificial intelligence technology suffers from problems of single and inaccurate diagnosis, poor disease surveillance and forecast ability in open environments, limited capability of intelligent system services, big data management and model interpretability. Hereby, we propose suggestions with aims to improve multimodal intelligent diagnosis of multiple tropical infectious diseases, emphasize intelligent surveillance and forecast of vectors and high⁃risk populations in open environments, accelerate the research and development of intelligent management system, strengthen ethical security, big data management and model interpretability.
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    Sharing the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China
    WANG Tian⁃ping, LÜ Shan, QIN Zhi⁃qiang, ZHOU Yi⁃biao, LIU Yang, WEN Li⁃yong, GUO Jia⁃gang, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHANG Guang⁃ming, ZHANG Shi⁃qing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 235-.  
    Abstract441)      PDF(pc) (7088KB)(214)       Save
    Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission interruption to elimination, and there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards the progression of schistosomiasis elimination, including a high difficulty in shrinking snail⁃infested areas, unstable achievements for infectious source control, imperfect surveillance system and a reduction in schistosomiasis control and administration. Based on the core suggestions proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, recommendations on schistosomiasis surveillance system building, development of novel diagnostics, adjustment of the schistosomiasis control strategy and maintaining and improvements of the schistosomiasis control capability are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China in the new era according to the actual status of schistosomiasis control in China. Formulation of the national schistosomiasis control strategy and goal from One Health perspective, verification of transmission interruption and elimination of schistosomiasis, precision implementation of schistosomiasis control interventions with adaptations to local circumstances, development and application of highly sensitive and specific diagnostics are recommended for elimination of schistosomiasis in China. In addition, the implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis may guide the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia lamblia infections among colorectal cancer patients in Henan Province
    CHEN Hui⁃hui, DENG Yan, LI Zhi, WANG Zhen⁃lei, RUN Zeng⁃ci, ZHANG Ting, CAI Yu⁃chun, ZHANG Hong⁃wei, HU Zhu⁃hua, CHEN Jun⁃hu, TIAN Li⁃guang, LI Jian
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 370-.  
    Abstract427)      PDF(pc) (1059KB)(255)       Save
    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and identify the risk factors of Giardia lamblia infections among patients with colorectal cancer in Henan Province. Methods A cross⁃sectional study was performed for questionnaire surveys among colorectal cancer patients in Henan Cancer Hospital during the period from March to July, 2021. Patients’ stool samples were collected, and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of G. lamblia was amplified in stool samples using nested PCR assay to characterize the parasite genotype. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify the risk factors of G. lamblia infections among colorectal cancer patients. Results A total of 307 colorectal cancer patients were investigated, including 176 males (57.3%) and 131 females (42.7%). PCR assay detected 8.1% [95% confidential interval (CI): (0.056, 0.117)] prevalence of G. lamblia infections among the study subjects, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between men [9.1%, 95% CI: (0.057, 0.143)] and women [6.9%, 95% CI: (0.037, 0.125)] ([χ2] = 0.495, P = 0.482). In addition, there was no age⁃specific prevalence of G. lamblia infections among the participants ([χ2] = 1.534, P = 0.675). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified use of septic tanks [odds ratio (OR) = 3.336, 95% CI: (1.201, 9.267)], daily use of well water [OR = 3.042, 95% CI: (1.093, 8.465)] and raising livestock [OR = 3.740, 95% CI: (1.154, 12.121)] as risk factors of G. lamblia infections among colorectal cancer patients, and the prevalence of abdominal pain was significantly greater in colorectal cancer patients with G. lamblia infections than in those without infections (P = 0.017). Among the 25 patients with G. lamblia infections, assemblage A was characterized in 24 (96.0%) cases and assemblage B in one case (4.0%). Conclusions  The prevalence of G. lamblia is high among colorectal cancer patients in Henan Province, and assemblage A is the dominant genotype of G. lamblia. Use of septic tanks, daily use of well water and raising livestock are risk factors of G. lamblia infections among patients with colorectal cancer.
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    Epidemic trend and control progress of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Henan Province
    JIANG Tian⁃tian, JI Peng⁃hui, HE Zhi⁃quan, ZHANG Ya⁃lan, DENG Yan, CHEN Xi, HONG Yang, ZHAO Dong⁃yang, ZHANG Hong⁃wei, LIN Xi⁃meng, CHEN Wei⁃qi
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 547-.  
    Abstract415)      PDF(pc) (1050KB)(445)       Save
    Henan Province is one of the provinces where taeniasis and cysticercosis were historically highly prevalent, and Taenia solium is the dominant species of tapeworm. Following the concerted efforts since 1970s, the prevalence of human taeniasis and cysticercosis has been maintained at a low level in Henan Province, which facilitates the national taeniasis and cysticercosis elimination program in China. Following the implementation of the policy of aeniasis and cysticercosis elimination and classified guidance, a great success has been achieved in aeniasis and cysticercosis control in Henan Province. With continuous promotion of the opening⁃up policy and the Belt and Road Initiative, there are still challenges in taeniasis and cysticercosis control. This review summarizes the control progress of taeniasis and cysticercosis and proposes the challenges of taeniasis and cysticercosis control in Henan Province.
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    Endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020
    SHI Qian⁃wen, SHEN Ling⁃e, ZHOU Jing, ZHANG Jun, WU Jing⁃zhi
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 412-.  
    Abstract409)      PDF(pc) (1069KB)(259)       Save
    Objective To analyze the endemic status of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the future schistosomiasis control strategy. Methods The data pertaining to the endemic status of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020 were retrieved from the annual schistosomiasis control report, the information management platform of schistosomiasis (parasitic diseases) in Jiangsu Province and the Parasitic Diseases Control Information Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, including snail survey data, snail control data and schistosomiasis examination data, and were retrospectively reviewed. Differences of proportions were tested for statistical significance with chi⁃square test, and the trends in proportions were evaluated using the chi⁃square test for trends. Results Elimination of schistosomiasis was achieved in Suzhou City in 2018, and there were 3.528 9 million residents living in schistosomiasis⁃endemic villages of 81 townships in 9 counties. A total of 707 600 labor⁃days were used for snail survey in 11 586 village⁃times in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020, covering 18 572.73 hm2, and snail habitats were detected with an area of 68.61 hm2, including emerging snail habitats of 37.30 hm2. A total of 23 144 snails were dissected, and no Schistosoma japonicum infection was detected. Reemerging and emerging snail habitats were predominantly found in inlands. During the period from 2010 to 2020, snail control was performed in Suzhou City for 71 000 labor⁃times, and snail control was done covering 269.34 hm2 through chemical treatment and covering 3.48 hm2 through environmental improvements. A total of 674 002 person⁃times received serological tests for S. japonicum infections in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020, with seroprevalence of 0.38%, and a total of 33 835 person⁃times received stool examinations, with no egg⁃positives identified. The sero⁃prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a rise in Suzhou City from 2010 to 2020 ([χ2] = 129.48, P < 0.001). The sero⁃prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared high among local residents in 2016, and remained stable in other years, while the sero⁃prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a rise among mobile populations ([χ2] = 54.11, P < 0.001). There were 278 800 and 175 202 serological tests among local residents and mobile populations in Suzhou City from 2013 to 2020, and 0.50% and 0.35% sero⁃prevalence rates were detected, respectively. The sero⁃prevalence of S. japonicum infections was significantly higher among local residents than among mobile populations in Suzhou City ([χ2] = 54.76, P < 0.001). Conclusions There is a risk of rebound of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City. Integrated control should be reinforced to prevent the risk of rebound of schistosomiasis in Suzhou City.
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    Progress of researches on medical big data analytics technology
    DU Zhi⁃cheng, ZHANG Zhi⁃jie, JIANG Qing⁃wu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 465-.  
    Abstract394)      PDF(pc) (1013KB)(381)       Save
    The use of the big data analytics technology to collect, summarize and analyze medical big data is effective to precisely mine and explore the underlying information, which greatly facilitates medical science research and clinical practices. Currently, the medical big data analytics technology mainly includes artificial intelligence, databases and programming languages, which have been widely employed in medical imaging, disease risk prediction, disease control, healthcare management, follow⁃up, and drug and therapy development. This review summarizes the currently available medical big data analytics technologies and their applications, with aims to facilitate the related studies.
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    Prediction of trends for fine⁃scale spread of Oncomelania hupensis in Shanghai Municipality based on supervised machine learning models
    GONG Yan⁃feng, LUO Zhuo⁃wei, FENG Jia⁃xin, XUE Jing⁃bo, GUO Zhao⁃yu, JIN Yan⁃jun, YU Qing, XIA Shang, LÜ Shan, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 241-.  
    Abstract385)      PDF(pc) (9736KB)(267)       Save
    Objective To predict the trends for fine⁃scale spread of Oncomelania hupensis based on supervised machine learning models in Shanghai Municipality, so as to provide insights into precision O. hupensis snail control. Methods Based on 2016 O. hupensis snail survey data in Shanghai Municipality and climatic, geographical, vegetation and socioeconomic data relating to O. hupensis snail distribution, seven supervised machine learning models were created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai, including decision tree, random forest, generalized boosted model, support vector machine, naive Bayes, k⁃nearest neighbor and C5.0. The performance of seven models for predicting snail spread was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1⁃score and accuracy, and optimal models were selected to identify the environmental variables affecting snail spread and predict the areas at risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality. Results Seven supervised machine learning models were successfully created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality, and random forest (AUC = 0.901, F1⁃score = 0.840, ACC = 0.797) and generalized boosted model (AUC= 0.889, F1⁃score = 0.869, ACC = 0.834) showed higher predictive performance than other models. Random forest analysis showed that the three most important climatic variables contributing to snail spread in Shanghai included aridity (11.87%), ≥ 0 ℃ annual accumulated temperature (10.19%), moisture index (10.18%) and average annual precipitation (9.86%), the two most important vegetation variables included the vegetation index of the first quarter (8.30%) and vegetation index of the second quarter (7.69%). Snails were more likely to spread at aridity of < 0.87, ≥ 0 ℃ annual accumulated temperature of 5 550 to 5 675 ℃, moisture index of > 39% and average annual precipitation of > 1 180 mm, and with the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.4 and the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.6. According to the water resource developments and township administrative maps, the areas at risk of snail spread were mainly predicted in 10 townships/subdistricts, covering the Xipian, Dongpian and Tainan sections of southern Shanghai. Conclusions Supervised machine learning models are effective to predict the risk of fine⁃scale O. hupensis snail spread and identify the environmental determinants relating to snail spread. The areas at risk of O. hupensis snail spread are mainly located in southwestern Songjiang District, northwestern Jinshan District and southeastern Qingpu District of Shanghai Municipality.
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    Spatio⁃temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020
    WANG Can, XU Xiao⁃juan, GAO Feng⁃hua, ZHANG Li⁃juan, LÜ Shan, ZHANG Shi⁃qing, XU Jing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 252-.  
    Abstract384)      PDF(pc) (9336KB)(150)       Save
    Objective To analyze the spatial⁃temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, to provide insights into precision control of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province. Methods O. hupensis snail distribution data were collected in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 and descriptively analyzed, including actual area of snail habitats, area of emerging snail habitats and area of Schistosoma japonicum⁃infected snails. The actual area of snail habitats and area of emerging snail habitats were subjected to spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspot analysis, standard deviation ellipse analysis and space⁃time scanning analysis, and the clusters of snail distribution and settings at high risk of snail spread were identified in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020. Results The actual area of snail habitats gradually decreased in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020. The actual area of snail habitats were 26 238.85 hm2 in Anhui Province in 2020, which were mainly distributed in marshland and lake regions. There was a large fluctuation in the area of emerging snail habitats in Anhui Province during the period from 2011 to 2020, with the largest area seen in 2016 (1 287.65 hm2), and 1.98 hm2 emerging infected snail habitats were detected in Guichi District, Chizhou City in 2020. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analyses showed spatial clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 (Z = 3.00 to 3.43, all P values < 0.01), and the hotspots were mainly concentrated in the marshland and lake regions and distributed along the south side of the Yangtze River, while the cold spots were mainly concentrated in the mountainous regions of ​​southern Anhui Province. There were no overall spatial clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats (Z = -2.20 to 1.71, all P values > 0.05), and a scattered distribution was found in local regions. Standard deviation ellipse analysis showed relatively stable distributions of the actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which was consistent with the flow direction of the Yangtze River, and the focus of the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats shifted from the lower reaches to upper reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River. Space⁃time scanning analysis identified two high⁃value clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in lower and middle reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River from 2011 to 2020, and two high⁃value clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats were identified in mountainous and hilly regions. Conclusions  There were spatial clusters in the distribution of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which appeared a tendency of aggregation towards the south side and upper reaches of the Yangtze River; however, the spread of O. hupensis snails could not be neglected in mountainous and hilly regions. Monitoring of emerging snail habitats should be reinforced in mountainous and hilly regions and along the Yangtze River basin.
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    Measurement of morphological features of Oncomelania hupensis shells in Yunnan Province
    SONG Jing, DONG Yi, DU Chun⁃hong, ZHANG Zong⁃ya, SHEN Mei⁃fen, ZHANG Yun, ZHOU Ji⁃hua, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 341-.  
    Abstract362)      PDF(pc) (1801KB)(175)       Save
    Objective To investigate the morphological variation of Oncomelania hupensis shells in Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the understanding of O. hupensis genetic evolution and control. Methods According to the O. hupensis density, geographical location, altitude, water system and environmental type, 12 administrative villages were sampled from 10 schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts) in 3 prefectures (cities) of Yunnan Province as snail collection sites. From December 2021 to January 2022, about 200 snails were collected from each collection site, among which thirty adult snails (6 to 7 spirals) were randomly selected from each site, and the 11 morphological indexes of snail shells were measured and subjected to cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Results Of O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, the longest shell (7.33 mm) was detected in snails from Yongle Village, Eryuan County, with the shortest (4.68 mm) in Dongyuan Village, Gucheng District, and the largest angle of apex (59.47°) was measured in snails from Caizhuang Village, Midu County, with the smallest (41.40°) in Qiandian Village, Eryuan County. The mean coefficient of variation was 9.075% among O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, with the largest coefficient of variation seen in the thickness of the labra brim (29.809%). Among O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, the mean Euclidean distance was 2.26, with the shortest Euclidean distance seen between O. hupensis snails from Qiandian Village of Eryuan County and Wuxing Village of Dali City (0.26), and the largest found between O. hupensis snails from Caizhuang Village of Midu County and Cangling Village of Chuxiong County (8.17). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis classified O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province into three categories, including the O. hupensis snail samples from Caizhuang Village of Midu County, O. hupensis snail samples from Cangling Village of Chuxiong County, and O. hupensis snail samples from Qiandian Village of Eryuan County, Wuxing Village of Dali City, Yangwu Village of Yongsheng County, Xiaoqiao Village of Xiangyun County, Yongle Village of Eryuan County, Xiaocen Village of Dali City, Anding Village of Nanjian County, Dongyuan Village of Gucheng District, Lianyi Village of Heqing County, and Dianzhong Village of Weishan County. The variations in these three categories of snail samples were mainly measured in the principal component 2 related to the angle of apex and the thickness of the labra brim. Conclusions The variations in the Euclidean distance and morphological features of shells of O. hupensis from 12 localities of Yunnan Province gradually rise with the decrease in the latitude of the collection sites. The angle of apex is an indicator for the growth of O. hupensis whorl.
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    Investigation on prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in wild mice in Shitai County, Anhui Province, 2018
    HE Jia⁃chang, CHEN Xue⁃feng, WANG Tian⁃ping, GAO Feng⁃hua, TAO Wei, DAI Bo, DING Song⁃jun, LIU Ting, LI Yi, WANG Hao, MAO Wei⁃fei, ZHANG Le⁃sheng, XU Xiao⁃juan, ZHANG Shi⁃qing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (6): 622-.  
    Abstract362)      PDF(pc) (973KB)(160)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in wild mice in Shitai County, Anhui Province, so as to provide insights into precise control of the source of S. japonicum infections. Methods Wild mice were captured using the trapping method for three successive nights at snail⁃infested settings from Jitan Village of Jitan Township, and Shiquan Village and Xibai Village of Dingxiang Township, Shitai County, Anhui Province in June and October, 2018. All trapped wild mice were sacrificed and liver and mesenteric vein specimens were collected for detection of S. japonicum eggs using microscopy, while the fecal samples in mouse intestines were collected for identification of S. japonicum infections using Kato⁃Katz technique. In addition, the population density of trapped wild mice was estimated and the prevalence of S. japonicum infection was calculated in trapped wild mice. Results A total of 376 wild mice were trapped from three villages in Shitai County. The population density of trapped wild mice was 9.1% (376/4 124), and the prevalence of S. japonicum infection was 24.2% (91/376) in trapped wild mice. The highest prevalence of S. japonicum infection was detected in Shiquan Village of Dingxiang Township (30.1%), and the lowest prevalence was seen in Xibai Village of Dingxiang Township; however, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in trapped wild mice among three villages ([χ2] = 4.111, P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in wild mice captured between on June (26.8%, 34/127) and October (22.9%, 57/249) ([χ2] = 0.690, P = 0.406). The trapped wild mice included 6 species, including Rattus norvegicus, Niviventer niviventer, R. losea, Apodemus agrarius, Mus musculus and N. coning, and the two highest prevalence of S. japonicum infection was detected in R. losea (34.9%, 22/63) and R. norvegicus (31.2%, 44/141). Conclusions The prevalence of S. japonicum infections is high in wild mice in Shitai County, and there is a natural focus of schistosomiasis transmission in Shitai County.
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    Soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum induces macrophage apoptosis in mice
    YIN Guo, QI Xin, LI Ya⁃lin, XU Lei, ZHOU Sha, CHEN Xiao⁃jun, ZHU Ji⁃feng, SU Chuan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 259-.  
    Abstract349)      PDF(pc) (10040KB)(88)       Save
    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes of macrophage numbers and apoptosis during Schistosoma japonicum infection, and to investigate the possible mechanisms of macrophage apoptosis induced by S. japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA). Methods C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6~8 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups, including three experimental groups and a normal control group. Each mouse in the experimental groups was infected with (12 ± 1) cercariae of S. japonicum via the abdominal skin, and all mice in an experimental group were sacrificed 3, 5, 8 weeks post⁃infection, respectively, while mice in the control group were not infected with S. japonicum cercariae and sacrificed on the day of S. japonicum infection in the experimental group. Mouse liver specimens and peritoneal exudation cells were sampled in each group, and the dynamic changes of macrophage numbers and apoptosis were detected. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated, purified and treated with S. japonicum SEA, PBS and ovalbumin (OVA) in vitro, and the macrophage apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of BCL⁃2 protein family members were determined in macrophages using real⁃time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting assays, and the activation of caspase 3 was determined using flow cytometry and Western blotting. In addition, macrophages were in vitro treated with S. japonicum SEA in presence of a caspase inhibitor, H2O2 or N⁃acetyl⁃L⁃cysteine, and the apoptosis of macrophages was detected using flow cytometry. Results The total macrophage numbers continued to increase in mouse liver [(0.873 ± 0.106) × 106, (2.737 ± 0.460) × 106 and (3.107 ± 0.367) × 106 cells, respectively; F = 81.900, P < 0.01] and peritoneal specimens [(5.282 ± 1.136) × 105, (7.500 ± 1.200) × 105 and (12.800 ± 0.800) × 105 cells, respectively; F = 55.720, P < 0.01] 3, 5 and 8 weeks post⁃infection with S. japonicum, and the numbers of apoptotic macrophages also continued to increase in mouse liver [(0.092 ± 0.018) × 106, (0.186 ± 0.025) × 106 and (0.173 ± 0.0270) × 106 cells; F = 57.780, P < 0.01] and peritoneal specimens [(0.335 ± 0.022) × 105, (0.771 ± 0.099) × 105 and (1.094 ± 0.051) × 105 cells; F = 49.460, P < 0.01] 3, 5 and 8 weeks post⁃infection with S. japonicum. The apoptotic rate of SEA⁃treated macrophages [(24.330 ± 0.784)%] was significantly higher than that of PBS⁃ [(18.500 ± 1.077)%] and OVA⁃treated macrophages [(18.900 ± 1.350)%] (both P values < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the mRNA or protein expression of Bcl⁃2 [Bcl⁃2 mRNA expression: (1.662 ± 0.943) vs. (1.000 ± 0.000), t = 1.215, P > 0.05; BCL protein expression: (0.068 ± 0.004) vs. (0.070 ± 0.005), t = 0.699, P > 0.05], Bax [Bax mRNA expression: (0.711 ± 0.200) vs. (1.000 ± 0.000), t = 2.507, P > 0.05; Bax protein expression: (0.089 ± 0.005) vs. (0.097 ± 0.003), t = 2.232, P > 0.05] and Bak [Bak mRNA expression: (1.255 ± 0.049) vs. (1.00 ± 0.00), t = 0.897, P > 0.05; BAK protein expression: (0.439 ± 0.048) vs. (0.571 ± 0.091), t = 2.231, P > 0.05] between in SEA⁃ and PBS⁃treated macrophages. S. japonicum SEA induced macrophage apoptosis in the presence of a caspase inhibitor (F = 0.411, P > 0.05); however, SEA failed to induce macrophage apoptosis in the presence of H2O2 or NAC (F = 11.880 and 9.897, both P values < 0.05). Conclusion S. japonicum SEA may induce macrophage apoptosis through promoting reactive oxygen species expression during S. japonicum infections in mice.
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    Clinical characteristics of biliary obstruction patients with Clonorchis sinensis infections
    FANG Wen⁃juan, LI Xiang, JIANG Xu, DUAN Shan⁃shan, DINGJian, ZUO Li⁃jiao, ZHANG Xue⁃li, ZHANG Xiao⁃li, HAN Su
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 311-.  
    Abstract347)      PDF(pc) (4157KB)(51)       Save
    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of biliary obstruction patients with Clonorchis sinensis infections, so as to provide insights into the clinical diagnosis and therapy of this comorbidity. Methods A total of 45 biliary obstruction patients with C. sinensis infections that were admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from October 2012 to September 2019 were enrolled, and 45 patients with biliary obstruction alone at the hospital during the same study period were recruited as controls. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory examination results and imaging manifestations related to C. sinensis infection, and the statistically significant univariate was used as an independent variable for multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared with biliary obstruction alone, males (91.11% vs. 46.67%; [χ2] = 20.737, P < 0.01) and rural areas (62.22% vs. 22.22%; [χ2] = 14.757, P < 0.01) showed a significantly higher proportion in biliary obstruction patients with C. sinensis infections. The major clinical symptoms involved in had jaundice (45 cases, 100%) and abdominal pain (40 cases, 88.89%) in C. sinensis⁃infected patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that males [odds ratio (OR) = 10.717,95% confidential interval (CI): (2.571, 44.662)] and drinking alcohol [OR = 4.474,95% CI: (1.019, 19.642)] were risk factors for biliary obstruction patients with C. sinensis infections, while living in city [OR = 0.128,95% CI: (0.038, 0.435)] was a protective factor. Additionally, in biliary obstruction patients with C. sinensis infections, lower total bilirubin (Z = -2.566, P < 0.05) and direct bilirubin (Z = -3.454, P < 0.05), higher indirect bilirubin (Z = -3.821, sive diagnosis requires to be made based on clinical symptoms, laboratory and imaging examinations, in order to improve the diagnosis of biliary obstruction patients with C. sinensis infections.
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    Epidemiological characteristics and influencing factors of Blastocystis hominis infection among children with diarrhea under five years of age in Guangzhou City
    XU Wei⁃rong, WANG Guo⁃shu, LI Qin, ZHENG Jin⁃xin, GUO Zhao⁃yu, CHEN Jia⁃xu, CHEN Mu⁃xin, TIAN Li⁃guang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (6): 598-.  
    Abstract345)      PDF(pc) (1008KB)(111)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of Blastocystis hominis infection among children with diarrhea under five years of age in Guangzhou City. Methods Children with diarrhea under 5 years of age admitted to Guangzhou Children’s hospital, Guangzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center during the period between January 1 and December 31, 2020, were enrolled. Participants’ demographics, living environments and health status were collected using questionnaire surveys. Stool samples were collected from participants and nucleic acid was extracted. B. hominis infection was identified using PCR assay and sequence alignment, and the factors affecting B. hominis infection among children with diarrhea under 5 years of age were identified using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 684 children with diarrhea under 5 years of age were enrolled, including 468 male children and 216 female children, with a mean age of (1.79 ± 1.12) years. The overall prevalence of B. hominis infection was 4.97% [34/684, 95% confidential interval (CI): (3.59%, 6.86%)] among participants, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of B. hominis infection between children with chronic [7.52% (20/266), 95% CI: (4.92%, 11.33%)] and acute diarrhea [3.35% (14/418), 95% CI: (2.01%, 5.54%)] ([χ2] = 5.983, P = 0.014). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified keeping pet [odds ratio (OR) = 6.298, 95% CI: (2.711, 14.633)], drinking non⁃tap water [OR = 4.522, 95% CI: (1.769, 11.561)], lactose intolerance [OR = 4.221, 95% CI: (1.043, 17.087)], antibiotic use [OR = 0.125, 95% CI: (0.017, 0.944)] and chronic diarrhea [OR = 2.172, 95% CI: (1.018, 4.637)] as factors affecting B. hominis infection among children with diarrhea under 5 years of age in Guangzhou City. Conclusions B. hominis infections is detected in children with diarrhea under five years of age in Guangzhou City. Improving home environments and pet⁃keeping hygiene is recommended to reduce the likelihood of B. hominis infection among children.
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    Study on mechanisms of Th17/Treg imbalance in patients with cystic echinococcosis based on miRNA expression profiles
    LU Di, SONG Jia⁃hui, MA Zi⁃jian, ZHANG Peng⁃yue, XU Lei, WEI Chuan, CHEN Ying, ZHOU Sha, ZHU Ji⁃feng, LI Ya⁃lin, ZHAO Jia⁃qing, ZHU Ming⁃xing, ZHAO Rui, WANG Hai, CHEN Xiao⁃Jun, ZHAO Wei, SU Chuan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 277-.  
    Abstract343)      PDF(pc) (9776KB)(75)       Save
    Objective To investigate the serum microRNA (miRNA) expression and examine the impact of miRNA expression profiles on T helper type 17 (Th17)/regulatory T cells (Treg) imbalance among patients with cystic echinococcosis, so as to provide insights into the illustration of the mechanisms underlying chronic Echinococcus granulosus infections, and long⁃term pathogenesis. Methods Total RNA was extracted from the sera of cystic echinococcosis patients and healthy controls, and subjected to high⁃throughput sequencing with the Illumina sequencing platform. Known miRNAs were annotated and new miRNAs were predicted using the miRBase database and the miRDeep2 tool, and differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. The target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using the software miRanda and TargetScan, and the intersection was selected for Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs with the 20 highest fold changes, miRNAs that targeted genes relating to key transcription factors RORC and FOXP3 that determine the production of Th17 and Treg cells or their important regulatory pathways (PI3K⁃Akt and mTOR pathways) were matched. Results A total of 53 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened in sera of cystic echinococcosis patients and healthy controls, including 47 up⁃regulated miRNAs and 6 down⁃regulated miRNAs. GO enrichment analysis showed that these differentially expressed miRNA were involved DNA transcription and translation, cell components, cell morphology, neurodevelopment and metabolic decomposition, and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNA were mainly involved in MAPK, PI3K⁃Akt and mTOR signaling pathways. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs with the 20 highest fold changes, there were 3 miRNAs that had a potential for target regulation of RORC, and 15 miRNAs that had a potential to target the PI3K⁃Akt and mTOR signaling pathways. Conclusions Significant changes are found in serum miRNA expression profiles among patients with E. granulosus infections, and differentially expressed miRNAs may lead to Th17/Treg imbalance through targeting the key transcription factors of Th17/Treg or PI3K⁃Akt and mTOR pathways, which facilitates the long⁃term parasitism of E. granulosus in hosts and causes a chronic disease. 
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    Cystic echinococcosis of the abdominal wall: a case report
    XU Zhao⁃Jun, LIU Tao, CHEN Xiao⁃Bin, JIANG Shu⁃Yun, WANG Xin⁃Le, LIU Guang⁃Zhao, WANG Ya⁃Feng, MA Xiao⁃Ming
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 315-.  
    Abstract342)      PDF(pc) (2353KB)(46)       Save
    Cystic echinococcosis of the abdominal wall is relatively rare. Here, a 54⁃year⁃old patient with cystic echinococcosis of the abdominal wall was reported, who was admitted to hospital due to presence of abdominal mass for one year complicated by skin ulceration of the mass for 5 days. The case was initially diagnosed as cystic echinococcosis of the abdominal wall and given sub⁃abdominal echinococcosis cystectomy. Post⁃surgical pathological examinations revealed cystic echinococcosis (type of a single locule and multiple daughter cysts). This case report aimed to provide insights into the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cystic echinococcosis of the abdominal wall.
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    Eukaryotic expression and antigen epitope prediction of the LRRC15 protein in excretory secretory antigens of Taenia solium cysticercus
    LI Li⁃zhu, ZHOU Bi⁃ying
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 286-.  
    Abstract332)      PDF(pc) (6663KB)(77)       Save
    Objective To conduct eukaryotic expression of the leucine⁃rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15), a differentially expressed protein in excretory secretory antigens of Taenia solium cysticercus, and predict its antigen epitope. Methods The molecular weight, stability, amino acid sequence composition, isoelectric point and T lymphocyte epitope of the LRRC15 protein were predicted using the bioinformatics online softwares ExPASy⁃PortParam and Protean. The full⁃length splicing primers were designed using PCR⁃based accurate synthesis, and the LRRC15 gene was synthesized. The recombinant pcDNA3.4⁃LRRC15 plasmid was constructed and transfected into HEK293 cells to express the LRRC15 protein. In addition, the LRRC15 protein was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate⁃polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS⁃PAGE) and Western blotting. Results The recombinant pcDNA3.4⁃LRRC15 plasmid was successfully constructed, which expressed the target LRRC15 protein with an approximately molecular weight of 70 kDa. Bioinformatics prediction with the ExPASy⁃PortParam software showed that LRRC15 was a hydrophilic protein, which was consisted of 644 amino acids and had a molecular weight of 69.89 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.6. The molecular formula of the LRRC15 protein was C3073H4942N846O953S28 and had an instability coefficient is 50.3, indicating that LRRC15 was an instable protein. Bioinformatics prediction with the Protean software showed that the dominant T⁃cell antigen epitopes were located in 292 to 295, 353 to 361, 521 to 526 and 555 to 564 amino acids of the LRRC15 protein, and the T⁃cell antigen epitopes with a high hydrophilicity, good flexibility, high surface accessibility and high antigenicity index were found in 122 to 131, 216 to 233, 249 to 254, 333 to 343, 358 to 361, 368 to 372, 384 to 386, 407 to 412, 445 to 450, 469 to 481, 553 to 564, 588 to 594, 607 to 617 and 624 to 639 amino acids. Following transfection of the recombinant pcDNA3.4⁃LRRC15 plasmid into HEK293 cells, SDS⁃PAGE and Western blotting identified LRRC15 proteins in cell secretory culture media, cell lysis supernatants and sediments. The LRRC15⁃His fusion protein was purified from the cell culture medium, and SDS⁃PAGE identified a remarkable band at approximately 70 kDa, while Western blotting successfully recognized the band of the recombinant LRRC15 protein. Conclusions The eukaryotic expression and antigen epitope prediction of the LRRC15 protein in the excretory secretory antigens of T. solium cysticercus have been successfully performed, which provides insights into further understandings of its biological functions.
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    Molluscicidal effect of 25% wettable powder of pyriclobenzuron sulphate in hilly schistosomiasis⁃endemic regions
    ZHU Ze⁃lin, LUO Bing⁃rong, LIU Yu⁃hua, HAO Yu⁃wan, TIAN Tian, WANG Qiang, DUAN Li⁃ping, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 404-.  
    Abstract329)      PDF(pc) (1028KB)(171)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of 25% wettable powder of pyriclobenzuron sulphate (WPPS) against Oncomelania snails in hilly schistosomiasis⁃endemic regions and test its toxicity to fish. Methods In October 2020, a snail⁃infested setting which had been cleared was selected in Nanjian County, Yunnan Province and divided into several blocks, and the natural snail mortality was estimated. 25% WPPS was prepared into solutions at concentrations of 1 and 2 g/L, and 25% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPNES) was prepared into solutions at a concentration of 2 g/L. The different concentrations of drugs were sprayed evenly, and the same amount of water was used as blank control. Snails were surveyed using the systematic sampling method 1, 3 and 7 days post⁃treatment, and snail survival was observed. A fish pond was selected in Nanjian County, and 2 kg 25% WPPS was evenly sprayed on the water surface to allow the effective concentration of 20 g/L. Fish mortality was estimated 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post⁃treatment. Results One⁃day treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES resulted in 97.99%, 97.99% and 94.11% adjusted snail mortality rates ([χ2] = 3.509 and 3.509, both P values > 0.05), and the adjusted snail mortality was all 100% 3 d post⁃treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES, while 7⁃day treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES resulted in 91.75%, 86.57% and 57.76% adjusted snail mortality rates ([χ2] = 14.893 and 42.284, both P values < 0.05). Treatment with 2 g/L WPPS for 72 h resulted in a 0.67% cumulative mortality rate of fish. Conclusion 25% WPPS is effective for snail control and highly safe for fish, which is feasible for use in hilly schistosomiasis⁃endemic regions.
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    Optimized pathway to schistosomiasis elimination in China: a scrutiny using a marginal benefit approach
    LI Qin, YANG Guojing, ZHENG Jinxin, XU Jing, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (1): 1-.  
    Abstract326)      PDF(pc) (1172KB)(283)       Save
    Following concerted efforts for over 7 decades, great achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. Currently, China is moving towards the stage of schistosomiasis elimination, when the major task is to make full use of available resources to improve schistosomiasis surveillance and response to sustainably consolidate gained schistosomiasis control achievements and prevent re⁃emerging schistosomiasis. There is therefore an urgent need for optimization of interventions for schistosomiasis elimination. Based on analysis of socioeconomic features at different stages of the national schistosomiasis control program in China, this review discusses the relationship between the needs of assessment of schistosomiasis elimination interventions and the optimized strategy of schistosomiasis elimination at different stages of the national schistosomiasis control program using a marginal benefit approach and proposes the optimized schistosomiasis elimination strategy that allows the highest marginal benefit with currently available schistosomiasis elimination costs, so as to provide the optimal strategic pathway to schistosomiasis elimination and facilitate the achievement of the targets set in Healthy China 2030.
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    Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia in dogs and cats from a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality
    ZHANG Jing, QIN Yuan, SHEN Yujuan, WANG Yaxue, CAO Jianping, SU Yaxin, LIU Hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 258-262.  
    Abstract320)      PDF(pc) (1340KB)(158)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia in dogs and cats from a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality. Methods A total of 145 fresh fecal samples were collected from pet dogs and cats in a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality during the period from November 2021 to June 2022, including 99 dog fecal samples and 46 cat fecal samples. The small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium and the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene of G. lamblia were amplified using nested PCR assay, and the positive amplification products were sequenced from both directions. The sequence assembly was performed using the software Clustal X 2.1, and sequence alignment was conducted using BLAST. A phylogenetic tree was created with the Neighbor⁃Joining method using MEGA 11.0 to identify parasite species or genotype. Results The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia was 20.00% (29/145) in 145 pet dog and cat fecal samples, with the prevalence of 0.69% (1/145) and 19.31% (28/145) in Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia, respectively. G. lamblia was only detected in dog fecal samples, with prevalence of 18.18% (18/99), while the detection rates of Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia were 2.17% (1/46) and 21.74% (10/46) in cat fecal samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that one Cryptosporidium positive sample was characterized as C. felis, and 28 G. lamblia positive samples were all characterized as Giardia assemblage A, which showed 100% sequence homology with human isolates of Giardia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences obtained in this study belonged to the same branch with the reported Giardia assemblage A. Conclusions Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia infection was prevalent in pet dogs and cats from the study pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality, and there is a zoonotic risk for the species and genotype. Intensified surveillance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection is recommended in pets and their owners, and improved management of pet keeping is required.
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    Preparation and characterization of a recombinant poly⁃epitopic vaccine EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) against cystic echinococcosis based on the linker GSGGSG
    ZHENG Jia, ZHANG Dong⁃jun, ZHAO Shang⁃qi, LI Yan⁃min, ZHOU Yan⁃xia, ZHOU Wen⁃tao, ZHOU Xiao⁃tao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 378-.  
    Abstract319)      PDF(pc) (1344KB)(71)       Save
    Objective To perform prokaryotic expression and preliminary characterization of the recombinant poly⁃epitope vaccine EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) against cystic echinococcosis. Methods The recombinant poly⁃epitope vaccine EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) against Echinococcus granulosus based on the linker GSGGSG was subjected to structural three⁃dimensional (3D) modeling using immunoinformatics to analyze the structural changes and evaluate the antigenicity of the vaccine. The pET30a⁃EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) recombinant plasmid was generated using double digestion with EcoR I and Sal I, and then transformed into competent cells. Following protein induction with isopropyl⁃β⁃D⁃thiogalactoside (IPTG), the prokaryotic expression proteins were characterized using Western blotting, and the antigenicity of the recombinant protein was analyzed using sera from cystic echinococcosis patients and health volunteers. Results The four EgG1Y162⁃2 proteins coupled by the 3D structure of the recombinant vaccine EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) presented independent and effective expression and good antigenicity. The highest protein expression was detected in the supernatant following induction of the recombinant plasmid pET30a⁃EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) by 0.2 mmol/L IPTG at 37 ℃ for 4 h, and a pure protein component was seen following elution with 60 mmol/L imidazole. Western blotting analysis of the recombinant multi⁃epitope protein HIS⁃EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) showed a band at approximately 39 kDa, and this band was recognized by sera from cystic echinococcosis patients. Conclusion A recombinant poly⁃epitope vaccine EgG1Y162⁃2 (4) against cystic echinococcosis has been successfully constructed, which provides a preliminary basis for researches on recombinant multi⁃epitope vaccine against cystic echinococcosis.
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    Temporal trends in disease burden of major human parasitic diseases in China from 1990 to 2019
    ZENG Ting, LÜ Shan, TIAN Liguang, LI Shizhu, SUN Leping, JIA Tiewu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (1): 7-.  
    Abstract318)      PDF(pc) (2109KB)(318)       Save
    Objective To analysize the temporal trends in the disease burden of major human parasitic diseases in China from 1990 to 2019, so as to provide the evidence for improving the parasitic disease control strategy in China. Methods The disability⁃adjusted life years (DALYs) of malaria, intestinal nematode infections, schistosomiasis, food⁃borne trematodiases, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in China from 1990 to 2019 were captured from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019), and age⁃ and gender⁃specific DALYs of parasitic diseases were estimated. The temporal trends in DALYs of malaria, intestinal nematode infections, schistosomiasis, food⁃borne trematodiases, cysticercosis and echinococcosis were evaluated in China from 1990 to 2019 using average annual percent change (AAPC) with Joinpoint regression analysis. Results The DALYs were 643 836.42 person⁃years due to food⁃borne trematodiases, 156 853.03 person⁃years due to cysticercosis, 79 764.62 person⁃years due to schistosomiasis, 70 989.73 person⁃years due to intestinal nematode infections, 4 258.61 person⁃years due to echinococcosis and 264.86 person⁃years due to malaria in China in 2019, respectively. The overall DALYs of six parasitic diseases were higher among men (546 441.93 person⁃years) than among women (409 525.33 person⁃years), and were greater among adults at ages of 14 to 65 years (684 780.84 person⁃years) than among children at 14 years and lower (35 437.38 person⁃years) and the elderly at ages of 65 years and older (235 749.04 person⁃years). During the period from 1990 to 2019, food⁃borne trematodiases were the leading cause of DALYs among the six parasitic diseases, and cysticercosis shifted from the fourth leading cause in 1990 to the second leading cause of DALYs in China in 2019, while intestinal nematode infections shifted from the second leading cause in 1990 to the fourth leading cause of DALYs in 2019. The DALYs of major human parasitic diseases appeared an overall tendency towards a decline in China from 1990 to 2019, with the fastest drop seen in DALYs due to malaria (AAPC = -19.6%, P = 0.003), followed by due to intestinal nematode infections (AAPC = -8.2%, P < 0.001) and schistosomiasis (AAPC = -3.1%, P < 0.001), and a slow decline was seen in the DALYs of food⁃borne trematodiases (AAPC = -1.0%, P < 0.001), while there were no significant decrease in the DALYs of echinococcosis (AAPC = -0.5%, P = 0.264) and the DALYs of cysticercosis appeared a tendency towards a rise (AAPC = 0.7%, P < 0.001). Conclusions  The disease burden of major human parasitic diseases appeared an overall tendency towards a decline in China from 1990 to 2019, with a high disease burden seen due to food⁃borne parasitic diseases, no remarkable reduction seen in echinococcosis, and a tendency towards a rise seen in cysticercosis. It is recommended to focus on echinococcosis control, and continue to consolidate the control achievements of other major human parasitic diseases in China; meanwhile, the surveillance and prevention of food⁃borne parasitic diseases should be reinforced.
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    Bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with chronic schistosomiasis japonica⁃induced hepatic fibrosis
    DU Zhi⁃xiang, LI Yang, WANG Zi⁃jian, ZHOU Da⁃ming, YANG Jiang⁃hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 352-.  
    Abstract315)      PDF(pc) (2690KB)(205)       Save
    Objective To screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with chronic schistosomiasis japonica⁃induced hepatic fibrosis and analyze their functions. Methods The dataset of gene expression profiles of patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica⁃induced hepatic fibrosis was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and DEGs were screened using R package. The biological functions of DEGs were characterized using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. In addition, the protein⁃protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was created to screen the hub genes. Results A total of 62 DEGs were identified, including 12 down⁃regulated genes and 50 up⁃regulated genes. GO enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in 116 biological processes, including fatty acid, sulfur compound, acyl⁃coenzyme A and thioester metabolism; 19 cellular components, including mitochondrial matrix, outer mitochondrial membrane and organelle outer membrane; and 7 molecular functions, including insulin⁃like growth factor binding and oxidoreductase activity. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis that the DEGs were significantly enriched in phosphatidylinositol⁃3⁃kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K/Akt), mitogen⁃activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium metabolism and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. PPI network analysis identified six hub genes involved in the development of chronic schistosomiasis japonica⁃induced hepatic fibrosis, including ACACA, ACSL1, GPAM, THRSP, PLIN1 and DGAT2, and ACSL1, ACACA and PLIN1 were the top 3 hub genes. Conclusions ACSL1, ACACA, and PLIN1 may be the hub genes associated with the development of chronic schistosomiasis japonica⁃induced hepatic fibrosis, and abnormal lipid metabolism mediated by these DEGs may play an important role in the development of chronic schistosomiasis japonica⁃induced hepatic fibrosis.
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    Primary liver cancer complicated by hepatic cystic echinococcosis: a case report
    LIU Tao, XU Zhao⁃jun, JIANG Shu⁃yun, LIU Guang⁃zhao, WANG Xin⁃le, XIONG Zi⁃chao, WANG Cheng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 429-.  
    Abstract311)      PDF(pc) (1014KB)(74)       Save
    A primary liver cancer patient complicated by hepatic cystic echinococcosis was reported. The case was admitted to the hospital due to intermittent upper abdominal discomfort for more than half a month, and an auxiliary examination revealed primary liver cancer complicated by hepatic cystic echinococcosis. Then, hepatic artery infusion and chemoembolization was performed, and no treatment was given to cystic echinococcosis lesions. Following treatment, the patient had remarkable improvements in the liver functions.
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