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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2020
    ZHANG Li⁃Juan, XU Zhi⁃Min, YANG Fan, DANG Hui, Li Yin⁃Long, LÜ Shan, CAO Chun⁃Li, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃Zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃Nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 225-.  
    Abstract5500)      PDF(pc) (1047KB)(1753)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero⁃positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis⁃endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person⁃time individuals and 266 280 herd⁃time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five⁃Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.
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    Progress of schistosomiasis control in People’s Republic of China in 2021
    ZHANG Li⁃juan, XU Zhi⁃min, YANG Fan, HE Jun⁃yi, DANG Hui, LI Yin⁃long, CAO Chun⁃li, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 329-.  
    Abstract1688)      PDF(pc) (1069KB)(1719)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2021. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2021. A total of 451 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2021, with 27 571 endemic villages covering 73 250 600 people at risk of infections. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.17% (339/451), 22.17% (100/451) and 2.66% (12/451) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2021, 29 037 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2021, 4 405 056 individuals received serological tests and 72 937 were sero⁃positive. A total of 220 629 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive. In 2021, snail survey was performed in 19 291 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 026 villages, accounting for 36.42% of all surveyed villages, with 12 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 686 574.46 hm2 and 191 159.91 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 063.08 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 5 113.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. In 2021, 525 878 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 115 437 received serological examinations, with 231 positives detected. Among the 128 719 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2021, there were 19 927 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 729 113 person⁃time individuals and 256 913 herd⁃time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2021, snail control with chemicals was performed in 117 372.74 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 640.5 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 244.25 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2021, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in China in 2021; however, the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination was slowed and the areas of snail habitats rebounded mildly. Strengthening researches on snail diffusion and control, and improving schistosomiasis surveillance and forecast are recommended to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.
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    Status and control of common food⁃borne parasitic diseases in China: a review
    HUANG Ji⁃Lei, WANG Yao, ZHOU Xia
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 424-.  
    Abstract1557)      PDF(pc) (1011KB)(1307)       Save
    Food⁃borne parasitic diseases include meat⁃borne, fish⁃borne, plant⁃borne, water⁃borne, mollusk⁃borne and freshwater crustacean⁃borne parasitic diseases. The review summarizes the current status and control of 6 major food⁃borne parasitic diseases in China, including clonorchiasus, paragonimiasis, Taenia solium taeniasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and angiostrongyliasis, aiming to increase the understanding of food⁃borne parasitic diseases and provide insights into the development of the control strategy for food⁃borne parasitic diseases. The transmission of food⁃borne parasitic diseases are predominantly associated with diet, and neither eating raw nor semi⁃cooked food is the most effective measure to prevent the development of food⁃borne parasitic diseases.
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    First report of invasive Pomacea snails in Shandong Province
    WANG Long-jiang, XU Yan, SUN Hui, ZHANG Ben-guang, KONG Xiang-li, HAN Hai-tao, LI Jin, LI Yue-jin, YANG Li-min, GUO Yun-hai, WANG Yong-bin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 407-.  
    Abstract1392)      PDF(pc) (1136KB)(251)       Save
    Objective To characterize the species of invasive Pomacea snails that were discovered for the first time in Shandong Province. Methods Pomacea snails samples were collected in the field of Jining City, Shandong Province on October 2021 for morphological identification. Pomacea snails were randomly sampled and genomic DNA was extracted from foot muscle tissues of Pomacea snails for multiplex PCR amplification. The PCR amplification product was sequenced. Then, the sequence was aligned and a phylogenetic tree was created using the software MegAlign 7.1.0. In addition, Angiostongylus cantonensis infection was detected in Pomacea snails with the lung microscopy. Results A total of 104 living Pomacea snails were collected, and all were characterized as Pomacea spp. based on morphological features. Of 12 randomly selected adult Pomacea snails, multiplex PCR assay and sequencing identified eleven snails as P. canaliculata and one as P. maculata. No A. cantonensis infection was detected in 104 Pomacea snails. Conclusion This is the first report of invasive Pomacea snails in Shandong Province, where P. canaliculata and P. maculata are found.
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    Epidemiological trends of schistosomiasis in Poyang County of Jiangxi Province from 2004 to 2020 based on the Joinpoint regression model
    WU Xin⁃hua, WU Jun, XU Ren⁃mei, XIONG Ying, CHEN Zhe
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 7-.  
    Abstract1225)      PDF(pc) (1296KB)(658)       Save
    Objective To analyze the dynamic changes of schistosomiasis in Poyang County of Jiangxi Province from 2004 to 2020, so as to provide insight into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. Methods Schistosomiasis control data were captured from Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and the epidemiological data of schistosomiasis were collected from national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in Poyang County from 2005 to 2020. The endemic status of schistosomiasis was analyzed in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and a Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to investigate the trends of schistosomiasis in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020. Results The sero⁃prevalence and egg⁃prevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 24.39% (24 976/102 397) and 4.53% (259/5 721) in 2004 to 5.37% (2 421/45 100) [annual percent change (APC) = average annual percent change (AAPC) = -8.64% ] and 0 (0/3 963) in 2020 (APC = AAPC = -32.07%) in Poyang County, and the trends were both significant (both P < 0.01). The sero⁃prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 1.21% (294/24 332) in bovines in 2013 to 0.58% (35/5 999) in 2020 in Poyang County, with one turning point (AAPC = -8.20%,P > 0.05). There were no townships or villages with emerging snail habitats in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and there were three turning points of trend in the proportion of snail areas detected in total snail areas (AAPC = -2.30%,P > 0.01).The sero⁃prevalence and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 60.82% (742/1 220) and 10.16% (124/1 220) in local residents in 2005 to 5.73% (70/1 221) and 0 in 2020 in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Poyang County, and the trends for sero⁃prevalence (APC = AAPC = 17.47%, P < 0.01) and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections (APC = AAPC = -44.92%, P < 0.01) were both statistically significant. S. japonicum infections were identified in 10 (2005) and 2 local livestock (2007), with prevalence of 10.00% (10/100) and 13.33% (2/15), respectively, and S. japonicum infections were detected in snails in 2008 and 2009; however, no positive samples of mixed O. hupensis were detected by loop⁃mediated isothermal amplification. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis control had remarkably reduced in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020; however, there are still challenges for consolidating schistosomiasis control achievements and even elimination of schistosomiasis.
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    Development and application of the world’s first malaria subunit vaccine RTS, S/AS01
    XU Wen⁃yue
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 557-.  
    Abstract1209)      PDF(pc) (643KB)(690)       Save
    On October, 2021, the WHO announced the recommendation of RTS, S/AS01 for use among children living in moderately and highly malaria⁃endemic areas, which receives global attention. Here, the history of RTS, S/AS01 vaccine development and its role in malaria control are described.
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    Progress of schistosomiasis control in People’s Republic of China in 2022
    ZHANG Lijuan, HE Junyi, YANG Fan, DANG Hui, LI Yinlong, GUO Suying, LI Shizhen, CAO Chunli, XU Jing, LI Shizhu, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 217-224,250.  
    Abstract1067)      PDF(pc) (939KB)(1128)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance program in the People’s Republic of China in 2022. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to maintain the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2022. A total of 452 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2022, with 27 434 endemic villages covering 73 424 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 452 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.89% (343/452), 23.45% (106/452) and 0.66% (3/452) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. In 2022, 4 317 356 individuals received serological tests for schistosomiasis, and 62 228 were sero⁃positive. A total of 208 646 individuals received stool examinations for schistosomiasis, with one positive and another two cases positive for urine microscopy, and these three 3 cases were imported schistosomiasis patients from Africa. There were 28 565 cases with advanced schistosomiasis documented in China by the end of 2022. Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 18 891 endemic villages in China in 2022 and O. hupensis snails were found in 6 917 villages (36.62% of all surveyed villages), with 8 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 655 703.01 hm2 and 183 888.60 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 110.58 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 844.35 hm2 re⁃emerging snail habitats. There were 477 200 bovines raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China in 2022, and 113 946 bovines received serological examinations for schistosomiasis, with 204 sero⁃positives detected. Among the 131 715 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2022, there were 19 726 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was performed in 714 465 person⁃time for humans and 234 737 herd⁃time for bovines in China. In 2022, snail control with chemical treatment was performed at an area of 119 134.07 hm2, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 825.27 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed at an area of 1 163.96 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance program of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections was both zero in humans and bovines in 2022, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in O. hupensis snails. These data demonstrated that the endemic status of schistosomiasis continued to decline in China in 2022, with 3 confirmed schistosomiasis patients that had a foreign nationality and all imported from Africa, and the areas of snail habitats remained high. Further improvements in the construction of the schistosomaisis surveillance and forecast system, and reinforcement of O. hupensis survey and control are required to prevent the re⁃emerging schistosomiasis.
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    Molluscicidal effect of immersion with 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt against Oncomelania hupensis on the soil surface and inside the soil layer in winter
    WANG Wei⁃chun, ZHAN Ti, FAN Ze⁃han, XIANG Ke⁃xia, ZHU Ying⁃fu, DUAN Yong⁃mei, CAO Zhi⁃guo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 396-.  
    Abstract1004)      PDF(pc) (1017KB)(218)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPNES) against Oncomelania hupensis on the soil surface and inside the soil layer by immersion method in winter. Methods O. hupensis snails were placed on the soil surface and 2, 5 cm and 10 cm under the soil layer outdoors in winter, and then immersed in 50% WPNES at concentrations of 1 mg/L and 2 mg/L for 1, 3 d and 7 d, while dechlorinated water served as controls. Snail mortality was observed following immersion with 50% WPNES on the soil surface and inside the soil layer. Results Following immersion with 50% WPNES at concentrations of 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L outdoors in winter, the 3-day corrected snail mortality rates were 98.0% and 76.0% on the soil surface, and the 7-day corrected snail mortality rate was both 100.0%. Following immersion with 50% WPNES at concentrations of 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L outdoors in winter, the 7-day corrected snail mortality rates were 95.5% and 85.6% 2 cm below the soil layer, 66.0% and 6.4% 5 cm below the soil layer. However, the 7-day snail mortality rate swere comparable between the 50% WPNES treatment group (at 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L) and controls 10 cm below the soil layer (both P > 0.05). Conclusion Immersion of 50% WPNES at a concentration of 2 mg/L for 7 days presents a high molluscicidal efficacy against O. hupensis on the soil surface and 5 cm within the soil layers in winter.
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    One Health: Re⁃thinking of zoonoses control
    FEI Si⁃wei, XU Jing⁃shan, LÜ Shan, GUO Xiao⁃kui, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 1-.  
    Abstract977)      PDF(pc) (1170KB)(733)       Save
    Under the dual pressure of emerging zoonoses and the difficulty in eliminating conventional zoonoses, many uncertainties in global control of infectious diseases are challenging the achievement of sustainable development goals set by the United Nations General Assembly. One Health, developed on the basis of understanding the relationship between human diseases and animal diseases, is conducive to the prevention and control of zoonoses. The connotation of “One Health” is mainly explained by three aspects, namely the systems thinking mode of “unity of environment and man”, the practice guidance of “multi⁃sectoral concert” and the economic evaluation strategy of “cost⁃effectiveness analysis”. One Health approach has been successfully applied in the control of major infectious diseases in China, such as schistosomiasis, leading to remarkable achievements; however, there are still multiple challenges. This review proposes that much attention should be paid to top⁃level design, the difference between emerging zoonoses and conventional zoonoses, and the dynamic process of One Health governance during the development and application of One Health.
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    Epidemiological trends for human schistosomiasis prevalence in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 based on Joinpoint regression analysis
    XIAO Ying, ZHONG Chen⁃hui, WEI Feng⁃hua, DAI Ling⁃feng, YANG Jun⁃jing, CHEN Yan⁃yan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (2): 122-.  
    Abstract881)      PDF(pc) (1177KB)(659)       Save
    Objective To analyze the trends of human schistosomiasis prevalence in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy in the province. Methods All data pertaining to human schistosomiasis prevalence in Hubei Province were collected from 2004 to 2018, and the trends for changes in seroprevalence, egg⁃positive rate and prevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infection were analyzed using a Joinpoint regression model. Results  Both of the numbers of residents seropositive and egg⁃positive for S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, and the prevalence of human S. japonicum infections reduced from 6.85% in 2004 to 0 in 2018. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that the prevalence of human S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a reduction in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 [average annual percent change (AAPC) = -24.1%, P < 0.01], and the trends for the reduction were both significant during the period from 2004 to 2006 [annual percent change (APC) = -35.1%, P < 0.01] and from 2006 to 2018 (APC = -22.1%, P < 0.01). The prevalence of human S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline in islet (AAPC = -25.1%, P < 0.01), inner embankment (AAPC = -26.4%, P < 0.01) and hilly subtypes of schistosomiasis⁃endemic areas (AAPC = -32.5%, P < 0.01) of Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, and the prevalence all appeared a tendency towards a decline during the infection control stage (from 2004 to 2008), the transmission control stage (from 2009 to 2013) and the transmission interruption stage (from 2014 to 2018) (AAPC = -28.0%, -24.4% and -63.8%, all P values < 0.01). The seroprevalence of human S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 (AAPC = -14.5%, P < 0.01), and the trends for the reduction were both significant during the period from 2004 to 2012 (APC = -8.4%, P < 0.01) and from 2012 to 2018 (APC = -22.1%, P < 0.01). In addition, the egg⁃positive rate of human S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 (AAPC = -30.6%, P < 0.05), and the trend for the reduction was significant during the period from 2007 to 2014 (APC = -15.5%, P < 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of human schistosomiasis appeared a tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, and the islet and inner embankment subtypes of endemic areas are a high priority for schistosomiasis control during the stage moving towards elimination in Hubei Province.
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    An acute schistosomiasis case in Wuhan City imported from another province of China in 2020
    ZUO Yu⁃ting, WANG Hao, ZHOU Shui⁃mao, HE Jian⁃min, SHI Xiao⁃ying, LUO Hua⁃tang, XU Ming⁃xing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 647-.  
    Abstract873)      PDF(pc) (1111KB)(428)       Save
    An imported case of acute schistosomiasis was reported in Wuhan City in 2020. The case was infected with Schistosoma by contact with the infested water due to playing water in the Yangtze River when working out of Hubei Province. The patient visited four medical institutions and the duration from onset to definitive diagnosis was 20 days. The patient’s low awareness of schistosomiasis prevention and control knowledge and lack of diagnosis and treatment awareness for schistosomiasis among medical institutions were considered as main causes of the development of acute schistosomiasis and progression to severe case. Intensifying schistosomiasis health education among mobile populations and improving the awareness and capability of early diagnosis of schistosomiasis among clinicians are recommended.
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    Current status and challenges for taeniasis and cysticercosis control in China
    GUO Zhao⁃yu, LIU Jian⁃feng, ZHOU Chang⁃hai, QIAN Men⁃bao, CHEN Ying⁃dan, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 563-.  
    Abstract864)      PDF(pc) (944KB)(408)       Save
    In the WHO new road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, the disease⁃specific targets are classified into control, elimination as a public health problem, elimination and eradication, and taeniasis and cysticercosis are targeted for control. The overall prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis is low in China, and varies remarkably in regions and populations; however, there are many challenges for elimination of taeniasis and cysticercosis in China. Based on previous taeniasis and cysticercosis control programs, developing a sensitive taeniasis and cysticercosis surveillance⁃response system, updating criteria for diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, proposing a national guideline for treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis, and strengthening interdisciplinary and intersectoral communications and collaborations are urgently needed under the One Health concept.
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    Progress of researches on schistosomiasis⁃associated pulmonary arterial hypertension
    ZHU Yong⁃hui, CAI Yu, JIANG Yuan⁃dong, DENG Wei⁃cheng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 432-.  
    Abstract833)      PDF(pc) (999KB)(114)       Save
    Schistosomiasis⁃associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (Sch⁃PAH) is categorized as WHO Group I PAH because its clinical manifestations, laboratory and hemodynamic features share with PAH of other etiologies, such as idiopathic, heritable, HIV and autoimmune disorders. Sch⁃PAH is usually a life⁃threatening complication of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis characterized by changes in the vascular wall, remodeling and vasoconstriction with lesions primarily located in the precapillary segments of the pulmonary vasculature, which may result in a marked and sustained increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure and ultimately death. Although egg deposition into lung and subsequent inflammatory cascades are key factors in the pathogenesis of Sch⁃PAH, the exact pathogenesis, course of disease and treatment of Sch⁃PAH remain largely uncertain. This review mainly discusses the pathophysiological and immunological mechanisms of Sch⁃PAH, so as to provide insights into the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Sch⁃PAH.
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    he world’s first malaria vaccine: Hope and challenge
    ZHANG Yi⁃long, PAN Wei⁃qing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 560-.  
    Abstract793)      PDF(pc) (649KB)(249)       Save
    The RTS,S/AS01 is a subunit malaria vaccine against the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. After over 30 years of research and development and clinical trials, this vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for use among children living in highly malaria endemic areas. Although the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine suffers from problems of a low protective efficacy (about 30%), need of four doses and short duration of protective immunity, this malaria vaccine is expected to save tens of thousands of children’s lives, and avoid tens of millions of malaria cases annually, because there have been tens of thousands of childhood deaths due to malaria recently. The introduction of the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is therefore, widely accepted as a milestone in the history of battle against malaria, which brings a hope to contain malaria and even eventually eliminate malaria. Although there are still multiple challenges in the development of a satisfactory malaria vaccine, the success of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria greatly facilitates the progress towards the development of parasitic disease vaccines, and a more perfect malaria vaccine deserves expectations.
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    Harder maintained than achieved: Challenges of maintaining malaria-free in China
    ZHU Guo⁃ding, GAO Qi, CAO Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (2): 109-.  
    Abstract736)      PDF(pc) (1006KB)(357)       Save
    On June 2021, China was certified malaria-free by WHO. However, the global number and death of malaria cases have recently increased, and the malaria vectors will continue to inhabit in China, resulting in a high difficulty in consolidation of malaria elimination achievements. Hereby, we analyze the current challenges and propose the future priority of the national malaria control program in China, in order to provide insights into prevention of re⁃establishment of imported malaria in the country.
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    Analysis of the new WHO guideline to accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China
    GUO Zhao-yu, FENG Jia-xin, ZHANG Li-juan, ZHOU Yi-biao, ZHOU Jie, YANG Kun, LIU Yang, LIN Dan-dan, LIU Jian-bing, Dong Yi, WANG Tian-ping, WEN Li-yong, JI Min-jun, WU Zhong-dao, JIANG Qing-wu, LIANG Song, GUO Jia-gang, CAO Chun-li, XU Jing, LÜ Shan, LI Shi-zhu, ZHOU Xiao-nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 217-.  
    Abstract723)      PDF(pc) (6857KB)(274)       Save
    On February 2022, WHO released the evidence-based guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in disease-endemic countries by 2030 and promote the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission across the world. Based on the One Health concept, six evidence-based recommendations were proposed in this guideline. This article aims to analyze the feasibility of key aspects of this guideline in Chinese national schistosomiasis control program and illustrate the significance to guide the future actions for Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Currently, the One Health concept has been embodied in the Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Based on this new WHO guideline, the following recommendations are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China: (1) improving the systematic framework building, facilitating the agreement of the cross-sectoral consensus, and building a high-level leadership group; (2) optimizing the current human and livestock treatments in the national schistosomiasis control program of China; (3) developing highly sensitive and specific diagnostics and the framework for verifying elimination of schistosomiasis; (4) accelerating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases through integrating the national control programs for other parasitic diseases.  
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    Artificial intelligence technology enables ultrasonography in precision diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases
    ZHOU Bo⁃yang, SHI Yi⁃lei, GUO Le⁃hang, MOU Li⁃chao, ZHU Xiao⁃xiang, ZHAO Chong⁃ke
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 458-.  
    Abstract674)      PDF(pc) (1084KB)(1165)       Save
    Liver disease is one of the major problems affecting human health. Ultrasound plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diffuse and focal liver diseases. However, conventional ultrasound evaluation is subjective and provides limited information. Artificial intelligence (AI) technology may supplement the disadvantages of conventional ultrasound and has been widely used in the field of ultrasound in liver diseases. To date, remarkable progress has been achieved for the use of AI technology in the diagnosis, assessment of therapeutic efficacy and prognosis prediction of liver diseases. This paper reviews the research progress of ultrasound image⁃based AI technology in the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse and focal liver diseases.
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    Decoding the evolution of preventive chemotherapy schemes for schistosomiasis in China to improve the precise implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis
    XU Jing, LI Yi⁃feng, DONG Yi, ZHAO Zheng⁃yuan, WEN Li⁃yong, ZHANG Shi⁃qing, LIN Dan⁃dan, ZHOU Jie, LIANG Song, GUO Jia⁃gang, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 223-.  
    Abstract648)      PDF(pc) (7139KB)(242)       Save
    Preventive chemotherapy is one of the pivotal interventions for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis, which is effective to reduce the morbidity and prevalence of schistosomiasis. In order to promote the United Nations’ sustainable development goals and the targets set for schistosomiasis control in the Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis in 2022, with major evidence⁃based updates of the current preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis. In China where great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control, the preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis has been updated several times during the past seven decades. This article reviews the evolution of the WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy and Chinese national preventive chemotherapy schemes, compares the current Chinese national preventive chemotherapy scheme and the recommendations for preventive chemotherapy proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, and proposes recommendations for preventive chemotherapy during the future implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control among public health professionals engaging in healthcare foreign aid.
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    Contribution to global implementation of WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis by learning successful experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program in China
    WANG Xin⁃yao, ZHANG Jian⁃feng, GUO Jia⁃gang, LÜ Shan, JI Min⁃jun, WU Zhong⁃dao, ZHOU Yi⁃biao, JIANG Qing⁃wu, ZHOU Jie, LIU Jian⁃bing, LIN Dan⁃dan, WANG Tian⁃ping, DONG Yi, LIU Yang, LI Shi⁃zhu, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 230-.  
    Abstract637)      PDF(pc) (7023KB)(221)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously hinders socioeconomic developments and threatens public health security. To achieve the global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis on February, 2022, with aims to provide evidence⁃based recommendations for schistosomiasis morbidity control, elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and ultimate interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in disease⁃endemic countries. Following concerted efforts for decades, great achievements have been obtained for schistosomiasis control in China where the disease was historically highly prevalent, and the country is moving towards schistosomiasis elimination. This article reviews the successful experiences from the national schistosmiasis control program in China, and summarizes their contributions to the formulation and implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. With the progress of the “Belt and Road” initiative, the world is looking forward to more China’s solutions on schistosomiasis control.
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    Establishment of a deep learning⁃visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis
    SHI Liang, XIONG Chun⁃Rong, LIU Mao⁃Mao, WEI Xiu⁃Shen, WANG Xin⁃Yao, WANG Tao, HUANG Yi⁃Xin, HONG Qing⁃Biao, LI WEI, YANG Hai⁃Tao, ZHANG Jian⁃Feng, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 445-.  
    Abstract595)      PDF(pc) (1670KB)(205)       Save
    Objective To establish a deep learning⁃based visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and evaluate the effects of different training strategies for O. hupensis image recognition. Methods A total of 2 614 datasets of O. hupensis snails and 4 similar snails were generated through field sampling and internet capture, and were divided into training sets and test sets. An intelligent recognition model was created based on deep learning, and was trained and tested. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F1 score and Youden index were calculated. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model for snail recognition was plotted to evaluate the effects of “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies on the accuracy of the model for snail recognition. Results Under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” strategy, the precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index and F1 score of the model were 90.10%, 91.00%, 97.50%, 96.20%, 88.50% and 90.51% for snail recognition, which were all higher than those under both “new learning” and “transfer learning” strategies. There were significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the model for snail recognition under “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies (all P values < 0.001). In addition, the area under the ROC curve of the model was highest (0.94) under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy. Conclusions  This is the first visual model for intelligent recognition of O. hupensis based on deep learning, which shows a high accuracy for snail image recognition. The “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy is helpful to improve the accuracy of the model for snail recognition.
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    Molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus velezensisis Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis and its preliminary mechanisms of molluscicidal actions
    YANG Cheng, QIAO Yun⁃Long, LIU Hui, PAN Zhong⁃Wu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 248-.  
    Abstract592)      PDF(pc) (1435KB)(377)       Save
    Objective To assess the molluscicidal activity of the of Bacillus Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis in laboratory, and to preliminarily investigate its mechanisms of molluscicidal actions. Methods Biological identification of the Y6 strain was performed based on analysis of its morphological and physiochemical features and homology analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence. Bacillus Y6 suspensions were formulated at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL, and the molluscicidal activity of Bacillus Y6 suspensions against O. hupensis was tested in laboratory using the immersion method. In addition, the Bacillus Y6 content and glycogen content were detected in O. hupensis following exposure to Bacillus Y6 suspensions to preliminarily explore the molluscicidal mechanism of the Bacillus Y6 strain against O. hupensis. Results The colony of the Bacillus Y6 strain appeared non⁃transparent milky white, and mycoderma was produced on the surface of the nutrient agar liquid medium. The Y6 stain was Gram positive and rod⁃shaped, and the endospore was located at the center of the Bacillus Y6 strain and appeared an achromatic, transparent and refractive body, which was encapsulated by the Y6 strain. The Y6 strain was positive for the lecithinase test, and the 16S rDNA gene sequence showed a 100% homology with those of multiple B. velezensisis strains, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. The Y6 strain was therefore identified as B. velezensisis. Following immersion in the Bacillus Y6 suspensions at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL for 24, 48 h and 72 h, the mortality rates of Oncomelania snails were 28.3%, 31.7% and 81.6%, 43.3%, 58.3% and 93.3%, and 63.3%, 78.3% and 98.3%, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus Y6 suspensions increased with the suspension concentration and duration of immersion. Microscopy and colony counting revealed the highest Y6 content in dead snails and the lowest in living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions, and the mean glycogen contents were (0.68 ± 0.06), (1.09 ± 0.16) μg/mg and (2.56 ± 0.32) μg/mg in the soft tissues of dead, dying and living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions (F = 59.519, P < 0.05), and the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in living snails than in dead (t = 14.073, P < 0.05) and dying snails (t = 10.027, P < 0.05), while the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in dying snails than in dead snails (t = 5.983, P < 0.05). Conclusion The B. velezensisis Y6 strain shows a high molluscicidal activity against O. hupensis snails, and its invasion may cause glycogen metabolism disorders, leading to snail death.
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    Prospects and reflections on the research and development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines
    XIAO Bo, HUANG Zheng⁃hui, JIANG Lu⁃bin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 555-.  
    Abstract577)      PDF(pc) (625KB)(239)       Save
    Vaccination is one of the most effective intervention for the containment and elimination of infectious diseases. Recently, the world’s first malaria vaccine RTS, S/AS01 was approved by WHO for use among children living in moderately and highly malaria endemic areas of Africa, which brings a hope for the research and development of malaria vaccines. Here, we review the current status of malaria vaccines development and provide a perspective on the development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines, so as to provide insights into the successful development of malaria vaccines.
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    Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infections in freshwater fish in mainland China: a meta⁃analysis
    DAI Si⁃min, YU Qing, MA Xiao⁃jiang, WANG Zhen⁃yu, ZHANG Yao⁃guang, ZHU Min, ZHANG Chen⁃gang, ZHU Qian, JIANG Li, JIN Yan⁃jun, PAN Hao, WU Huan⁃yu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 16-.  
    Abstract537)      PDF(pc) (1460KB)(308)       Save
    Objective To understand the real prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infections in the freshwater fish in mainland China, so as to provide insights into clonorchiasis control and detection of freshwater fish. Methods All literatures reporting the prevalence of C. sinensis infections in the freshwater fish, the second intermediate host of the parasite, were jointly retrieved in Chinese and English electronic databases from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020, including Wanfang Data, CNKI, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library. All studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of all enrolled literatures was evaluated. The pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the software Stata version 15.0, and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the region⁃, season⁃ and sample source⁃specific pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish. In addition, the sensitivity and publication bias of all included studies were analyzed. Results  A total of 40 eligible literatures were included in this study, including 37 Chinese literatures and 3 English literatures, and there were 10 high⁃quality literatures, 27 moderate⁃quality literatures and 3 low⁃quality literatures. A total of 53 species containing 37 959 freshwater fish were reported in these 40 studies, and 73.58% (39/53) of freshwater fish species were identified with C. sinensis infections. Meta⁃analysis showed 23.5% [95% CI: (0.19, 0.28)] pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in mainland China, and subgroup analyses higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in northeastern China [35.7%, 95% CI: (0.22, 0.50)] than in central [25.9%, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.48)] and southern China [20.6%, 95% CI: (0.09, 0.32)], higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled in spring [44.1%, 95% CI: (0.35, 0.53)] than in autumn [6.7%, 95% CI: (0.05, 0.08)] and summer [3.3%, 95% CI: (-0.01, 0.07)], and higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled from natural water [25.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.33)] than from retail trades [22.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.28)] and breeding chain [12.3%, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.22)]. However, all included studies had a publication bias with a low sensitivity. Conclusions The prevalence of C. sinensis infections is high in freshwater fish in mainland China, and there are still challenges for clonorchiasis control. Reinforcement of health education, diagnostics development and food safety supervision is recommended in future clonorchiasis control programs.
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    Schistosomiasis control in China from 2012 to 2021: progress and challenges 
    XU Jing, CAO Chun⁃li, LÜ Shan, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (6): 559-.  
    Abstract537)      PDF(pc) (1317KB)(563)       Save
    Schistosomiasis has been endemic in China for more than 2 000 years, which causes huge morbidity, social and economic burdens. Guided by the national specific strategic programs and criteria for schistosomiasis, tremendous achievements have been gained for schistosomiasis elimination in China. This paper reviews the progress of schistosomiasis control and endemic status of schistosomiasis in China during the period from 2012 to 2021, analyzes the challenges to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China by 2030, and proposes suggestions for future schistosomiasis control programs.
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    Epidemic situation of malaria in Jiangsu Province in 2019
    WANG Wei⁃Ming, CAO Yuan⁃Yuan, YANG Meng⁃Meng, GU Ya⁃Ping, XU Sui, ZHOU Hua⁃Yun, ZHU Guo⁃Ding
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 411-.  
    Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (982KB)(319)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of malaria in Jiangsu Province in 2019, so as to provide the scientific basis for the development of the strategy for the prevention of re⁃introduction of imported malaria. Methods The malaria case report information, epidemiological case investigation information, epidemic foci investigation and management report in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were collected, and all epidemiological data were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 244 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2019, and all cases were laboratory⁃confirmed overseas imported cases, including 4 cases with vivax malaria, 206 cases with falciparum malaria, 12 cases with malariae malaria and 22 cases with ovale malaria. In 2019, there were 12 malaria cases progressing into severe cases in Jiangsu Province, with one death. Nanjing, Nantong, Lianyungang, Taizhou and Changzhou cities contributed the largest number of malaria cases in 2019, with the number of malaria cases accounting for 59.84% of total cases in Jiangsu Province. The infections occurred in Papua New Guinea (2 cases), Pakistan (1 case) and 27 African countries (241 cases), including Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire and so on. There were 77 cases (31.55%) with a visit to doctor on the day of onset, and 146 cases (59.84%) within 1 to 3 days after onset. In addition, there were 149 cases (61.06%) with definitive diagnosis at the first visit and 77 cases (31.55%) diagnosed within 1 to 3 days after the visit, and the mean duration from the visit to definitive diagnosis was (0.80 ± 1.59) d, which significantly shortened as compared to that (1.34 d ± 2.59 d) in 2018 (U = 2.53, P < 0.05). Conclusions Intensifying the surveillance and management of imported malaria and improving the diagnostic capability of imported malaria and the treatment of severe malaria cases are required to consolidate the achievements of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province.
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    Potential transmission risk of key parasitic diseases and responses to the risk during the construction of an ecological city in Shanghai Municipality
    YU Qing, PAN Hao, JIANG Li, ZHU Min, JIN Yan⁃jun, WANG Zhen⁃yu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 531-.  
    Abstract525)      PDF(pc) (1009KB)(255)       Save
    A blueprint on Shanghai’s ecological space design between 2021 and 2035 was released in 2021, aiming to build an ecological city and improve the development of ecological civilization. The transmission of parasitic diseases is strongly associated with climate and ecological environments. Currently, the prevalence of parasitic diseases has been maintained at extremely low⁃transmission levels, and there are almost no local cases; however, the alteration of ecological environments may results in a potential transmission risk of parasitic diseases. Hereby, the current status of key parasitic diseases in Shanghai Municipality was described, and the potential transmission risk of parasitic diseases and responses to this risk were analyzed during the construction of an ecological city in Shanghai Municipality. In addition, the suggestions pertaining to surveillance and management of parasitic diseases were proposed during the mid⁃ and long⁃term construction of an ecological city in Shanghai Municipality.
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    Surveillance of schistosomiasis in Xiaogan City from 2016 to 2020
    CHENG Bin, WU Jing⁃Yi
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 420-.  
    Abstract524)      PDF(pc) (945KB)(166)       Save
    Objective To analyze the surveillance data of schistosomiasis in Xiaogan City, Hubei Province from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for understanding the epidemiological changes of schistosomiasis and evaluating the schistosomiasis control strategy. Methods A total of 16 surveillance sites were selected in the schistosomiasis endemic foci of Xiaogan City from 2016 to 2020, where Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock and Oncomelania snails and the schistosomiasis transmission risk were monitored. The schistosomiasis surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. Results During the period from 2016 to 2020, there was no schistosomiasis emergency epidemic in Xiaogan City. A total of 660 sero⁃positive individuals were identified in Xiaogan City during the 5⁃year period, and the seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 2.08% in 2016 to 0.97% in 2020. Higher seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections was detected in men than in women, and in individuals at ages of over 60 years than in those at other age groups; however, no egg⁃positives were detected in humans or livestock. The mean density of living snails was 0.05 to 0.06 snails/0.1 m2 during the 5⁃year period, and the occurrence of frames with snails increased from 2.99% in 2016 to 3.92% in 2020; however, no S. japonicum infection was found in snails. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis remarkably decreases in Xiaogan City during the period from 2016 through 2020. Further improvements of the sensitive and effective schistosomiasis surveillance system are required with an emphasis on the monitoring of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and management of floating populations.  
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    Application of health economics assessment techniques in the prevention and control of important infectious diseases: a review
    WU Ling⁃Ling, ZHOU Xiao⁃Nong, JIA Tie⁃Wu, XU Jing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 311-.  
    Abstract515)      PDF(pc) (961KB)(544)       Save
    Due to the relative shortage of health resources, rational allocation and utilization of health resources is critical to achieving the maximum economic benefits in developing countries, which requires a health economic assessment to meet the needs to balance the competitive requirements of cost reduction and effectiveness enhancement. This review describes the advances in applications of health economic assessment techniques in four major infectious diseases, including AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and schistosomiasis. Currently, there is no standard economic assessment in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and notably, the transparency of cost research is limited, which may affect the popularization of the study conclusions. Further health economic assessments of infectious diseases are required to improve the quality, standard and transparency of the economic evaluation through formulating strategies, to improve the standardization of studies, to improve the popularization of the study conclusions and to improve the applicability of the economic evaluation for policies.
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    Oncomelania hupensis control strategy during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China
    YUAN Yi, CAO Chun⁃li, HUANG Xi⁃bao, ZHAO Qin⁃ping
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 337-.  
    Abstract512)      PDF(pc) (997KB)(371)       Save
    Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and O. hupensis control is an important measure for schistosomiasis control. With the progress of national schistosomiasis control program, the prevalence of schistosomiasis is low in China; however, there are still multiple challenges for O. hupensis breeding and schistosomiasis transmission risk. Considering the target of the national schistosomiasis elimination program and environmental protection in the new era, the introduction of precision identification, precision interventions and precision assessment into O. hupensis control may facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Potential challenges for large⁃scale uses of RTS, S/AS01 vaccine in malaria⁃endemic areas
    FENG Gao⁃qian
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 553-.  
    Abstract510)      PDF(pc) (654KB)(425)       Save
    RTS, S/AS01 vaccine has recently been recommended by the WHO for large⁃scale uses in malaria⁃endemic areas, which is a milestone in the history of the fight against parasitic infections. Nevertheless, RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is not perfect. Hereby, the shortages of RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine were discussed, and the potential challenges during the research and development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines were analyzed.
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    Progress of researches on the diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis
    SONG Lan⁃gui, WU Zhong⁃dao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 660-.  
    Abstract507)      PDF(pc) (939KB)(414)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease, and is categorized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Following the concerted efforts for more than 70 years, great achievements have been made in the national schistosomiasis control program in China, and the prevalence, disability and mortality due to schistosomiasis has remarkably dropped. Nevertheless, the frequent identification of imported schistosomiasis and the resulting potential transmission risk in mainland China have been recently paid much attention following the implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” and the China⁃Africa Cooperation Forum. This review describes the advances in the diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis, including pathogenic techniques, immunodiagnostic techniques and nucleic acid assays, in order to consolidate schistosomiasis control achievements and promote the capability for detection of external biological safety risks.
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    Microbiota structure and diversity in Aedes albopictus at different developmental stages
    ZHAO Yong⁃qiao, XIA Ao, ZHANG Mei⁃hua, LI Ju⁃lin, ZHU Guo⁃ding, TANG Jian⁃xia
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 475-.  
    Abstract506)      PDF(pc) (1932KB)(345)       Save
    Objective To investigate the diversity and composition of microflora in laboratory⁃reared Aedes albopictus at different developmental stages and larval habitat waters. Methods The larval habitat waters and different developmental stages of laboratory⁃reared A. albopictus were collected, and the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Illumina Miseq next⁃generation sequencing. The abundance and diversity of the microflora were examined using alpha diversity index in A. albopictus at different developmental stages, and the difference in the microflora compositions was compared in A. albopictus at different developmental stages using principal component analysis (PCA). In addition, the species composition and relative abundance of microflora in A. albopictus at different developmental stages were described using histograms and Venn diagrams. Results A total of 16 phyla, 30 classes, 72 orders, 129 families and 224 genera of bacteria were detected in larval habitat waters and different developmental stages of A. albopictus. The highest bacterial diversity was seen in larval A. albopictus, with Chao index of 125.20 ± 30.48 and Shannon diversity index of 2.04 ± 0.39, which were comparable to those (Chao index of 118.52 ± 15.07 and Shannon diversity index of 2.15 ± 0.30) in larval habitat waters (t = 0.35 and -0.41, both P values > 0.05). The bacterial abundance and evenness were significantly greater in female adults than in male adults (Chao index: 42.50 ± 3.54 vs. 18.50 ± 2.13, t = 8.23, P < 0.05; Shannon diversity index: 1.25 ± 1.67 vs. 0.50 ± 0.05, t = 6.00, P < 0.05). Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, Actinobacteriota and Firmicutes were four common phyla of bacteria at each developmental stage of A. albopictus, with Proteobacteria dominated at the pupal stage (90.36%), Bacteroidota dominated at the adult stage (46.01% in female adults and 86.11% in male adults), and Actinobacteriota dominated at the larval stage (32.10%). Elizabethkingia and Rahnella1 were common dominant genera of bacteria at each developmental stage of A. albopictus, with Rahnella1 as the major component at the pupal stage (87.56%), Elizabethkingia as the main component at the adult stage (46.01% in female adults and 86.11% in male adults, respectively), and Microbacteria as the dominant bacterial genus at the larval stage (12.11%). In addition, Delftia, Elizabethkingia, Romboutsia, Serratia, Rahnella1, Enterococcus and Microbacterium were common genera of bacteria at each developmental stage of A. albopictus, with Edaphobaculum dominated at the larval stage (17.54%) and Sphingobacterium dominated in larval habitat waters (13.93%). Conclusions There are differences in the composition of symbiotic bacteria at different developmental stages of A. albopictus; however, similar microflora diversity is maintained at the phylum level. The microflora diversity is comparable in larvae and larval habitat waters of A. albopictus.
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    Current status and prospects of artificial intelligence in schistosomiasis prevention and control
    LI Zi⁃ang, JIAO Yi⁃ping, XU Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (5): 453-.  
    Abstract502)      PDF(pc) (1052KB)(543)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously endangers human health and affects socioeconomic developments. Artificial intelligence technology has been widely used in clinical medical sciences, including tumor screening, and electrocardiogram, imaging and pathological analyses, which has potential for precision control of schistosomiasis. Currently, artificial intelligence technology has been employed for clinical assessment of schistosomiasis⁃associated hepatic fibrosis and ectopic schistosomiasis, prognostic prediction of advanced schistosomiasis, automated identification of Oncomelania hupensis and Schistosoma japonicum eggs and miracidia, epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis, and drug discovery. This review summarizes the advances in the applications of artificial intelligence technology in the management of schistosomiasis and proposes the prospects for the use of artificial intelligence in schistosomiasis elimination.
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    Taxonomic rank of human parasites
    JIA Tie⁃wu, WANG Wei, ZHOU Yi⁃biao, ZHOU Jie, MEI Zhong⁃qiu, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 420-.  
    Abstract499)      PDF(pc) (4541KB)(240)       Save
    Biological category is effective to indicate the evolution of organism populations between past and present. Conventional taxonomy of human parasites mainly depends on important morphological features, which suffers from a problem of categorizing related⁃genera species with similar morphological characteristics. With recent advances in molecular biological technologies, the effective applications of mitochondrial and ribosomal biomarkers and sequencing greatly improve the development of the taxonomic rank of human parasites. Worldwide, the classification of human parasites have been continuously revised and improved. Hereby, we re⁃categorize parasitic Protozoa, Trematoda, Cestoda and Nematoda, so as to provide insights into the researches on molecular systematics and genetic evolution of human parasites.
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    Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China based on the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC)
    YANG Fan, XU Jing, LÜ Shan, CAO Chun⁃Li, LI Shi⁃Zhu, ZHANG Li⁃Juan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 234-.  
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (966KB)(287)       Save
    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups ([χ2] = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease⁃type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow⁃up is required.
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    Emergency responses to schistosomiasis outbreak during the stage moving towards elimination in China
    CHEN Lin, CAO Chun⁃li, LIU Yang, ZHONG Bo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 570-.  
    Abstract484)      PDF(pc) (673KB)(273)       Save
    Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission control and transmission interruption to elimination; however, there is still a threat of schistosomiasis outbreak in area where the transmission of schistosomiasis has not been interrupted, and in areas where transmission interruption and even elimination have been achieved because of the complex factors relating to schistosomiasis transmission, as well as socioeconomic factors and natural environments, which greatly affects the consolidation of schistosomiasis control outcomes and the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in the country. Here, we summarized the outbreaks of schistosomiasis in China during the past six decades, evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis outbreak on the national schistosomiasis control program and proposed management of schistosomiasis outbreak and prevention of schistosomiasis resurgence as the key point and difficulty for schistosomiasis control in the current stage. Improving the surveillance⁃response mechanisms and minimizing the development of schistosomiasis outbreak and the resultant damages and losses are recommended to provide technical supports for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020
    ZHANG Xuan, RUAN Wei, CHEN Hua⁃Liang, LU Qiao⁃Yi, YAO Li⁃Nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 262-.  
    Abstract483)      PDF(pc) (1001KB)(433)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features and diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the management of imported malaria in the province. Methods The data of malaria cases reported in Zhejiang Province were captured from the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention from 2017 to 2020, and the temporal, spatial and human distribution, and initial and definitive diagnosis of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 593 malaria cases were reported in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and all were overseas imported cases, including 532 men and 61 women, with a mean age of 41 years. There were 93.93% of the malaria cases from African countries, and the malaria parasites infecting these cases included Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed infections, with P. falciparum as the predominant species (76.73%, 455/593). All malaria cases received totally correct initial diagnoses in county⁃ and city⁃level centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) and entry⁃exit inspection and quarantine sectors, and the proportion of malaria cases with confirmation at the day of initial diagnosis was 41.48% (207/499) in medical institutions and 66.18% (45/68) in CDC ([χ2] = 14.779, P < 0.001). In addition, the median interval [M (QR)] of malaria cases was 1 (2) d from onset to initial diagnosis and 1 (2) d from initial diagnosis to confirmation in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and the median interval [M (QR)] of severe malaria cases was significantly longer than that of non⁃severe cases [2 (3) d vs. 1 (2) d; Z = -3.002, P < 0.05)]. Conclusions Zhejiang Province faces great challenges of malaria control, and post⁃elimination surveillance of malaria still requires to be reinforced. Meanwhile, the awareness of seeking medical services requires to be improved among returners from malaria⁃endemic regions and the diagnostic capability of malaria requires to be improved among medical professionals.
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    Distribution of mosquito species and associated viruses in Hami City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2019 to 2020
    GAO Zhen⁃guo, WANG Dong, MAHE Mu⁃ti, CAO Zhi⁃xin, LIU Yan, Lina Turxunbayi, HUANG Rui⁃fang, MA Xin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 392-.  
    Abstract482)      PDF(pc) (1057KB)(268)       Save
    Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito species and their associated viruses, and identify Culex pipiens subspecies in Hami City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods Mosquitoes were captured using mosquito trapping lamps method in Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City in mi⁃July, 2019 and 2020. The species and subspecies of all captured mosquitoes were characterized. In addition, the flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick⁃borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus were detected using reverse⁃transcription PCR assay in captured mosquitoes. Results A total of 1 496 mosquitoes were captured from Yizhou District, Yiwu County, and Balikun County of Hami City, belonging to 3 genus and 3 species. Cx. pipiens was the dominant mosquito species (986 mosquitoes, 65.91%), followed by Aedes caspius (457 mosquitoes, 30.55%), while Culiseta alaskaensis had the lowest number (53 mosquitoes, 3.54%). All captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens based on the terminalia of male mosquitoes. RT⁃PCR assay tested negative for flavivirus, alphavirus, bunyavirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Liaoning virus, Tahyna virus, tick⁃borne encephalitis or West Nile virus in captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. Conclusions There were 3 species of mosquitoes in Hami City from 2019 to 2020, including Cx. pipiens, Ae. Caspius and C. alaskaensis, with Cx. pipiens as the dominant mosquito species, and all captured Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens pipiens; however, no arboviruses were detected.
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    Analysis of causes of death among advanced schistosomiasis patients in Jiaxing City from 2010 to 2020
    HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hao⁃ran, CAI Chen⁃xiao, WU Yi⁃ming
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 307-.  
    Abstract471)      PDF(pc) (3443KB)(100)       Save
    Objective To analyze the cause of death among patients with advanced schistosomiasis in Jiaxing City of Zhejiang Province from 2000 to 2020. Methods The medical records of 167 dead patients with advanced schistosomiasis that were registered in Jiaxing First Hospital and received national medical assistance program from 2010 to 2020 were collected, and compared with the data of advanced schistosomiasis patients without national medical assistance program in the same city from 1998 to 2008. Results Among the 167 advanced schistosomiasis patients in Jiaxing City during the period from 2010 to 2020, the four most common causes of death included liver failure (22.16%), upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (17.37%), hepatic encephalopathy (14.97%) and liver cancer (14.37%), and the dead patients were predominantly at ages of 70 to 74 years, with a mean age of 74.8 years. The four most common causes of death included upper gastrointestinal bleeding (34.16%), hepatic encephalopathy (22.28%), unexplained causes (22.28%) and liver failure (4.46%) among advanced schistosomiasis patients without national medical assistance in Jiaxing City from 1998 to 2008, and the dead patients were predominantly at ages of 60 to 69 years, with a mean age of 69.3 years. There were significant differences between patients detected from 2010 to 2020 and from 1998 to 2008 in terms of causes of death ([χ2] = 63.42, P = 0.00) and age of death ([χ2] = 50.09, P = 0.00). Conclusion There are significant changes in the cause of death among patients with advanced schistosomiasis in Jiaxing City from 2010—2020, which may be attributed to the implementation of the national medical assistance program.
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    Scanning electron microscopic observation of the external morphology of Dermatophagoides farinae at different developmental stages
    ZHAN Xiao⁃dong, YAO Run, WANG Mei⁃qing, JIANG Feng, GUO Wei, TANG Fei⁃fan, WANG Lan, LI Chao⁃pin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (2): 179-.  
    Abstract467)      PDF(pc) (1263KB)(243)       Save
    Objective To investigate the morphological characteristics of Dermatophagoides farinae at different developmental stages. Methods The cultured D. farinae was isolated, and the external morphological features of mites at various developmental stages were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), including egg, larva, nymph and adult stages. Results  The D. farinae egg appeared a long oval shape, and the larval mites had three pairs of legs. The nymph had four pairs of legs and underdeveloped genital pores containing genital setae and anal setae, and adult mites appeared long and oval in shape, with decorative patterns on epidermis, and had four pairs of legs. In male adult mites, remarkable thickening of the leg I and thicker and longer leg III than the leg IV were seen, and ventral genital regions were found between the basal segments of legs III and IV; the anus was surrounded by a circular peri⁃anal ring, with a pair of anal suckers and anal setae within the ring. In the female adult mites, slender legs III and IV with an equal length were seen, and a “λ⁃shape” genital hole was observed on the ventral surface, with a crescent⁃like genital plate in the anterior part, and the anus appeared a longitudinal slit. Conclusion An SEM observation of the external morphology of D. farinae provides understandings of the morphological characteristics of D. farinae, which is of great significance for the classification and identification.
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