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    Progress of schistosomiasis control in People’s Republic of China in 2022
    ZHANG Lijuan, HE Junyi, YANG Fan, DANG Hui, LI Yinlong, GUO Suying, LI Shizhen, CAO Chunli, XU Jing, LI Shizhu, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 217-224,250.  
    Abstract1067)      PDF(pc) (939KB)(1128)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance program in the People’s Republic of China in 2022. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to maintain the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2022. A total of 452 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2022, with 27 434 endemic villages covering 73 424 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 452 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.89% (343/452), 23.45% (106/452) and 0.66% (3/452) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. In 2022, 4 317 356 individuals received serological tests for schistosomiasis, and 62 228 were sero⁃positive. A total of 208 646 individuals received stool examinations for schistosomiasis, with one positive and another two cases positive for urine microscopy, and these three 3 cases were imported schistosomiasis patients from Africa. There were 28 565 cases with advanced schistosomiasis documented in China by the end of 2022. Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 18 891 endemic villages in China in 2022 and O. hupensis snails were found in 6 917 villages (36.62% of all surveyed villages), with 8 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 655 703.01 hm2 and 183 888.60 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 110.58 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 844.35 hm2 re⁃emerging snail habitats. There were 477 200 bovines raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China in 2022, and 113 946 bovines received serological examinations for schistosomiasis, with 204 sero⁃positives detected. Among the 131 715 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2022, there were 19 726 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was performed in 714 465 person⁃time for humans and 234 737 herd⁃time for bovines in China. In 2022, snail control with chemical treatment was performed at an area of 119 134.07 hm2, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 825.27 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed at an area of 1 163.96 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance program of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections was both zero in humans and bovines in 2022, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in O. hupensis snails. These data demonstrated that the endemic status of schistosomiasis continued to decline in China in 2022, with 3 confirmed schistosomiasis patients that had a foreign nationality and all imported from Africa, and the areas of snail habitats remained high. Further improvements in the construction of the schistosomaisis surveillance and forecast system, and reinforcement of O. hupensis survey and control are required to prevent the re⁃emerging schistosomiasis.
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    Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia in dogs and cats from a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality
    ZHANG Jing, QIN Yuan, SHEN Yujuan, WANG Yaxue, CAO Jianping, SU Yaxin, LIU Hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 258-262.  
    Abstract319)      PDF(pc) (1340KB)(158)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia in dogs and cats from a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality. Methods A total of 145 fresh fecal samples were collected from pet dogs and cats in a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality during the period from November 2021 to June 2022, including 99 dog fecal samples and 46 cat fecal samples. The small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium and the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene of G. lamblia were amplified using nested PCR assay, and the positive amplification products were sequenced from both directions. The sequence assembly was performed using the software Clustal X 2.1, and sequence alignment was conducted using BLAST. A phylogenetic tree was created with the Neighbor⁃Joining method using MEGA 11.0 to identify parasite species or genotype. Results The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia was 20.00% (29/145) in 145 pet dog and cat fecal samples, with the prevalence of 0.69% (1/145) and 19.31% (28/145) in Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia, respectively. G. lamblia was only detected in dog fecal samples, with prevalence of 18.18% (18/99), while the detection rates of Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia were 2.17% (1/46) and 21.74% (10/46) in cat fecal samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that one Cryptosporidium positive sample was characterized as C. felis, and 28 G. lamblia positive samples were all characterized as Giardia assemblage A, which showed 100% sequence homology with human isolates of Giardia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences obtained in this study belonged to the same branch with the reported Giardia assemblage A. Conclusions Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia infection was prevalent in pet dogs and cats from the study pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality, and there is a zoonotic risk for the species and genotype. Intensified surveillance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection is recommended in pets and their owners, and improved management of pet keeping is required.
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    Application of machine learning in clinical predictive models for infectious diseases: a review
    ZHENG Ruiying, LIU Genyan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 317-321.  
    Abstract299)      PDF(pc) (1025KB)(154)       Save
    Infectious diseases are one of the major threats to global public health. Inconvenience of diagnosis and treatment frequently causes misdiagnosis, missing diagnosis or overtreatment, resulting in serious clinical outcomes. As an important branch of artificial intelligence, machine learning has been widely used in multiple fields. Predictive models created based on patients’ clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, and imaging examinations are effective for prediction and evaluation of clinical diagnosis, therapeutic efficacy and prognosis, as well as detection of outbreaks. Machine learning modeling has the advantages of high efficiency, high accuracy and interpretability as compared to traditional modeling approaches, which provides a new tool for diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. This review summarizes the advances of applications of machine learning in clinical predictive models for infectious diseases.
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    Risk predictive models of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province based on the machine learning
    ZHANG Yuying, CAO Yuanyuan, YANG Kai, WANG Weiming, YANG Mengmeng, CHAI Liying, GU Jiyue, LI Mengyue, LU Yan, ZHOU Huayun, ZHU Guoding, CAO Jun, LU Guangyu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 225-235,243.  
    Abstract280)      PDF(pc) (1362KB)(331)       Save
    Objective To create risk predictive models of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province based on machine learning algorithms, so as to provide insights into early identification of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province. Methods Case investigation, first symptoms and time of initial diagnosis of imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were captured from Infectious Disease Report Information Management System and Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control Information Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The risk predictive models of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients were created with the back propagation (BP) neural network model, logistic regression model, random forest model and Bayesian model using thirteen factors as independent variables, including occupation, species of malaria parasite, main clinical manifestations, presence of complications, severity of disease, age, duration of residing abroad, frequency of malaria parasite infections abroad, incubation period, level of institution at initial diagnosis, country of origin, number of individuals travelling with patients and way to go abroad, and time of healthcare⁃seeking delay as a dependent variable. Logistic regression model was visualized using a nomogram, and the nomogram was evaluated using calibration curves. In addition, the efficiency of the four models for prediction of risk of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients was evaluated using the area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC). The importance of each characteristic was quantified and attributed by using SHAP to examine the positive and negative effects of the value of each characteristic on the predictive efficiency. Results A total of 244 imported malaria patients were enrolled, including 100 cases (40.98%) with the duration from onset of first symptoms to time of initial diagnosis that exceeded 24 hours. Logistic regression analysis identified a history of malaria parasite infection [odds ratio (OR) = 3.075, 95% confidential interval (CI): (1.597, 5.923)], long incubation period [OR = 1.010, 95% CI: (1.001, 1.018)] and seeking healthcare in provincial or municipal medical facilities [OR = 12.550, 95% CI: (1.158, 135.963)] as risk factors for delay in seeking healthcare among imported malaria cases. BP neural network modeling showed that duration of residing abroad, incubation period and age posed great impacts on delay in healthcare⁃seek among imported malaria patients. Random forest modeling showed that the top five factors with the greatest impact on healthcare⁃seeking delay included main clinical manifestations, the way to go abroad, incubation period, duration of residing abroad and age among imported malaria patients, and Bayesian modeling revealed that the top five factors affecting healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients included level of institutions at initial diagnosis, age, country of origin, history of malaria parasite infection and individuals travelling with imported malaria patients. ROC curve analysis showed higher overall performance of the BP neural network model and the logistic regression model for prediction of the risk of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients (Z = 2.700 to 4.641, all P values < 0.01), with no statistically significant difference in the AUC among four models (Z = 1.209, P > 0.05). The sensitivity (71.00%) and Youden index (43.92%) of the logistic regression model was higher than those of the BP neural network (63.00% and 36.61%, respectively), and the specificity of the BP neural network model (73.61%) was higher than that of the logistic regression model (72.92%). Conclusions Imported malaria cases with long duration of residing abroad, a history of malaria parasite infection, long incubation period, advanced age and seeking healthcare in provincial or municipal medical institutions have a high likelihood of delay in healthcare⁃seeking in Jiangsu Province. The models created based on the logistic regression and BP neural network show a high efficiency for prediction of the risk of healthcare⁃seeking among imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province, which may provide insights into health management of imported malaria patients.
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    Epidemiology of pathogenic tick-borne viruses in China: a review#br# #br#
    MA Jingge, LIU Ning, LIU Ziyan, LIU Quan, WEI Feng, WANG Zedong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 325-330,348.  
    Abstract255)      PDF(pc) (973KB)(446)       Save
    Ticks are obligate, haematophagous arthropods that are distributed across the world, which may transmit more than 200 pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. A large number of tick species are widespread in China, and their transmitting tick-borne viral diseases pose a great threat to human health in endemic foci. This review describes the epidemiology of common, emerging and potentially pathogenic tick-borne viruses in China, and recommends the assessment of public health significance and pathogenicity of emerging tick-borne viruses using reverse microbial etiology, so as to provide insights into the management of emerging tick-borne diseases in China.
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    Discovery and distribution of and response to arbovirus in China over the past seven decades
    XIA Han, YUAN Zhiming
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 427-436,450.  
    Abstract237)      PDF(pc) (1541KB)(336)       Save
    Arbovirus is a group of virus transmitted by blood⁃sucking arthropod bites, which infects both arthropods and vertebrates. More than 600 arboviruses have been characterized worldwide until now, including 65 highly pathogenic viruses, which pose a high threat to public health. The risk of arbovirus transmission is increasing due to climate change, international trade and urbanization. The review summarizes the discovery and distribution of emerging and reemerging arboviruses and novel arboviruses with potential pathogenic risks, and proposes responses to the arbovirus transmission risk, so as to provide insights into the research and management of arboviruses and arthropod⁃borne infectious diseases in China.
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    Single⁃cell RNA sequencing deciphers transcriptional profiles of hepatocytes in mouse with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis
    YANG Qingqing, JIA Wanzhong, WANG Xiangqian, CAI Qigang, GE Xin, WANG Wei, HAN Xiumin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 236-243.  
    Abstract229)      PDF(pc) (2690KB)(158)       Save
    Objective To investigate the cell composition and the transcriptional characteristics in microenvironments of hepatic tissues in mice at late stage of Echinococcus multilocularis infection at a single⁃cell level. Methods Peri⁃lesion and paired distal hepatic specimens were collected from two BALB/c mice (6 to 8 weeks old) infected with E. multilocularis for single⁃cell RNA sequencing. The Seurat package in the R software was employed for quality control of data, multi⁃sample integration and correction of batch effects, and uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) algorithm was used for cell clustering. Cell types were annotated using classical marker genes. Differentially expressed genes were screened in each cell type through differential gene expression analysis, and the biological roles of cells were predicted using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses. Results A total of 43 710 cells from peri⁃lesion and distal hepatic tissues of E. multilocularis⁃infected mice were analyzed, and were classified into 11 cell types, including neutrophils, T cells, macrophages, granulocyte⁃monocyte progenitor cells, B cells, plasma cells, basophils, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and platelets. T cells were the largest population of immune cells in the microenvironment of hepatic tissues, including five CD4+ T cell subsets, two CD8+ T cell subsets and phosphoantigen⁃reactive γδT cells. The proportions of CD4+ helper T cells and cytotoxic CD4+ T cells decreased and the proportion of T helper 2 (Th2) cells increased in peri⁃lesion tissues relative to distal hepatic tissues. In addition, the differentially expressed genes in Th2 cells were associated with negative regulation of the immune system, and the highly expressed genes in cytotoxic CD4+ T cells correlated with activation of the immune system. Conclusions Single⁃cell RNA sequencing deciphers the cell composition and distribution in microenvironments of hepatic tissues from mice infected with E. multilocularis, and the increased proportion of Th2 cells in peri⁃lesion hepatic tissues may be associated with formation of immunosuppressive microenvironments.
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    Protective effect of recombinant Schistosoma japonicum cystatin against acute kidney injury associated with acute liver failure in mice
    XUE Yuan, YANG Xiaodi, ZHANG Huaping, ZHANG Tingting, CHEN Weihao, CHANG Xinyue, WANG Yanhong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 331-339.  
    Abstract223)      PDF(pc) (2448KB)(196)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the protective effect of recombinant Schistosoma japonicum cystatin (rSj⁃Cys) against acute kidney injury induced by acute liver failure and unravel the underlying mechanism, so as to provide insights into the clinical therapy of acute kidney injury. Methods Twenty⁃four male C57BL/6J mice at ages of 6 to 8 weeks were randomly divided into the normal control group, rSj⁃Cys control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D⁃galactosamine (D⁃GaIN) model group and LPS/D⁃GaIN +rSj⁃Cys treatment group, of 6 mice each group. Mice in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group and LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (10 μg/kg) and D⁃GaIN (700 mg/kg), and mice in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group were additionally administered with rSj⁃Cys (1.25 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection 30 min post⁃modeling, while mice in the rSj⁃Cys group were intraperitoneally injected with rSj⁃Cys (1.25 mg/kg), and mice in the normal control group were injected with the normal volume of PBS. All mice were sacrificed 6 h post⁃modeling, and mouse serum and kidney samples were collected. Serum creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured, and the pathological changes of mouse kidney specimens were examined using hematoxylin⁃eosin (HE) staining. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)⁃α and interleukin (IL)⁃6 levels were detected using enzyme⁃linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression of inflammatory factors and pyroptosis⁃related proteins was quantified in mouse kidney specimens using immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of pyroptosis⁃related proteins and nuclear factor⁃kappa B (NF⁃κB) signaling pathway⁃associated proteins was determined in mouse kidney specimens using Western blotting assay. Results HE staining showed no remarkable abnormality in the mouse kidney structure in the normal control group and the rSj⁃Cys control group, and renal tubular injury was found in LPS/D⁃GaIN group, while the renal tubular injury was alleviated in LPS/D⁃GaIN+rSj⁃Cys treatment group. There were significant differences in serum levels of Cr (F = 46.33, P < 0.001), BUN (F = 128.60, P < 0.001), TNF⁃α (F = 102.00, P < 0.001) and IL⁃6 (F = 202.10, P < 0.001) among the four groups , and lower serum Cr [(85.35 ± 32.05) µmol/L], BUN [(11.90 ± 2.76) mmol/L], TNF⁃α [(158.27 ± 15.83) pg/mL] and IL⁃6 levels [(56.72 ± 4.37) pg/mL] were detected in the in LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (all P values < 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining detected significant differences in TNF⁃α (F = 24.16, P < 0.001) and IL⁃10 (F = 15.07, P < 0.01) expression among the four groups , and lower TNF⁃α [(106.50 ± 16.57)%] and higher IL⁃10 expression [(91.83 ± 5.23)%] was detected in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (both P values < 0.01). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry detected significant differences in the protein expression of pyroptosis⁃related proteins NOD⁃like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3) (F = 24.57 and 30.72, both P values < 0.001), IL⁃1β (F =19.24 and 22.59, both P values < 0.001) and IL⁃18 (F = 16.60 and 19.30, both P values < 0.001) in kidney samples among the four groups, and lower NLRP3, IL⁃1β and IL⁃18 expression was quantified in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys treatment group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (P values < 0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in the protein expression of NF⁃κB signaling pathway⁃associated proteins p⁃NF⁃κB p⁃P65/NF⁃κB p65 (F = 71.88, P < 0.001), Toll⁃like receptor (TLR)⁃4 (F = 45.49, P < 0.001) and p⁃IκB/IκB (F = 60.87, P < 0.001) in mouse kidney samples among the four groups, and lower expression of three NF⁃κB signaling pathway⁃associated proteins was determined in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys treatment group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (all P values < 0.01). Conclusion rSj⁃Cys may present a protective effect against acute kidney injury caused by acute liver failure through inhibiting inflammation and pyroptosis and downregulating the NF⁃κB signaling pathway.
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    Progress in methodology of the Global Burden of Disease Study and its impact on the disease burden of parasitic diseases
    ZENG Ting, JIA Tiewu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 299-306.  
    Abstract214)      PDF(pc) (1232KB)(268)       Save
    Currently, the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is the most comprehensive, systematic, and largest-scale global observational epidemiological project, which measures the national, regional and global mortality and disability of diseases, injuries and risk factors that threaten human health using unified indicators, such as disability-adjusted life year. This review describes the development history, assessment process and methodological advances of GBD, and discusses the impact of GBD on the burden of parasitic diseases, aiming to provide insights into the widespread use of GBD.
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    Distribution characteristics of emerging and reemerging Oncomelania hupensis in China from 2015 to 2021
    YANG Fan, FENG Ting, HE Junyi, ZHANG Lijuan, XU Jing, CAO Chunli, LI Shizhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 437-443.  
    Abstract201)      PDF(pc) (1289KB)(241)       Save
    Objective To analyze the distribution characteristics of emerging and reemerging Oncomelania hupensis snails after the criteria for transmission control of schistosomiasis were achieved in China, so as to provide insights into assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk and formulation of snail control strategies during the elimination phase. Methods O. hupensis survey data in China from 2015 to 2021 were collected from the National Schistosomiasis Pevention and Control Information Management System, and the distribution characteristics of emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were descriptively analyzed. Results Emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were identified in China each year from 2015 to 2021, with relatively larger areas with emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snail habitats in 2016 and 2021, and relatively higher numbers of counties (districts) where emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were detected in 2016 and 2021. A total of 4 586.30 hm2 of emerging O. hupensis snail habitats were found in 10 schistosomiasis⁃endemic provinces of China (except Fujian and Yunnan Provinces) from 2015 to 2021, with 96.80% in Anhui, Hunan and Hubei provinces, where marshland and lake endemic foci were predominant. A total of 21 023.90 hm2 of reemerging O. hupensis snail habitats were found in 12 schistosomiasis⁃endemic provinces of China from 2015 to 2021, with 97.67% in six provinces of Hubei, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Anhui, where marshland and lake and hilly endemic regions were predominant. Emerging snail habitats were found in 15.08% of all schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts) in China from 2015 to 2021, and 78.75% of all emerging snail habitats were identified in 11 schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts), with the largest area of emerging snail habitats found in Lixian County, Hunan Province (645.00 hm2). Reemerging snail habitats were found in 47.67% of all schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts) in China from 2015 to 2021, and 43.29% of all reemerging snail habitats were identified in 11 schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts), with the largest area of reemerging snail habitats found in Weishan Li and Hui Autonomous County of Hunan Province (1 579.70 hm2). Conclusions Emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were identified in China each year from 2015 to 2021, with much larger areas of reemerging snail habitats than emerging snail habitats, and larger numbers of schistosomiasis⁃endemic provinces and counties (districts) with reemerging snails were found that those of provinces and counties (districts) with emerging snails. Specific snail control interventions are required tailored to the causes of emerging and reemerging snail habitats. Both emergence and reemergence of O. hupensis snails should be paid attention to in marshland and lake endemic areas, and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Shanghai Municipality and Zhejiang Province where schistosomiasis had been eliminated, and reemergence of O. hupensis snails should be given a high priority in hilly areas. In addition, monitoring of O. hupensis snails should be reinforced in snail⁃free areas after flooding.
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    Epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria cases after malaria elimination in Yixing City of Jiangsu Province
    LIANG Jing, XUE Zhiqiang, LI Xuebing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 294-298.  
    Abstract182)      PDF(pc) (1017KB)(172)       Save
    Objective To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria cases after malaria elimination in Yixing City, Jiangsu Province, so as to provide reference for malaria prevention and control in grassroots healthcare institutions. Methods All data pertaining to malaria cases reported in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022 were retrieved from Chinese Disease Control and Prevention Information System, and the data pertaining to vector monitoring and human malaria parasite infections from 2016 to 2022 were collected for a descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 14 imported malaria cases were reported in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022, including 12 cases with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, one case with P. vivax malaria and one case with P. ovale malaria, and all cases acquired infections in Africa and then returned to Yixing City. Malaria cases were reported across 2016 to 2022 except in 2020 and 2021. Malaria cases were predominantly reported during the period between December and February of the next year, and workers were the predominant occupation. The institutions where malaria was initially diagnosed included county⁃level general hospitals, county⁃level disease prevention and control institutions and grassroots healthcare centers, and there were 10 cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria on the day of initial diagnosis, with a 64.29% (9/14) correct rate of initial diagnosis. There were 5 cases diagnosed with severe malaria, and the standardized response rate was 100.00% following the “1⁃3⁃7” surveillance and response strategy. Of all malaria vectors, only Anopheles sinensis was monitored in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022, and all humans were tested negative for blood smears except imported malaria cases. Conclusions The correct rate of initial malaria diagnosis was not high in healthcare institutions in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022, and there are still multiple challenges for prevention of re⁃establishment of imported malaria.
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    Prevalence of parasitic infections in human stool samples from a hospital in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province
    PENG Yufeng, LIAO Xiaomei, ZHU Lepan, ZHANG Yangnan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 291-293.  
    Abstract179)      PDF(pc) (895KB)(121)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in human stool samples from a hospital in Chenzhou City, Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the management of intestinal parasitic diseases. Methods Stool samples were collected from patients admitted to a hospital in Chenzhou City from September 2020 to March 2021, subjected to physiological saline smearing and microscopy for detection of intestinal parasites. The prevalence of parasitic infections and the species of parasites were descriptively analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 1.61% in the 10 728 stool samples, and there were 3 samples with mixed infections of two parasite species. A total of seven parasite species were identified, including Blastocystis hominis (162 cases, 1.55%), Giardia lamblia (5 cases, 0.05%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5 cases, 0.05%), Endolimax nana (one case, 0.01%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (one case, 0.01%), Strongyloides stercoralis (one case, 0.01%) and Trichomonas hominis (one case, 0.01%). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was significantly higher among women than in men (2.14% vs. 1.25%; [χ2] = 13.01, P < 0.01), and a high prevalence rate was seen among patients at ages of 20 to 30 years (2.99%) and 80 years and older (2.86%); however, no age⁃specific prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was detected ([χ2] = 12.45, P > 0.05). Conclusions The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was low among patients admitted to a hospital in Chenzhou City, and gender⁃specific prevalence was found. Food⁃borne and opportunistic parasites were predominant intestinal parasites, including B. hominis, G. lamblia and D. fragilis.
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    Spatial distribution characteristics of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and seroprevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province in 2020
    ZHOU Yu, TANG Ling, TONG Yixin, HUANG Junhui, WANG Jiamin, ZHANG Yue, JIANG Honglin, XU Ning, GONG Yanfeng, YIN Jiangfan, JIANG Qingwu, ZHOU Jie, ZHOU Yibiao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 444-450.  
    Abstract176)      PDF(pc) (2702KB)(202)       Save
    Objective To investigate the spatial distribution characteristics of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody, and to examine the correlation between the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province in 2020, so as to provide insights into advanced schistosomiais control in the province. Methods The epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province in 2020 were collected, including number of permanent residents in survey villages, number of advanced schistosomiasis patients, number of residents receiving serological tests and number of residents sero⁃positive for anti⁃Schistosoma antibody, and the prevalence advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody were descriptively analyzed. Village⁃based spatial distribution characteristics of prevalence advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody were identified in Hunan Province in 2020, and the correlation between the revalence advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody was examined using Spearman correlation analysis. Results The prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis was 0 to 2.72% and the sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody was 0 to 20.25% in 1 153 schistosomiasis⁃endemic villages in Hunan Province in 2020, and spatial clusters were identified in both the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis was 0 to 2.72% (global Moran’s I = 0.416, P < 0.01) and the sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody (global Moran’s I = 0.711, P < 0.01) in Hunan Province. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis identified 98 schistosomiasis⁃endemic villages with high⁃high clusters of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis, 134 endemic villages with high⁃high clusters of the sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody and 36 endemic villages with high⁃high clusters of both the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province. In addition, spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody (rs = 0.235, P < 0.05). Conclusions There were spatial clusters of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province in 2020, which were predominantly located in areas neighboring the Dongting Lake. These clusters should be given a high priority in the schistosomiasis control programs.
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    Molluscicidal effect of spraying 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules with drones against Oncomelania hupensis in hilly regions
    HE Junyi, ZHANG Yun, BAO Ziping, GUO Suying, CAO Chunli, DU Chunhong, CHA Jianwei, SUN Jiayu, DONG Yi, XU Jing, LI Shizhu, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 451-457,507.  
    Abstract174)      PDF(pc) (1268KB)(169)       Save
    Objective To establish a snail control approach for spraying chemicals with drones against Oncomelania hupensis in complex snail habitats in hilly regions, and to evaluate its molluscicidal effect. Methods The protocol for evaluating the activity of spraying chemical molluscicides with drones against O. hupensis snails was formulated based on expert consultation and literature review. In August 2022, a pretest was conducted in a hillside field environment (12 000 m2) north of Dafengji Village, Dacang Township, Weishan County, Yunnan Province, which was assigned into four groups, of no less than 3 000 m2 in each group. In Group A, environmental cleaning was not conducted and 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules were sprayed with drones at a dose of 40 g/m2, and in Group B, environmental cleaning was performed, followed by 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules sprayed with drones at a dose of 40 g/m2, while in Group C, environmental cleaning was not conducted and 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules were sprayed with knapsack sprayers at a dose of 40 g/m2, and in Group D, environmental cleaning was performed, followed by 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules sprayed with knapsack sprayers at a dose of 40 g/m2. Then, each group was equally divided into six sections according to land area, with Section 1 for baseline surveys and sections 1 to 5 for snail surveys after chemical treatment. Snail surveys were conducted prior to chemical treatment and 1, 3, 5, 7 days post⁃treatment, and the mortality and corrected mortality of snails, density of living snails and costs of molluscicidal treatment were calculated in each group. Results The mortality and corrected mortality of snails were 9.49%, 69.09%, 53.57% and 83.48%, and 68.58%, 68.17%, 52.19% and 82.99% in groups A, B, C and D 14 days post⁃treatment, and the density of living snails reduced by 58.40%, 63.94%, 68.91% and 83.25% 14 days post⁃treatment relative to pre⁃treatment in four groups, respectively. The median concentrations of chemical molluscicides were 37.08, 35.42, 42.50 g/m2 and 56.25 g/m2 in groups A, B, C and D, and the gross costs of chemical treatment were 0.93, 1.50, 0.46 Yuan per m2 and 1.03 Yuan per m2 in groups A, B, C and D, respectively. Conclusions The molluscicidal effect of spraying 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules with drones against O. hupensis snails is superior to manual chemical treatment without environmental cleaning, and chemical treatment with drones and manual chemical treatment show comparable molluscicidal effects following environmental cleaning in hilly regions. The cost of chemical treatment with drones is slightly higher than manual chemical treatment regardless of environmental cleaning. Spraying 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules with drones is recommended in complex settings with difficulty in environmental cleaning to improve the molluscicidal activity and efficiency against O. hupensis snails.
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    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human ocular helaziasis in China from 2011 to 2022 based on bibliometrics
    ZHAO Yuhui, PEI Fengting, YANG Naifu, SUN Huayue, GAO Zihui, TIAN Qingmei, LU Xiuzhen
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 513-516.  
    Abstract171)      PDF(pc) (884KB)(251)       Save
    Objective To understand the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of human ocular thelaziasis patients in China. Methods Case reports regarding human ocular thelaziasis cases in China were retrieved in international and national electronic databases, including CNKI, VIP, CBM, Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Wanfang Database, PubMed and Web of Science from 2011 to 2022. Patients’ gender, age, clinical symptoms, treatment, recurrence, site of infections, time of onset, affected eye, affected sites, number of infected Thelazia callipaeda, sex of T. callipaeda and source of infections were extracted for descriptive analyses. Results A total of 85 eligible publications were included, covering 101 cases of human ocular thelaziasis, including 57 males (56.44%) and 44 females (43.56%) and aged from 3 months to 85 years. The main clinical manifestations included foreign body sensation (56 case⁃times, 22.49%), eye itching (38 case⁃times, 15.26%), abnormal or increased secretions (36 case⁃times, 14.46%), tears (28 case⁃times, 11.24%) and eye redness (28 case⁃times, 11.24%), and conjunctival congestion (50 case⁃times, 41.67%) was the most common clinical sign. The most common main treatment (99/101, 98.02%) was removal of parasites from eyes using ophthalmic forceps, followed by administration with ofloxacin and pranoprofen. In publications presenting thelaziasis recurrence, there were 90 cases without recurrence (97.83%) and 2 cases with recurrence (2.17%). Of all cases, 51.96% were reported in four provinces of Hubei, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Henan, and ocular thelaziasis predominantly occurred in summer (42.19%) and autumn (42.19%). In addition, 56.45% (35/62) had a contact with dogs. Conclusions The human thelaziasis cases mainly occur in the continental monsoon and subtropical monsoon climate areas such as the Yellow River and the Yangtze River basin, and people of all ages and genders have the disease, with complex clinical symptoms and signs. Personal hygiene is required during the contact with dogs, cats and other animals, and individual protection is required during outdoor activities to prevent thelaziasis.
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    Schistosomiasis control in Sichuan Province since the 12th Five⁃Year Plan period: progress and prospects
    SHANG Jingye, ZHANG Yu, PU Chen, WAN Jiajia, CHEN Lin, WU Zisong, LIU Yang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (6): 539-544,556.  
    Abstract168)      PDF(pc) (1262KB)(192)       Save
    An ambitious goal has been set for elimination of schistosomiasis in all endemic counties (districts) in Sichuan Province by 2023. To achieve this goal, and to continue to consolidate the control achievements, it is necessary to understand the current endemic status of schistosomiasis, identify the challenges and analyze the experiences and lessons from the schistosomiasis control program, and develop targeted control strategies and interventions in the province. This paper reviews the progress of schistosomiasis control in Sichuan Province since the 12th Five⁃Year Plan period, analyzes the challenges in the schistosomiasis elimination program, and proposes recommendations for future directions and priorities.
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    Prevalence and influencing factors of human soil⁃transmitted nematode infections in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021
    YE Zehao, CHU Kun, ZHANG Jienan, SUN Yawei, LU Feng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 286-290,298.  
    Abstract168)      PDF(pc) (1036KB)(119)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021, so as to provide insights into the development of targeted control measures against soil⁃transmitted nematodiasis. Methods Permanent residents at ages of 3 years and older were sampled in Ningbo City using a multi⁃stage sampling method each year during the period from 2016 to 2021. Soil⁃transmitted nematode eggs were detected in stool samples using a modified Kato⁃Katz thick smear method (two slides for each stool sample), and Enterobius vermicularis eggs were additionally identified among children at ages of 3 to 12 years using the adhesive cellophane⁃tape perianal swab method. The time⁃ and regions⁃specific prevalence of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections was calculated, and the factors affecting hookworm infections were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results A total of 11 573 person⁃times were detected for soil⁃transmitted nematode infections in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021, and 296 egg⁃positives were detected, with a mean prevalence rate of 2.56% [95% confidential interval (CI): (2.28%, 2.87%)]. Hookworm was the predominant species of soil⁃transmitted nematode among egg⁃positives in Ningbo City (98.31%, 291/296), and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hookworm infections among years ([χ2] = 190.27, P < 0.01). The highest prevalence of hookworm infections was observed in Ninghai County (4.06%), and there was a region⁃specific prevalence rate of hookworm infection in Ningbo City ([χ2] = 148.43, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that elderly residents at ages of over 60 years [odds ratio (OR)= 1.94, 95% CI: (1.07, 3.54), P < 0.05], males [OR = 2.19, 95% CI: (1.72, 2.80), P < 0.01], farmers [OR = 6.94, 95% CI: (3.37, 14.29), P < 0.01] and residents with a low education level [illiteracy or semi⁃illiterate: OR = 3.82, 95% CI: (1.56, 9.35), P < 0.05; primary school: OR = 2.70,95% CI: (1.11, 6.59), P < 0.05] were at a higher risk for hookworm infections. Conclusions The overall prevalence of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections was low among residents in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021. The surveillance and health education for human hookworm disease remain to be reinforced among male farmers with a low education level at ages of over 60 years in Ninghai County.
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    Progress of international and national researches on disease burden of echinococcosis
    MIAO Liyuan, TIAN Tian, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 307-312.  
    Abstract163)      PDF(pc) (943KB)(227)       Save
    As a neglected tropical disease defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), echinococcosis causes a huge public health burden. Understanding the disease burden due to echinococcosis facilitates the progress towards elimination of the disease. This review analyzes the advances in disease and economic burdens of echinococcosis, describes the status quo disease burden due to echinococcosis in different areas of the world, compares the difference between international and national studies on disease and economic burdens of echinococcosis, and discusses the shortcomings of the current international and national studies on disease burden of echinococcosis. Currently, the studies on disease burden of echinococcosis suffer from problems of few field survey data and lack of authoritative disability weights for echinococcosis, while the studies on economic burden of echinococcosis suffer from problems of lack of comprehensive study populations and indicators.
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    Bioinformatics analysis and prokaryotic expression of Strongyloides stercoralis serine protease inhibitor 1
    HAN Xue, BI Xianglian, ZHAO Hongying, SHI Yunliang, WEN Qing, LÜ Jiayin, SUN Jiayue, FU Xiaoyin, LIU Dengyu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 244-250.  
    Abstract162)      PDF(pc) (1446KB)(126)       Save
    Objective To predict the structure and antigenic epitope of the Strongyloides stercoralis serine protease inhibitor 1 (Ss⁃SRPN⁃1) protein using bioinformatics tools, and to construct prokaryotic expression plasmids for expression of recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein, so as to provide the basis for unraveling the function of the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein. Methods The amino acid sequence of the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein was downloaded from the NCBI database, and the physicochemical properties, structure and antigenic epitopes of the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein were predicted using bioinformatics tools, including ExPASy, SWISS⁃MODEL and Protean. Primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of Ss⁃SRPN⁃1, and the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced with genomic DNA extracted from the infective third⁃stage larvae of S. stercoralis as a template. The Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein sequence was cloned into the pET28a (+) expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE) cells for induction of the recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein expression. The recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein was then purified and identified using Western blotting and mass spectrometry. Results Bioinformatics analysis showed that the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein, which was composed of 372 amino acids and had a molecular formula of C1948H3046N488O575S16, was a stable hydrophilic protein, and the subcellular localization of the protein was predicted to be extracellular. The Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein was predicted to contain 11 dominant B⁃cell antigenic epitopes and 20 T⁃cell antigenic epitopes. The Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 gene with a length of 1 119 bp was successfully amplified, and the recombinant plasmid pET28a (+)/Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE) cells. The expressed recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein had a molecular weight of approximately 43 kDa, and was characterized as a Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein. Conclusions The recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein has been expressed successfully, and this recombinant protein may be a potential vaccine candidate against strongyloidiasis.
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    Prediction of potential suitable habitats of Haemphysalis concinna in Heilongjiang Province based on the maximum entropy model
    ZHANG Yaming, WANG Yue, YUAN Shuang, TANG Lei, ZHANG Wenjia, CHEN Qu, CHEN Shulin, YU Yang, JIA Yuehui
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 263-270.  
    Abstract158)      PDF(pc) (2698KB)(132)       Save
    Objective To predict the potential suitable habitat of Haemaphysalis concinna in Heilongjiang Province under different climatic scenarios. Methods The geographic locations of ticks in Heilongjiang Province from 1980 to 2022 were captured from literature review and field ticks monitoring data from Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Heilongjiang Province, and the tick distribution sites with spatial correlations were removed using the software ArcGIS 10.2. The environment data under historical climatic scenarios from 1970 to 2000 and the climatic shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) 126 scenario model from 2021 to 2040 and from 2041 to 2060 were downloaded from the WorldClim website, and the elevation (1 km, 2010), population (1 km grid population dataset of China, 2010) and annual vegetation index (1 km, 2010) data were downloaded from the Resource and Environmental Science and Data Center, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The contribution of environmental factors to H. concinna distribution was evaluated and environmental variables were screened using the software MaxEnt 3.4.1 and R package 4.1.0, and the areas of suitable habitats of H. concinna and changes in center of gravity were analyzed using the maximum entropy model in Heilongjiang Province under different climatic scenarios. In addition, the accuracy of the maximum entropy model for prediction of H. concinna distribution was assessed using the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results A total of 79 H. concinna distribution sites and 24 environmental variables were collected, and 70 H. concinna distribution sites and 9 environmental factors that contributed to distribution of the potential suitable habitats of H. concinna in Heilongjiang Province were screened. The three most significant contributing factors included precipitation seasonality, annual precipitation, and mean temperature of the driest quarter, with cumulative contributions of 60.7%. The total area of suitable habitats of H. concinna was 29.05 × 104 km2 in Heilongjiang Province under historical climatic scenarios, with the center of gravity of suitable habitats located at (47.31° N, 129.16° E), while the total area of suitable habitats of H. concinna reduced by 0.97 × 104 km2 in Heilongjiang Province under the climatic SSP126 scenario from 2041 to 2060, with the center of gravity shifting to (47.70° N, 129.28° E). Conclusions The distribution of suitable habitats of H. concinna strongly correlates with temperature and humidity in Heilongjiang Province. The total area of potential suitable habitats of H. concinna may appear a tendency towards a decline with climatic changes in Heilongjiang Province, and high⁃, medium⁃ and low⁃suitable habitats may shift.
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    Progress of researches on molecular mechanisms underlying helminth infection⁃mediated type 1/2 host immune responses
    MU Qianqian, ZHOU Biying
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 534-538.  
    Abstract158)      PDF(pc) (1049KB)(194)       Save
    Helminth infections are widespread worldwide, and pose a serious threat to human health and animal husbandry development. Understanding of helminth⁃host interactions is critical to effective control and ultimate eradication of helminthiasis. Following host infections, helminth infections firstly initiate innate immune responses and then mediate adaptive immune responses. Type 1 immune responses are predominant at early stage of helminth infections, which mainly play anti⁃infective actions, and type 2 immune responses are predominant at late stage of infections, which are associated with helminth immune evasion and aggravation of tissue damages. This review summarizes the progress of researches on type 1/2 immune responses⁃associated signaling pathways mediated by helminth infections in hosts.
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    Effect of information⁃knowledge⁃attitude⁃practice theory⁃based health education on clonorchiasis control among community residents and primary school students in Zhongshan City
    HUO Shuting, ZHENG Yingyan, DENG Shaona, HUANG Guoxian
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 517-521.  
    Abstract156)      PDF(pc) (892KB)(120)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the effect of information⁃knowledge⁃attitude⁃practice (IKAP) theory⁃based health education interventions on clonorchiasis control among community residents and primary school students in Torch High⁃tech Development Zone of Zhongshan City, so as to provide insights into formulation of clonorchiasis control strategies among different types of populations. Methods Residents were randomly sampled from two communities and students from two primary schools using a random cluster sampling method in Torch High⁃tech Development Zone, Zhongshan City from 2019 to 2021, and health education pertaining to clonorchiasis control was performed based on the IKAP theory. The changes in the awareness of basic clonorchiasis control knowledge and belief, self⁃reported risk of Clonorchis sinensis infections and dietary behaviors were compared among community residents and primary school students before and after health education interventions. Results The participants included 146 male and 151 female community residents and 158 male and 153 female primary school students, with no significant difference detected in gender distribution ([χ2] = 0.16, P > 0.05). The mean awareness of basic clonorchiasis control knowledge increased by 44.71% and 43.28% among primary school students and community residents 6 months following health education, and there were significant differences in the awareness of each item of basic clonorchiasis control knowledge before and after health education ([χ2] = 41.53 to 284.44, all P values < 0.05). The proportions of primary school students and community residents thinking very high and high risks of C. sinensis infections increased from 9.35% and 6.71% before health education to 22.15% and 37.75% after health education, but only the difference of the attitudes in community residents achieve statistical significance ([χ2] = 92.18, P < 0.05). The frequency of separation of raw and cooked foods with chopping board and knife significantly increased among community residents and primary school students following health education ([χ2] = 16.04 to 62.65, all P values < 0.05). The frequency of eating raw freshwater fish ([χ2] = 32.85,P < 0.05), fish congee ([χ2] = 7.02,P < 0.05) and fish fillet hot pot ([χ2] = 4.88,P < 0.05) significantly reduced among primary school students following health education, while only the frequency and proportions of eating raw freshwater fish have significantly reduced in community residents ([χ2] = 11.77, P < 0.05). Conclusions Health education interventions based on the IKAP theory are effective to increase the awareness of clonorchiasis control knowledge and improve dietary behaviors associated with C. sinensis infections among community residents and primary school students in Zhongshan City.
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    Progress of researches on techniques for detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in intermediate host snails
    ZHAO Yongbo, LI Tianmei, GUO Yunhai
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 313-316.  
    Abstract156)      PDF(pc) (904KB)(133)       Save
    Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease in China. Snails are intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and play a critical role in the transmission of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis. Detection of A. cantonensis in snails is an important part of epidemiological surveys. Currently, the rapid developments in the techniques for detection of A. cantonensis in snails facilitate the surveillance of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis and provide an important support for angiostrongyliasis cantonensis prevention and control. This review summarizes the advances in the techniques for detection of A. cantonensis in snails.
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    Progress of researches on developmental processes and reproduction mode of Pneumocystis
    XUE Ting, DU Weiqin, WANG Jing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 522-528.  
    Abstract155)      PDF(pc) (1242KB)(191)       Save
    Pneumocystis, an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that parasitizes in multiple mammalian lungs, may cause life⁃threatening Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and even death among immunocompromised individuals. With the rapid development of high⁃throughput sequencing and multi⁃omics technologies, systematic comparative analyses of genome, transcriptome, and whole⁃genome sequencing results demonstrate that Pneumocystis is a type of obligate biotrophic fungi, and requires obtaining nutrition from hosts. In addition, sexual reproduction is an essential process for Pneumocystis survival, production and transmission, and asexual reproduction facilitates Pneumocystis survival, which provides new insights into understanding of the whole developmental process of Pneumocystis in the host lung and inter⁃host transmission of Pneumocystis. This review summarizes the advances in the reproduction mode of Pneumocystis and underlying mechanisms, which provides insights into prevention and treatment of PCP, notably for the prophylaxis against nosocomial transmission of PCP.
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    Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in snails in Fujian Province from 2017 to 2021
    XIE Xianliang, CHEN Yunhong, LI Yanrong, XIE Hanguo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 282-285.  
    Abstract151)      PDF(pc) (970KB)(103)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in market⁃sold and field⁃captured snails in Fujian Province, so as to provide the scientific basis for the formulation of the angiostrongyliasis control measures. Methods In each month from May to October during the period from 2017 through 2021, Pomacea snails were collected from two field fixed surveillance sites and Bellamya aeruginosa collected from one agricultural product market in Fuzhou City, while Pomacea and B. aeruginosa snails were collected from two agricultural product markets and four restaurants in Xiamen City. At least 50 Pomacea snails and 500 g B. aeruginosa were sampled each time. A. cantonensis infection was detected in Pomacea snails using lung microscopy, and in B. aeruginosa using a tissue homogenate method. Results A total of 9 531 Pomacea snails were detected for A. cantonensis infection in two cities of Fuzhou and Xiamen, and the overall prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was 4.40%, with the highest prevalence in 2017 (6.82%, 116/1 701) and the lowest prevalence in 2019 (3.46%, 83/2 400). The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was significantly higher in Pomacea snails sampled from Fuzhou City (11.23%, 326/2 903) than from Xiamen City (1.40%, 93/6 628) ([χ2] = 461.48, P < 0.01). A. cantonensis larvae were detected in larval Pomacea snails in two cities of Fuzhou and Xiamen each month. The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Pomacea snails appeared an overall tendency towards a rise with month in Fuzhou City, with the highest prevalence in October (15.24%), and there was a significant difference among month ([χ2] = 14.56, P < 0.05), while the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Pomacea snails was low in Pomacea snails sampled from Xiamen City each month, with the highest prevalence in June (2.64%), and there was a significant difference among month ([χ2] = 23.17, P < 0.05). A total of 18 966 B. aeruginosa snails were detected for A. cantonensis infection in two cities of Fuzhou and Xiamen, and the overall prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was 0.01%. Conclusions A. cantonensis infection was identified in Pomacea and B. aeruginosa snails in Fujian Province from 2017 to 2021, and there is a potential risk of human A. cantonensis infection.
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    Interpretation of Detection and identification standard of hookworm—Hookworm larvae coproculture techniques (WS/T 791—2021)
    DENG Yan, JIANG Tiantian, CHEN Weiqi, ZHANG Yalan, ZHANG Hongwei, ZHAO Dongyang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 279-281,285.  
    Abstract149)      PDF(pc) (1037KB)(104)       Save
    Detection and identification standard of hookworm—Hookworm larvae coproculture techniques (WS/T 791—2021) is the first recommended technical standard for hookworm detection and species identification using the hookworm larvae coproculture technique in China. This standard was issued on November 23, 2021, and had been in effect since May 1, 2022. This article provides a detailed interpretation pertaining to the background, drafting process, main contents, and dos and don’ts for better understanding and application of this standard among professionals working in disease control and prevention institutions and medical institutions.
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    Cross⁃species regulation and underlying mechanisms of parasite⁃derived non⁃coding RNAs: a review
    DAI Yue, YANG Qingli
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 529-533.  
    Abstract149)      PDF(pc) (1075KB)(162)       Save
    Parasite⁃derived non⁃coding RNAs (ncRNAs) not only contribute to life activities of parasites, and microRNA (miRNA), long non⁃coding RNA (lncRNA), and circular RNA (circRNA) may generate a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network with host miRNAs and mRNAs via extracellular vesicles, thereby participating in infection and pathogenic processes. This article presents an overview of characterizing ncRNAs derived from parasites and the cross⁃species regulatory role of parasite⁃derived ncRNAs in host gene expression and its underlying mechanisms.
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    Molecular detection and subtyping of Blastocystis sp. in pigs in Anhui Province
    GAO Sichao, WANG Jipu, WU Xinghua, LUO Xinyu, LI Qiaoqiao, CHEN Dongqian, LIU Xinchao, LI Wenchao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 508-512.  
    Abstract143)      PDF(pc) (1082KB)(144)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. in pigs in Anhui Province. Methods A total of 500 stool samples were collected from large⁃scale pig farms in Bozhou, Anqing, Chuzhou, Hefei, Fuyang, and Lu’an cities in Anhui Province from October to December 2015. Blastocystis was detected in pig stool samples using a PCR assay based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, and positive samples were subjected to sequencing and sequence analysis. Blastocystis subtypes were characterized in the online PubMLST database, and verified using phylogenetic tree created with the neighbor⁃joining algorithm in the Meta software. Results The prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 43.2% (216/500) in pigs in 6 cities of Anhui Province, and all pig farms were tested positive for Blastocystis. There was a region⁃specific prevalence rate of Blastocystis (17.2% to 50.0%) ([χ2] = 26.084, P < 0.01), and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. among nursery pigs (39.6%), preweaned pigs (19.1%), and growing pigs (62.3%) ([χ2] = 74.951, P < 0.01). Both online inquiry and phylogenetic analysis revealed ST1, ST3, and ST5 subtypes in pigs, with ST5 as the predominant subtype. Conclusion The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. is high in pigs in Anhui Province, with three zoonotic subtypes identified, including ST1, ST3, and ST5.
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    Prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety and effect of psychological interventions among schistosomiasis patients in China: a meta⁃analysis
    WANG Meiti, JIN Guixiang, CHENG Ying, ZHENG Jinxin, TIAN Liguang, ZHANG Shunxian, HONG Wu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 340-348.  
    Abstract143)      PDF(pc) (1627KB)(174)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety and to evaluate the effect of psychological interventions among schistosomiasis patients in China, so as to provide insights into improvements of psychological health among schistosomiasis patients. Methods Publications pertaining to comorbid depression and anxiety and psychological interventions among Chinese schistosomiasis patients were retrieved in electronic databases, including CNKI, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. The prevalence of comorbidity, psychological interventions, and scores for the Self⁃Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self⁃Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after psychological interventions among Chinese schistosomiasis patients were extracted. The prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety was investigated among Chinese schistosomiasis patients using a meta⁃analysis, and the effect of psychological interventions for depression and anxiety was evaluated. Results A total of 231 publications were retrieved, and 14 publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the final analysis, including 2 English publications and 12 Chinese publications. Meta⁃analysis showed that the prevalence rates of comorbid depression and anxiety were 61% [95% confidential interval (CI): (48%, 72%)] and 64% [95% CI: (42%, 81%)] among Chinese schistosomiasis patients. Both the SDS [1.45 points, 95% CI: (1.30, 1.60) points] and SAS scores [2.21 points, 95% CI: (2.05, 2.38) points] reduced among Chinese schistosomiasis patients after psychological interventions than before psychological interventions, and the SDS [−0.47 points, 95% CI: (−6.90, −0.25) points] and SAS scores [−1.30 points, 95% CI: (−1.52, −1.09) points] reduced among Chinese schistosomiasis patients in the case group than in the control group. Conclusions The comorbid anxiety and depression are common among Chinese schistosomiasis patients, and conventional psychological interventions facilitate the improvements of anxiety and depression among schistosomiasis patients.
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    Progress of researches on Blastocystis hominis infection among patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome
    LI Lin, CAI Yuchun, YU Chenghang, CHEN Muxin, TIAN Liguang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 413-420,426.  
    Abstract142)      PDF(pc) (1033KB)(157)       Save
    Blastocystis is a common unicellular intestinal protozoa in humans and animals, and the most common clinical manifestations of infections include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Based on the sequence of the small⁃subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, 28 subtypes of B. hominis (ST1 to ST17, ST21 and ST23 to ST32) have been characterized. Previous studies have demonstrated that B. hominis infection is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other intestinal diseases, which threatens the health and quality of life among patients with B. hominis infection and is considered as an important public health problem. This review summarizes the progress of researches on B. hominis infection among IBD and IBS patients during the past 20 years, so as to provide insights into management of blastocystosis in China.
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    Cystic echinococcosis misdiagnosed as hepatic cyst: a case report
    PANG Chongmin, ZHANG Bo, CHEN Yao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 322-324.  
    Abstract142)      PDF(pc) (1672KB)(113)       Save
    This case report presents the diagnosis and treatment of a case of cystic echinococcosis misdiagnosed as hepatic cyst. The case had anaphylactic shock caused by extravasation of cyst fluid during extraction of hepatic cyst and suffered from postoperative recurrence of echinococcosis. This case report may provide insights into diagnosis and treatment of cystic echinococcosis among healthcare workers in non⁃endemic areas.
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    Impact of COVID⁃19 pandemic on the management of imported malaria in China
    LIU Ying, WANG Dan, HE Zhiquan, ZHANG Tao, YAN Hui, LIN Wen, ZHANG Xuan, LU Shenning, LIU Yuting, WANG Duoquan, LI Jun, RUAN Wei, LI Shizhu, ZHANG Hongwei
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 383-388.  
    Abstract142)      PDF(pc) (1020KB)(174)       Save
    Objective To examine the impact of COVID⁃19 pandemic on the epidemic status of imported malaria and national malaria control program in China, so as to provide insights into post⁃elimination malaria surveillance. Methods All data pertaining to imported malaria cases were collected from Anhui Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during the period from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2021. The number of malaria cases, species of malaria parasites, country where malaria parasite were infected, diagnosis and treatment after returning to China, and response were compared before (from January 1, 2018 to January 22, 2020) and after the COVID⁃19 pandemic (from January 23, 2020 to December 31, 2021). Results A total of 2 054 imported malaria cases were reported in Anhui Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during the period from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2021, and there were 1 722 cases and 332 cases reported before and after the COVID⁃19 pandemic, respectively. All cases were reported within one day after definitive diagnosis. The annual mean number of reported malaria cases reduced by 79.30% in Anhui Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region after the COVID⁃19 pandemic (171 cases) than before the pandemic (826 cases), and the number of monthly reported malaria cases significantly reduced in Anhui Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region since February 2020. There was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of species of malaria parasites among the imported malaria cases in Anhui Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region before and after the COVID⁃19 pandemic ([χ2] = 146.70, P < 0.05), and P. falciparum malaria was predominant before the COVID⁃19 pandemic (72.30%), while P. ovale malaria (44.28%) was predominant after the COVID⁃19 pandemic, followed by P. falciparum malaria (37.65%). There was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of country where malaria parasites were infected among imported malaria cases in Anhui Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region before and after the COVID⁃19 pandemic ([χ2] = 13.83, P < 0.05), and the proportion of malaria cases that acquired Plasmodium infections in western Africa reduced after the COVID⁃19 pandemic that before the pandemic (44.13% vs. 37.95%; [χ2] = 4.34, P < 0.05), while the proportion of malaria cases that acquired Plasmodium infections in eastern Africa increased after the COVID⁃19 pandemic that before the pandemic (9.58% vs. 15.36%; [χ2] = 9.88, P = 0.02). The proportion of completing case investigation within 3 days was significantly lower after the COVID⁃19 pandemic than before the pandemic (96.69% vs. 98.32%; [χ2] = 3.87, P < 0.05), while the proportion of finishing foci investigation and response within 7 days was significantly higher after the COVID⁃19 pandemic than before the pandemic (100.00% vs. 98.43%; [χ2] = 3.95, P < 0.05). Conclusions The number of imported malaria cases remarkably reduced in Anhui Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China during the COVID⁃19 pandemic, with a decreased proportion of completing case investigations within 3 days. The sensitivity of the malaria surveillance⁃response system requires to be improved to prevent the risk of secondary transmission of malaria due to the sharp increase in the number of imported malaria cases following the change of the COVID⁃19 containment policy.
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    Burden of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases in China from 1990 to 2030
    YAO Lixi, LIN Su, HUANG Jiaofeng, WU Yinlian
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 464-475,496.  
    Abstract141)      PDF(pc) (3686KB)(145)       Save
    Objective To measure the burden of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases in China from 1990 to 2019, and to predict its changes from 2020 to 2030. Methods The age⁃standardized prevalence, incidence, mortality and disability⁃adjusted life years (DALY) rate of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases in China from 1990 to 2019 were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 (GBD 2019) data resources, and the trends in burdens of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases were evaluated from 1990 to 2019 using estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and annual percent change (APC). In addition, the changes in the burden of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases were predicted in China from 2020 to 2023 using the Bayesian model. Results The overall incidence of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases reduced from 2 725.98/105 in 1990 to 1 397.31/105 in 2019 in China [estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) = −2.35%, 95% confidential interval (CI): (−2.58%, −2.13%)], with a reduction in the prevalence from 12 239.53/105 in 1990 to 6 566.12/105 in 2019 [EAPC = −2.34%, 95% CI: (−2.54%, −2.14%)], a reduction in the mortality from 24.67/105 in 1990 to 8.07/105 in 2019 [EAPC = −4.92%, 95% CI: (−5.37%, −4.47%)], and a reduction in the DALYs rate from 793.38/105 in 1990 to 247.71/105 in 2019 [(EAPC = −5.15%, 95% CI: (−5.64%, −4.66%)]. The DALYs of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases were mainly attributed to liver cancer, and the DALYs of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases appeared a tendency towards a rise in China from 2012 to 2019 [APC = 1.30%, 95% CI: (0.16%, 2.45%)]. The overall burden of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases was higher in males than in females, and the DALYs rate of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases increased with age, with the greatest DALY rate seen among patients at ages of 50 to 69 years. The overall incidence of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases was projected to be 866.79/105 in China in 2030, with the greatest incidence seen in acute hepatitis B (854.87/105), and the burden of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases was predicted to decline in China from 2020 to 2030; however, the burden of liver disease was projected to appear a tendency towards a rise. Conclusions The burden of hepatitis B⁃associated diseases appears an overall tendency towards a decline in China from 1990 to 2030; however, the burden of liver cancer appears a tendency towards aggravation. Early diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer should be given a high priority.
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    Preliminary application of recombinase⁃aided amplification in detection of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish
    CHEN Jianfeng, WANG Zhiqi, HUANG Wenming, WANG Jin, CHEN Lijuan, SUN Yunle, ZHAO Lanmei, ZHAO Yang, QIAN Yin, DUAN Junwei, ZHANG Qiang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 458-463.  
    Abstract138)      PDF(pc) (1168KB)(133)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the performance of recombinase⁃aided amplification (RAA) assay in detection of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish samples, so as to provide insights into standardization and field application of this assay. Methods Wild freshwater fish samples were collected in the rivers of administrative villages where C. sinensis⁃infected residents lived in Jiangyan District, Xinghua County and Taixing County of Taizhou City, Jiangsu Province from June to September 2022. Genomic DNA was extracted from six freshwater fish specimens (5 g each) containing 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 C. sinensis metacercariae for fluorescent RAA assay, and the diagnostic sensitivity was evaluated. Fluorescent RAA assay was performed with genomic DNA from C. sinensis, Metorchis orientalis, Haplorchis pumilio and Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae as templates to evaluate its cross⁃reactions. In addition, the detection of fluorescent RAA assay and direct compression method for C. sinensis metacercariae was compared in field⁃collected freshwater fish samples. Results Positive amplification was found in freshwater fish specimens containing different numbers of C. sinensis metacercariae, and fluorescent RAA assay was effective to detect one C. sinensis metacercaria in 5 g freshwater fish specimens within 20 min. Fluorescent RAA assay tested negative for DNA from M. orientalis, H. pumilio and C. formosanus metacercariae. Fluorescent RAA assay and direct compression method showed 5.36% (93/1 735) and 2.88% (50/1 735) detections rate for C. sinensis metacercariae in 1 735 field⁃collected freshwater fish samples, with a statistically significant difference seen ([χ2] = 478.150, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the detection of C. sinensis metacercariae in different species of freshwater fish by both the direct compression method ([χ2] = 11.20, P < 0.05) and fluorescent RAA assay ([χ2] = 20.26, P < 0.001), and the detection of C. sinensis metacercariae was higher in Pseudorasbora parva than in other fish species by both the direct compression method fluorescent RAA assay (both P values < 0.05). Conclusions Fluorescent RAA assay has a high sensitivity for detection of C. sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish samples, and has no cross⁃reactions with M. orientalis, H. pumilio or C. formosanus metacercariae. Fluorescent RAA assay shows a higher accuracy for detection of C. sinensis infections in field⁃collected freshwater fish than the direct compression method.
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    Quality of blood smear examinations for malaria parasites in Chenzhou City after malaria elimination
    ZHU Hanwu, HOU Xishuo, YANG Hui
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 497-500.  
    Abstract135)      PDF(pc) (886KB)(134)       Save
    Objective To analyze the quality of blood smear examinations for malaria parasites in Chenzhou City, so as to provide insights into sustainable consolidation of malaria elimination achievements. Methods All positive blood smears from fever patients were irregularly sampled from each county (district) of Chenzhou City from 2018 to 2022 and reexamined, and no less than 3% negative blood smears were reexamined. The preparation, dyeing, cleanliness and microscopic examination results of blood smear were reexamined, and the quality of blood smear reexaminations was assessed using a descriptive statistical method. Results A total of 13 625 fever patients received blood smear examinations for malaria parasites in Chenzhou City from 2018 to 2022, of which 21 were positive and 13 604 were negative; 687 blood samples were reviewed, and the percentage of negative blood smear reexaminations was 4.90% (666/13 604), with a 63.51% rate of qualified negative blood smears preparation, a 67.87% rate of qualified dyeing and a 76.13% rate of qualified cleanliness, and no missing diagnosis found. There were 21 positive blood smears reexamined, and the proportions of qualified blood smears preparation, dyeing and cleanliness were all 85.71%, with 2 smears mistaking Plasmodium species (9.52%). The percentage of qualified negative blood smears preparation was 51.41% in 2022, which reduced by 31.61% in relative to that (75.17%) in 2019 ([χ2] = 9.033, P < 0.05), and the percentage of qualified negative blood smears dyeing was 60.19% in 2022, which reduced by 28.82% in relative to that (84.56%) in 2019 ([χ2] = 19.498, P < 0.05), while the percentage of qualified negative blood smears cleanliness was 62.96% in 2022, which reduced by 28.93 in relative to that (88.59%) in 2019 ([χ2] = 23.826, P < 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the proportion of qualified negative blood smears preparation ([χ2] = 0.260, P > 0.05) or dyeing ([χ2] = 1.094, P > 0.05) among the three years, while a significant difference was detected in the percentage of qualified negative blood smears cleanliness ([χ2] = 12.175, P < 0.05). Conclusions No missing diagnosis was seen in blood smear examinations for malaria parasites among fever patients in Chenzhou City after malaria elimination; however, there were reductions in proportions of qualified blood smears preparation, dyeing and cleanliness. Quality control of blood smear examinations is recommended to be reinforced in key regions of Chenzhou City.
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    Effects of angiotensin⁃converting enzyme on reproduction of Culex pipiens pallens
    WANG Huan, LIU Jin, KAILIMAI Aini, ZHENG Junnan, SHEN Bo, SUN Yan, ZHOU Dan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 251-257.  
    Abstract133)      PDF(pc) (1811KB)(99)       Save
    Objective To investigate the role of angiotensin⁃converting enzyme (ACE) in the reproduction of Culex pipiens pallens, so as to provide insights into selection of targets for controlling mosquito vector populations. Methods Cx. pipiens pallens was collected from Tangkou County, Shandong Province in 2009. Female and male mosquitoes were selected at 72 hours post⁃eclosion, and quantitative real⁃time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) assay was used to detect the expression of ACE gene in the whole body and reproductive tissues of male mosquitoes and fertilized female mosquitoes before (0 h) and after blood meals (24, 48, 72 h), respectively. Then, 150 female and 150 male mosquitoes at 0 to 4 hours post⁃eclosion were selected and divided into the wild⁃type group (WT group), small interfering RNA⁃negative control group (siNC group) and small interfering RNA⁃ACE group (siACE group), of 50 mosquitoes in each group. Mosquitoes in the WT group were given no treatment, and mosquitoes in the siNC and siACE groups were given microinjection of siNC and siACE into the hemolymph at a dose of 0.3 μg per mosquito. The knockdown efficiency was checked using qPCR assay, and the reproductive phenotype of mosquitoes was observed. Results The relative ACE gene expression was higher in the whole body of male mosquitoes (5.467 ± 1.006) relative to females (1.199 ± 0.241) (t = 5.835, P = 0.004) at 72 h post⁃eclosion, and the highest ACE expression was seen in reproductive tissues of male mosquitoes (199.100 ± 24.429), which was 188.3 times higher than in remaining tissues (1.057 ± 0.340) (t = 6.602, P = 0.002). Blood meal induced high ACE expression in all body tissues of fertilized female mosquitoes, with peak expression at 24 h after blood meals (14.957 ± 2.815), which was 14.8 times higher than that before blood meals (1.009 ± 0.139) (P = 0.002). The transcriptional level of ACEs continued to increase in the ovaries of female mosquitoes after blood meals during the vitellogenesis phase, peaking at 48 h after blood meals (5.500 ± 0.734), which was 5.1 times higher than that before blood meals (1.072 ± 0.178) (P = 0.002). Small RNA interference targeting ACE resulted in a 57.2% reduction in ACE expression in female mosquitoes in the siACE group (0.430 ± 0.070) relative to the siNC group (1.002 ± 0.070) (P = 0.001), and a 41.1% reduction in male mosquitoes in the siACE group (0.588 ± 0.067) relative to the siNC group (1.008 ± 0.131) (P = 0.016). Knockdown of ACE expression resulted in a 48.0% decrease in the number of eggs laid by female mosquitoes in the siACE group [(94.000 ± 27.386) eggs] relative to the siNC group [(180.800 ± 27.386)] (P < 0.001), and a 45.0% decrease in the number of eggs laid by wild female mosquitoes mated with males in the siACE group [(104.500 ± 20.965) eggs] relative to the siNC group [(190.050 ± 10.698) eggs] (P < 0.001). Conclusions  Reduced ACE expression may inhibit the fecundity of male and female mosquitoes, and ACE may be as a potential target for mosquito vector population suppression.
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    Dermatophagoides farinae induces conjunctival epithelial cell damage to promote neutrophil migration and neutrophil extracellular traps formation 
    WU Meili, YAN Ru, ZHAO Wenjun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 271-278.  
    Abstract131)      PDF(pc) (4417KB)(135)       Save
    Objective To investigate the mechanisms underlying allergic conjunctivitis caused by conjunctival epithelial cell damage, neutrophil migration and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation induced by crude extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae mite (CDM). Methods Human conjunctival epithelial cells were stimulated with 500, 1 000, 2 000, 4 000 ng/mL, and the expression levels of interleukin⁃6 (IL⁃6), tumor necrosis factor⁃α (TNF⁃α), interferon⁃γ (IFN⁃γ) and IL⁃8 were detected using quantitative real⁃time PCR (qPCR) assay and enzyme⁃linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The culture supernatant of human conjunctival epithelial cells was collected and co⁃cultured with neutrophils. Neutrophil migration was measured using Transwell migration assay, and the expression of NETs markers myeloperoxidase (MPO) and citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3) was quantified using immunofluorescence staining. Neutrophils were stimulated with phorbol 12⁃myristate 13⁃acetate (PMA), and then NETs were collected for treatment of human conjunctival epithelial cells. Cell apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry, and the levels of IL⁃6, TNF⁃α, IFN⁃γ and IL⁃8 were measured in the cell culture supernatant using ELISA. Results Treatment with CDM at concentrations of 2 000 ng/mL and 4 000 ng/mL up⁃regulated IL⁃6, TNF⁃α, IFN⁃γ and IL⁃8 expression in human conjunctival epithelial cells. Following treatment with CDM at concentrations of 2 000 ng/mL and 4 000 ng/mL, the culture supernatant of human conjunctival epithelial cells promoted neutrophil migration and induced increases in the staining intensity of MPO and CitH3. In addition, increased NETs triggered the apoptosis of human conjunctival epithelial cells and IL⁃6, TNF⁃α, IFN⁃γ and IL⁃8 secretion in the culture supernatant of human conjunctival epithelial cells. Conclusions CDM induces human conjunctival epithelial cell damages, thereby promoting neutrophil migration and NETs formation, while the release of NETs further aggravates human conjunctival epithelial cell damages.
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    Construction of a surveillance and early warning index system for schistosomiasis transmission risk along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin
    JIANG Sanhong, WANG Liman, SUN Li, LIU Tao, LIU Yuwei, LIU Xiaoli
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 486-491.  
    Abstract131)      PDF(pc) (919KB)(206)       Save
    Objective To establish a surveillance and early warning index system for schistosomiasis transmission risk along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, so as to provide insights into creation of a sensitive and highly efficient surveillance and early warning system for schistosomiasis. Methods National and international publications, documents, laws and regulations pertaining to schistosomiasis control were retrieved with keywords including schistosomiasis, surveillance, early warning and control interventions from 2008 to 2022, and a thematic panel discussion was held to preliminarily construct surveillance and early warning index system for schistosomiasis transmission risk along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. The index system was then comprehensively scored and screened using the Delphi method, and the weight of each index was determined using analytic hierarchy process and the modified proportional allocation method. In addition, the credibility of the Delphi method was evaluated using positive coefficient, authority coefficient, degree of concentration and degree of coordination of experts. Results Following two rounds of expert consultation, a surveillance and early warning index system for schistosomiasis transmission risk in endemic areas along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin was preliminarily constructed, including 3 primary indicators, 9 secondary indicators and 41 tertiary indicators. The normalized weights of primary indicators epidemics, natural and social factors and comprehensive control were 0.639 8, 0.145 6 and 0.214 6, respectively, and among all secondary indicators, snail status (0.321 3) and schistosomiasis prevalence (0.318 5) had the highest combined weights, while social factors had the lowest combined weight (0.030 4). Of all tertiary indicators, human egg⁃positive rate (0.041 9), number of acute schistosomiasis cases (0.041 5), number of stool⁃positive bovine and sheep (0.041 1), and prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in free⁃ranging livestock (0.041 1) had the highest combined weights. During two rounds of consultation, the positive coefficient of experts was both 100%, and the authority coefficient was both 0.9 and greater, while the coordination coefficients were 0.338 to 0.441 and 0.426 to 0.565 ([χ2] = 22.875 to 216.524, both P values < 0.05). Conclusions The established surveillance and early warning index system for schistosomiasis transmission risk along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin is of great scientific values and authority, which may provide insights into construction of the sensitive and highly efficient surveillance and early warning system for schistosomiasis in the context of low prevalence and low intensity of infection in China.
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    Construction of an evaluation index system for the capability of comprehensive control of mountain⁃type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis based on the One Health concept
    LIU Jingshu, ZHOU Zhengbin, ZHANG Xiaoxi, HUANG Lulu, LUO Zhuowei, CHEN Shenglin, ZHANG Yi, LI Shizhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (6): 545-556.  
    Abstract127)      PDF(pc) (1162KB)(130)       Save
    Objective To construct an evaluation index system for the capability of comprehensive control of mountain⁃type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis based on the One Health concept, so as to provide insights into the control and elimination of mountain⁃type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis using the One Health approach. Methods A preliminary evaluation index system was constructed based on literature review, panel discussions and field surveys. Thirty⁃three experts were selected from 7 provincial disease control and prevention centers in Beijing Municipality, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Henan Province, Sichuan Province, Shaanxi Province and Gansu Province where mountain⁃type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis was endemic, and two rounds of expert consultations were conducted to screen the indicators. The positive coefficient, degree of concentration, degree of coordination, and authority of the experts were calculated, and the normalized weights of each index were calculated with the analytic hierarchy process. Results The response rates of questionnaires during two rounds of expert consultation were both 100.00% (33/33), and the authority coefficients of the experts were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. The coefficients of coordination among experts on the rationality, importance, and operability of the indicators were 0.392, 0.437, 0.258, and 0.364, 0.335, 0.263, respectively (all P values < 0.05). Following screening, the final evaluation index system included 3 primary indicators, 17 secondary indicators, and 50 tertiary indicators. The normalized weights of primary indicators “external environment”, “internal support” and “comprehensive control” were 16.98%, 38.73% and 44.29%, respectively. Among the secondary indicators of the primary indicator “external environment”, the highest weight was seen for natural environment (66.67%), and among the secondary indicators of the primary indicator “internal support”, the lowest weight was seen for the scientific research for visceral leishmaniasis control (8.26%), while other indicators had weights of 12.42% to 13.38%. Among the secondary indicators of the primary indicator “comprehensive control”, the weight was 16.67% for each indicator. Conclusions An evaluation index system has been constructed for the capability of comprehensive control of mountain⁃type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis based on the One Health concept. In addition to assessment of the effect of conventional mountain⁃type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis control measures, this index system integrates the importance of top⁃level design, organizational management, and implementation of control measures, and includes indicators related to multi⁃sectoral cooperation.
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    Traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of echinococcosis: a review
    CHEN Qing, LIU Chuanchuan, LI Caixia, ZHANG Boen, FAN Haining
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 398-406,412.  
    Abstract127)      PDF(pc) (998KB)(162)       Save
    Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by infection with Echinococcus species. As the drug of first choice for treatment of echinococcosis, albendazole suffers from problems of large doses and remarkable adverse reactions in clinical therapy. Development of novel drugs against echinococcosis is of urgent need. Recently, great advances have been achieved in the research on traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of echinococcosis. This review summarizes the progress of researches on traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of echinococcosis, aiming to provide insights into development of anti⁃echinococcosis drugs.
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