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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2020
    ZHANG Li⁃Juan, XU Zhi⁃Min, YANG Fan, DANG Hui, Li Yin⁃Long, LÜ Shan, CAO Chun⁃Li, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃Zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃Nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 225-.  
    Abstract2103)      PDF (1047KB)(703)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero⁃positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis⁃endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person⁃time individuals and 266 280 herd⁃time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five⁃Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.
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    Status and control of common food⁃borne parasitic diseases in China: a review
    HUANG Ji⁃Lei, WANG Yao, ZHOU Xia
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 424-.  
    Abstract358)      PDF (1011KB)(151)       Save
    Food⁃borne parasitic diseases include meat⁃borne, fish⁃borne, plant⁃borne, water⁃borne, mollusk⁃borne and freshwater crustacean⁃borne parasitic diseases. The review summarizes the current status and control of 6 major food⁃borne parasitic diseases in China, including clonorchiasus, paragonimiasis, Taenia solium taeniasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and angiostrongyliasis, aiming to increase the understanding of food⁃borne parasitic diseases and provide insights into the development of the control strategy for food⁃borne parasitic diseases. The transmission of food⁃borne parasitic diseases are predominantly associated with diet, and neither eating raw nor semi⁃cooked food is the most effective measure to prevent the development of food⁃borne parasitic diseases.
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    Current status and challenges for taeniasis and cysticercosis control in China
    GUO Zhao⁃yu, LIU Jian⁃feng, ZHOU Chang⁃hai, QIAN Men⁃bao, CHEN Ying⁃dan, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 563-.  
    Abstract343)      PDF (944KB)(137)       Save
    In the WHO new road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, the disease⁃specific targets are classified into control, elimination as a public health problem, elimination and eradication, and taeniasis and cysticercosis are targeted for control. The overall prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis is low in China, and varies remarkably in regions and populations; however, there are many challenges for elimination of taeniasis and cysticercosis in China. Based on previous taeniasis and cysticercosis control programs, developing a sensitive taeniasis and cysticercosis surveillance⁃response system, updating criteria for diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, proposing a national guideline for treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis, and strengthening interdisciplinary and intersectoral communications and collaborations are urgently needed under the One Health concept.
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    Harder maintained than achieved: Challenges of maintaining malaria-free in China
    ZHU Guo⁃ding, GAO Qi, CAO Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (2): 109-.  
    Abstract337)      PDF (1006KB)(89)       Save
    On June 2021, China was certified malaria-free by WHO. However, the global number and death of malaria cases have recently increased, and the malaria vectors will continue to inhabit in China, resulting in a high difficulty in consolidation of malaria elimination achievements. Hereby, we analyze the current challenges and propose the future priority of the national malaria control program in China, in order to provide insights into prevention of re⁃establishment of imported malaria in the country.
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    Development and application of the world’s first malaria subunit vaccine RTS, S/AS01
    XU Wen⁃yue
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 557-.  
    Abstract241)      PDF (643KB)(109)       Save
    On October, 2021, the WHO announced the recommendation of RTS, S/AS01 for use among children living in moderately and highly malaria⁃endemic areas, which receives global attention. Here, the history of RTS, S/AS01 vaccine development and its role in malaria control are described.
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    One Health: Re⁃thinking of zoonoses control
    FEI Si⁃wei, XU Jing⁃shan, LÜ Shan, GUO Xiao⁃kui, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 1-.  
    Abstract226)      PDF (1170KB)(160)       Save
    Under the dual pressure of emerging zoonoses and the difficulty in eliminating conventional zoonoses, many uncertainties in global control of infectious diseases are challenging the achievement of sustainable development goals set by the United Nations General Assembly. One Health, developed on the basis of understanding the relationship between human diseases and animal diseases, is conducive to the prevention and control of zoonoses. The connotation of “One Health” is mainly explained by three aspects, namely the systems thinking mode of “unity of environment and man”, the practice guidance of “multi⁃sectoral concert” and the economic evaluation strategy of “cost⁃effectiveness analysis”. One Health approach has been successfully applied in the control of major infectious diseases in China, such as schistosomiasis, leading to remarkable achievements; however, there are still multiple challenges. This review proposes that much attention should be paid to top⁃level design, the difference between emerging zoonoses and conventional zoonoses, and the dynamic process of One Health governance during the development and application of One Health.
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    Establishment of a deep learning⁃visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis
    SHI Liang, XIONG Chun⁃Rong, LIU Mao⁃Mao, WEI Xiu⁃Shen, WANG Xin⁃Yao, WANG Tao, HUANG Yi⁃Xin, HONG Qing⁃Biao, LI WEI, YANG Hai⁃Tao, ZHANG Jian⁃Feng, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 445-.  
    Abstract217)      PDF (1670KB)(139)       Save
    Objective To establish a deep learning⁃based visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and evaluate the effects of different training strategies for O. hupensis image recognition. Methods A total of 2 614 datasets of O. hupensis snails and 4 similar snails were generated through field sampling and internet capture, and were divided into training sets and test sets. An intelligent recognition model was created based on deep learning, and was trained and tested. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F1 score and Youden index were calculated. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model for snail recognition was plotted to evaluate the effects of “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies on the accuracy of the model for snail recognition. Results Under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” strategy, the precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index and F1 score of the model were 90.10%, 91.00%, 97.50%, 96.20%, 88.50% and 90.51% for snail recognition, which were all higher than those under both “new learning” and “transfer learning” strategies. There were significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the model for snail recognition under “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies (all P values < 0.001). In addition, the area under the ROC curve of the model was highest (0.94) under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy. Conclusions This is the first visual model for intelligent recognition of O. hupensis based on deep learning, which shows a high accuracy for snail image recognition. The “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy is helpful to improve the accuracy of the model for snail recognition.
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    Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China based on the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC)
    YANG Fan, XU Jing, LÜ Shan, CAO Chun⁃Li, LI Shi⁃Zhu, ZHANG Li⁃Juan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 234-.  
    Abstract209)      PDF (966KB)(139)       Save
    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups ([χ2] = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease⁃type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow⁃up is required.
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    Epidemiological trends of schistosomiasis in Poyang County of Jiangxi Province from 2004 to 2020 based on the Joinpoint regression model
    WU Xin⁃hua, WU Jun, XU Ren⁃mei, XIONG Ying, CHEN Zhe
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 7-.  
    Abstract206)      PDF (1296KB)(161)       Save
    Objective To analyze the dynamic changes of schistosomiasis in Poyang County of Jiangxi Province from 2004 to 2020, so as to provide insight into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. Methods Schistosomiasis control data were captured from Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and the epidemiological data of schistosomiasis were collected from national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in Poyang County from 2005 to 2020. The endemic status of schistosomiasis was analyzed in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and a Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to investigate the trends of schistosomiasis in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020. Results The sero⁃prevalence and egg⁃prevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 24.39% (24 976/102 397) and 4.53% (259/5 721) in 2004 to 5.37% (2 421/45 100) [annual percent change (APC) = average annual percent change (AAPC) = -8.64% ] and 0 (0/3 963) in 2020 (APC = AAPC = -32.07%) in Poyang County, and the trends were both significant (both P < 0.01). The sero⁃prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 1.21% (294/24 332) in bovines in 2013 to 0.58% (35/5 999) in 2020 in Poyang County, with one turning point (AAPC = -8.20%,P > 0.05). There were no townships or villages with emerging snail habitats in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and there were three turning points of trend in the proportion of snail areas detected in total snail areas (AAPC = -2.30%,P > 0.01).The sero⁃prevalence and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 60.82% (742/1 220) and 10.16% (124/1 220) in local residents in 2005 to 5.73% (70/1 221) and 0 in 2020 in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Poyang County, and the trends for sero⁃prevalence (APC = AAPC = 17.47%, P < 0.01) and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections (APC = AAPC = -44.92%, P < 0.01) were both statistically significant. S. japonicum infections were identified in 10 (2005) and 2 local livestock (2007), with prevalence of 10.00% (10/100) and 13.33% (2/15), respectively, and S. japonicum infections were detected in snails in 2008 and 2009; however, no positive samples of mixed O. hupensis were detected by loop⁃mediated isothermal amplification. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis control had remarkably reduced in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020; however, there are still challenges for consolidating schistosomiasis control achievements and even elimination of schistosomiasis.
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    Prospects and reflections on the research and development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines
    XIAO Bo, HUANG Zheng⁃hui, JIANG Lu⁃bin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 555-.  
    Abstract187)      PDF (625KB)(75)       Save
    Vaccination is one of the most effective intervention for the containment and elimination of infectious diseases. Recently, the world’s first malaria vaccine RTS, S/AS01 was approved by WHO for use among children living in moderately and highly malaria endemic areas of Africa, which brings a hope for the research and development of malaria vaccines. Here, we review the current status of malaria vaccines development and provide a perspective on the development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines, so as to provide insights into the successful development of malaria vaccines.
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    he world’s first malaria vaccine: Hope and challenge
    ZHANG Yi⁃long, PAN Wei⁃qing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 560-.  
    Abstract180)      PDF (649KB)(79)       Save
    The RTS,S/AS01 is a subunit malaria vaccine against the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. After over 30 years of research and development and clinical trials, this vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for use among children living in highly malaria endemic areas. Although the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine suffers from problems of a low protective efficacy (about 30%), need of four doses and short duration of protective immunity, this malaria vaccine is expected to save tens of thousands of children’s lives, and avoid tens of millions of malaria cases annually, because there have been tens of thousands of childhood deaths due to malaria recently. The introduction of the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is therefore, widely accepted as a milestone in the history of battle against malaria, which brings a hope to contain malaria and even eventually eliminate malaria. Although there are still multiple challenges in the development of a satisfactory malaria vaccine, the success of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria greatly facilitates the progress towards the development of parasitic disease vaccines, and a more perfect malaria vaccine deserves expectations.
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    An acute schistosomiasis case in Wuhan City imported from another province of China in 2020
    ZUO Yu⁃ting, WANG Hao, ZHOU Shui⁃mao, HE Jian⁃min, SHI Xiao⁃ying, LUO Hua⁃tang, XU Ming⁃xing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 647-.  
    Abstract171)      PDF (1111KB)(153)       Save
    An imported case of acute schistosomiasis was reported in Wuhan City in 2020. The case was infected with Schistosoma by contact with the infested water due to playing water in the Yangtze River when working out of Hubei Province. The patient visited four medical institutions and the duration from onset to definitive diagnosis was 20 days. The patient’s low awareness of schistosomiasis prevention and control knowledge and lack of diagnosis and treatment awareness for schistosomiasis among medical institutions were considered as main causes of the development of acute schistosomiasis and progression to severe case. Intensifying schistosomiasis health education among mobile populations and improving the awareness and capability of early diagnosis of schistosomiasis among clinicians are recommended.
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    Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province from 2014 to 2015
    ZHAO Dong⁃Yang, JIANG Tian⁃Tian, CHEN Wei⁃Qi, ZHANG Ya⁃Lan, DENG Yan, XU Bian⁃Li, ZHANG Hong⁃Wei, GUO Wan⁃Shen, LIN Xi⁃Meng, LI Peng, ZHAO Yu⁃Ling, YANG Cheng⁃Yun, QIAN Dan, ZHOU Rui⁃Min, LIU Ying, LI Su⁃Hua, CHEN Jian⁃She
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 287-.  
    Abstract168)      PDF (980KB)(69)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province. Methods A total of 104 survey sites were sampled from 35 counties (cities) in Henan Province using the stratified cluster sampling method to investigate the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children from 2014 to 2015. The trophozoites and cysts of intestinal protozoa were identified using the iodine staining method and the physiological saline direct smear method (one detection for one stool sample). The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was compared among rural children with different characteristics, and the factors affecting intestinal protozoan infections among rural children were identified. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 0.60% (40/6 771) among rural children in Henan Province from 2014 to 2015. There were 7 species of intestinal protozoa identified, and there was no species⁃specific prevalence ([χ2] = 37.732, P = 0.000). No significant differences were found in prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in terms of gender ([χ2] = 1.793, P = 0.181), age ([χ2] = 1.443, P = 0.486), occupation ([χ2] = 0.219, P = 0.896) or ecological region ([χ2] = 1.700, P = 0.637). In addition, terrain ([χ2] = 2.311, P = 0.510), economic level ([χ2] = 4.322, P = 0.229), source of drinking water ([χ2] = 0.731, P = 0.393), eating raw vegetables ([χ2] = 1.134, P = 0.287) and deworming ([χ2] = 1.089, P = 0.297) had no remarkable effects on the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province; however, the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections varied significantly among rural children living in regions with different coverage of non⁃harmless toilets ([χ2] = 10.050, P = 0.018). Conclusion The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections is low among rural children in Henan Province.
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    Development of a fluorescent recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification⁃based nucleic acid assay for detection of Leishmania
    LIN Hong, ZHAO Song, LIU Yan⁃Hong, SHAO Lei, YING Qing⁃Jie, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 452-.  
    Abstract167)      PDF (1270KB)(175)       Save
    Objective To develop a fluorescent recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification (RAA)⁃based nucleic acid assay for detection of Leshimania. Methods Specific primers and probes were designed targeting Leishmania internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene for RAA assay, and a fluorescent RAA assay was developed for detection of Leishmania following screening of primer pairs and optimization of primer and probe concentrations. The sensitivity of RAA assay for detection of Leishmania was evaluated using recombinant plasmid containing Leishmania ITS1 gene sequences at different copies and Leshimania genomic DNA at different concentrations as templates, and the specificity of RAA assay for detection of Leishmania was evaluated using the genomic DNA of transfusion⁃transmitted parasites, including Babesia microti, Toxoplasma gondii, Plamodium vivax, P. ovale, P. falciparum, P. malariae, L.donovani and L. infantum. Results After the optimal primer pair was screened from 9 pairs of primer combinations, the final primer and probe concentrations were optimized as 0.3 μmol/L and 0.08 μmol/L, respectively. Nucleic acid detection of Leishmania was completed by the fluorescent RAA assay at an isothermal temperature of 39 ℃ within 20 min. Remarkable florescent signals were seen within 5 min following RAA detection of genomic DNA of L. donovani and L. infantum, and no cross⁃reactions were observed with B. microti, T. gondii, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. falciparum or P. malariae. The lowest limitation of detection of the fluorescent RAA assay was 10 copies/μL recombinant plasmid containing Leishmania ITS1 gene sequences and 1 fg/μL Leishmania genomic DNA. Conclusions A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific fluorescent RAA assay is successfully developed for detection of L. donovani and L. infantum, which is effective for field screening of leishmaniasis.
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    Potential challenges for large⁃scale uses of RTS, S/AS01 vaccine in malaria⁃endemic areas
    FENG Gao⁃qian
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 553-.  
    Abstract166)      PDF (654KB)(78)       Save
    RTS, S/AS01 vaccine has recently been recommended by the WHO for large⁃scale uses in malaria⁃endemic areas, which is a milestone in the history of the fight against parasitic infections. Nevertheless, RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is not perfect. Hereby, the shortages of RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine were discussed, and the potential challenges during the research and development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines were analyzed.
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    Application of health economics assessment techniques in the prevention and control of important infectious diseases: a review
    WU Ling⁃Ling, ZHOU Xiao⁃Nong, JIA Tie⁃Wu, XU Jing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 311-.  
    Abstract166)      PDF (961KB)(122)       Save
    Due to the relative shortage of health resources, rational allocation and utilization of health resources is critical to achieving the maximum economic benefits in developing countries, which requires a health economic assessment to meet the needs to balance the competitive requirements of cost reduction and effectiveness enhancement. This review describes the advances in applications of health economic assessment techniques in four major infectious diseases, including AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and schistosomiasis. Currently, there is no standard economic assessment in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and notably, the transparency of cost research is limited, which may affect the popularization of the study conclusions. Further health economic assessments of infectious diseases are required to improve the quality, standard and transparency of the economic evaluation through formulating strategies, to improve the standardization of studies, to improve the popularization of the study conclusions and to improve the applicability of the economic evaluation for policies.
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    Molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus velezensisis Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis and its preliminary mechanisms of molluscicidal actions
    YANG Cheng, QIAO Yun⁃Long, LIU Hui, PAN Zhong⁃Wu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 248-.  
    Abstract166)      PDF (1435KB)(68)       Save
    Objective To assess the molluscicidal activity of the of Bacillus Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis in laboratory, and to preliminarily investigate its mechanisms of molluscicidal actions. Methods Biological identification of the Y6 strain was performed based on analysis of its morphological and physiochemical features and homology analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence. Bacillus Y6 suspensions were formulated at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL, and the molluscicidal activity of Bacillus Y6 suspensions against O. hupensis was tested in laboratory using the immersion method. In addition, the Bacillus Y6 content and glycogen content were detected in O. hupensis following exposure to Bacillus Y6 suspensions to preliminarily explore the molluscicidal mechanism of the Bacillus Y6 strain against O. hupensis. Results The colony of the Bacillus Y6 strain appeared non⁃transparent milky white, and mycoderma was produced on the surface of the nutrient agar liquid medium. The Y6 stain was Gram positive and rod⁃shaped, and the endospore was located at the center of the Bacillus Y6 strain and appeared an achromatic, transparent and refractive body, which was encapsulated by the Y6 strain. The Y6 strain was positive for the lecithinase test, and the 16S rDNA gene sequence showed a 100% homology with those of multiple B. velezensisis strains, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. The Y6 strain was therefore identified as B. velezensisis. Following immersion in the Bacillus Y6 suspensions at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL for 24, 48 h and 72 h, the mortality rates of Oncomelania snails were 28.3%, 31.7% and 81.6%, 43.3%, 58.3% and 93.3%, and 63.3%, 78.3% and 98.3%, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus Y6 suspensions increased with the suspension concentration and duration of immersion. Microscopy and colony counting revealed the highest Y6 content in dead snails and the lowest in living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions, and the mean glycogen contents were (0.68 ± 0.06), (1.09 ± 0.16) μg/mg and (2.56 ± 0.32) μg/mg in the soft tissues of dead, dying and living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions (F = 59.519, P < 0.05), and the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in living snails than in dead (t = 14.073, P < 0.05) and dying snails (t = 10.027, P < 0.05), while the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in dying snails than in dead snails (t = 5.983, P < 0.05). Conclusion The B. velezensisis Y6 strain shows a high molluscicidal activity against O. hupensis snails, and its invasion may cause glycogen metabolism disorders, leading to snail death.
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    Surveillance of schistosomiasis in Xiaogan City from 2016 to 2020
    CHENG Bin, WU Jing⁃Yi
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 420-.  
    Abstract162)      PDF (945KB)(80)       Save
    Objective To analyze the surveillance data of schistosomiasis in Xiaogan City, Hubei Province from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for understanding the epidemiological changes of schistosomiasis and evaluating the schistosomiasis control strategy. Methods A total of 16 surveillance sites were selected in the schistosomiasis endemic foci of Xiaogan City from 2016 to 2020, where Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock and Oncomelania snails and the schistosomiasis transmission risk were monitored. The schistosomiasis surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. Results During the period from 2016 to 2020, there was no schistosomiasis emergency epidemic in Xiaogan City. A total of 660 sero⁃positive individuals were identified in Xiaogan City during the 5⁃year period, and the seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 2.08% in 2016 to 0.97% in 2020. Higher seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections was detected in men than in women, and in individuals at ages of over 60 years than in those at other age groups; however, no egg⁃positives were detected in humans or livestock. The mean density of living snails was 0.05 to 0.06 snails/0.1 m2 during the 5⁃year period, and the occurrence of frames with snails increased from 2.99% in 2016 to 3.92% in 2020; however, no S. japonicum infection was found in snails. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis remarkably decreases in Xiaogan City during the period from 2016 through 2020. Further improvements of the sensitive and effective schistosomiasis surveillance system are required with an emphasis on the monitoring of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and management of floating populations.
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    Epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020
    ZHANG Xuan, RUAN Wei, CHEN Hua⁃Liang, LU Qiao⁃Yi, YAO Li⁃Nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 262-.  
    Abstract159)      PDF (1001KB)(71)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features and diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the management of imported malaria in the province. Methods The data of malaria cases reported in Zhejiang Province were captured from the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention from 2017 to 2020, and the temporal, spatial and human distribution, and initial and definitive diagnosis of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 593 malaria cases were reported in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and all were overseas imported cases, including 532 men and 61 women, with a mean age of 41 years. There were 93.93% of the malaria cases from African countries, and the malaria parasites infecting these cases included Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed infections, with P. falciparum as the predominant species (76.73%, 455/593). All malaria cases received totally correct initial diagnoses in county⁃ and city⁃level centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) and entry⁃exit inspection and quarantine sectors, and the proportion of malaria cases with confirmation at the day of initial diagnosis was 41.48% (207/499) in medical institutions and 66.18% (45/68) in CDC ([χ2] = 14.779, P < 0.001). In addition, the median interval [M (QR)] of malaria cases was 1 (2) d from onset to initial diagnosis and 1 (2) d from initial diagnosis to confirmation in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and the median interval [M (QR)] of severe malaria cases was significantly longer than that of non⁃severe cases [2 (3) d vs. 1 (2) d; Z = -3.002, P < 0.05)]. Conclusions Zhejiang Province faces great challenges of malaria control, and post⁃elimination surveillance of malaria still requires to be reinforced. Meanwhile, the awareness of seeking medical services requires to be improved among returners from malaria⁃endemic regions and the diagnostic capability of malaria requires to be improved among medical professionals.
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    Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infections in freshwater fish in mainland China: a meta⁃analysis
    DAI Si⁃min, YU Qing, MA Xiao⁃jiang, WANG Zhen⁃yu, ZHANG Yao⁃guang, ZHU Min, ZHANG Chen⁃gang, ZHU Qian, JIANG Li, JIN Yan⁃jun, PAN Hao, WU Huan⁃yu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 16-.  
    Abstract156)      PDF (1460KB)(125)       Save
    Objective To understand the real prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infections in the freshwater fish in mainland China, so as to provide insights into clonorchiasis control and detection of freshwater fish. Methods All literatures reporting the prevalence of C. sinensis infections in the freshwater fish, the second intermediate host of the parasite, were jointly retrieved in Chinese and English electronic databases from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020, including Wanfang Data, CNKI, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library. All studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of all enrolled literatures was evaluated. The pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the software Stata version 15.0, and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the region⁃, season⁃ and sample source⁃specific pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish. In addition, the sensitivity and publication bias of all included studies were analyzed. Results A total of 40 eligible literatures were included in this study, including 37 Chinese literatures and 3 English literatures, and there were 10 high⁃quality literatures, 27 moderate⁃quality literatures and 3 low⁃quality literatures. A total of 53 species containing 37 959 freshwater fish were reported in these 40 studies, and 73.58% (39/53) of freshwater fish species were identified with C. sinensis infections. Meta⁃analysis showed 23.5% [95% CI: (0.19, 0.28)] pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in mainland China, and subgroup analyses higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in northeastern China [35.7%, 95% CI: (0.22, 0.50)] than in central [25.9%, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.48)] and southern China [20.6%, 95% CI: (0.09, 0.32)], higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled in spring [44.1%, 95% CI: (0.35, 0.53)] than in autumn [6.7%, 95% CI: (0.05, 0.08)] and summer [3.3%, 95% CI: (-0.01, 0.07)], and higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled from natural water [25.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.33)] than from retail trades [22.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.28)] and breeding chain [12.3%, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.22)]. However, all included studies had a publication bias with a low sensitivity. Conclusions The prevalence of C. sinensis infections is high in freshwater fish in mainland China, and there are still challenges for clonorchiasis control. Reinforcement of health education, diagnostics development and food safety supervision is recommended in future clonorchiasis control programs.
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    Field evaluation and future applications of the world’s first malaria vaccine
    GAO Qi
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 551-.  
    Abstract153)      PDF (628KB)(151)       Save
    This paper describes the safety, efficacy and operability of the world’s first malaria vaccine (RTS, S/AS01) in latest field pilot studies and the recommendations from the WHO expert group for its use. In addition, further studies to examine the associations of inoculation rate and full⁃dose rate with the reduction in morbidity and mortality of malaria among target children and explore the scientific evidence for seasonable preventive vaccination with 5 doses and more among children at ages of below 5 years are recommended.
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    Progress of researches on novel diagnostic markers for alveolar echinococcosis
    CHEN Rui, WANG Zhi⁃Xin, ZHOU Liu⁃Xin, WANG Kai⁃Qiang, XIE Guo⁃Wei, FAN Hai⁃Ning, WANG Hai⁃Jiu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 430-.  
    Abstract152)      PDF (947KB)(50)       Save
    Imaging and serological approaches play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar echinococcosis; however, they also suffer from some problems during their applications in clinical practices, which urges the identification of potential diagnostic markers. Novel serological, genomics and proteomics diagnostic markers alone or in combination may increase the sensitivity and specificity in early diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis, which play vital roles in monitoring of disease courses and prognostic evaluation. This review mainly presents the advances in the studies on novel diagnostic markers for alveolar echinococcosis.
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    Concept and mechanism innovations provide a sustainable driver for echinococcosis control in China
    XIAO Ning
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 329-.  
    Abstract150)      PDF (1130KB)(88)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest disease burden of echinococcosis in the world. China’s progress in echinococcosis control started with limited scientific research projects, followed by nationwide epidemiological surveys, and then launched a national echinococcosis control programme on the basis of a pilot intervention project. During this process, science-based control and technological innovations have been integrated into echinococcosis control in China. The concept and mechanism innovations-based echinococcosis control models and successful experiences in highly endemic foci promote the sustainable echinococcosis control achievements in China. In addition, the joint echinococcosis prevention and control and sharing of successful experiences with other echinococcosis-endemic countries will provide China’s wisdom, China’s strategy and China’s contributions to global echinococcosis control and the health of human beings.
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    Investigation on population dynamics and Echinococcus infections in small rodents around human settlement in Yushu City, Qinghai Province
    WANG Xu, ZUO Qing⁃Qiu, YU Qing, SONG Cheng⁃Xi, WANG Zheng⁃Huan, XIAO Ning, WANG Yuan⁃Jia, WENG Xiao⁃Dong, WEI Xu, ZHOU Hong⁃Rang, CUI Xiao⁃Yu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 346-.  
    Abstract150)      PDF (1355KB)(53)       Save
    Objective To investigate the population dynamics and Echinococcus infections in small rodents around human settlement in Yushu City, Qinghai Province. Methods Rodents were captured using the mouse trap method in pastures from Batang Township and Longbao Township of Yushu City, Qinghai Province on May, August and October, 2018. The body weight and snout⁃vent length of all captured rodents were measured, and the species was identified according to the rodent morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from rodent liver specimens and lesion specimens, and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Echinococcus was amplified using PCR assay for identification of parasite species. In addition, the tissue specimens positive for PCR assay were sampled for pathological examinations. The prevalence of Echinococcus infections was estimated in rodents, and a phylogenetic tree was created based on Echinococcus cox1 gene sequences. Results A total of 285 small rodents were captured, including 143 Ochotona curzoniae (50.2%), 141 Lasiopodomys fuscus (49.5%), and 1 Neodon irene (0.3%), and there was a remarkable variation in habitat selection among these three rodent species. The number of L. fuscus correlated positively with vegetation coverage (r = 0.350, P = 0.264), with the greatest number seen in August, and the number of O. curzoniae negatively with vegetation coverage(r = –0.371, P = 0.235), with the highest number seen in August and the lowest number in May. The female/male ratios of O. curzoniae and voles were 1∶0.96 and 0.82∶1, respectively. The body weight (r = 0.519, P < 0.01) and snout⁃vent length (r = 0.578, P < 0.01) of O. curzoniae showed a tendency towards a rise with month, while the body weight (r = –0.401, P < 0.01) and snout⁃vent length (r = –0.570, P < 0.01) of voles presented a tendency towards a reduction with month. No Echinococcus infection was detected in voles, while 2.1% prevalence of E. shiquicus infection was seen in O. curzoniae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed consistent sequences of cox1 gene from E. shiquicus in Yushu City of Qinghai Province and Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province. Conclusions The small rodents around the human settlement in Yushu City of Qinghai Province mainly include O. curzoniae and L. fuscus, with the greatest numbers seen in May and August, respectively. Following the concerted efforts for echinococcosis control, the prevalence of Echinococcus infections is low in small rodents around the human settlement in Yushu City; however, there is still a risk of echinococcosis transmission.
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    Establishment of a nucleic acid dipstick test for detection of Schistosoma japonicum specific gene fragments based on the recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification assay
    YE Yu⁃Ying, ZHAO Song, LIU Yan⁃Hong, ZHANG Jian⁃Feng, XIONG Chun⁃Rong, YING Qing⁃Jie, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 334-.  
    Abstract145)      PDF (1262KB)(71)       Save
    Objective To develop a rapid test for detection of Schistosoma japonicum specific gene fragments based on the recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification assay (RAA) and nucleic acid dipstick test. Methods The S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment was selected as the target gene fragment, and the primers and fluorescent probe were designed and synthesized. Then, a S. japonicum nucleic acid dipstick test was established. The sensitivity of this dipstick test was evaluated by detecting different copies of recombinant plasmids containing the S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment and different concentrations of genomic DNA from adult worms of S. japonicum, and the specificity of the dipstick test was evaluated by detecting the genomic DNA from Clonorchis sinensis, S. mansoni, Ancylostoma duodenale, S. haematobium, Babesia and Paragonimus westermani. Results The S. japonicum nucleic acid dipstick test based on the S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment showed the minimum detectable limit of 10 copies/μL of the recombinant plasmid containing the S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment and the minimum detectable limit of 1 pg/μL of S. japonicum genomic DNA, and the dipstick assay tested negative for the genomic DNA from C. sinensis, S. mansoni, A. duodenale, S. haematobium, Babesia and P. westermani. Conclusion A rapid, simple, and visualized assay is established for detection of S. japonicum specific gene fragments based on RAA and nucleic acid dipstick test.
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    Emergency responses to schistosomiasis outbreak during the stage moving towards elimination in China
    CHEN Lin, CAO Chun⁃li, LIU Yang, ZHONG Bo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 570-.  
    Abstract145)      PDF (673KB)(94)       Save
    Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission control and transmission interruption to elimination; however, there is still a threat of schistosomiasis outbreak in area where the transmission of schistosomiasis has not been interrupted, and in areas where transmission interruption and even elimination have been achieved because of the complex factors relating to schistosomiasis transmission, as well as socioeconomic factors and natural environments, which greatly affects the consolidation of schistosomiasis control outcomes and the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in the country. Here, we summarized the outbreaks of schistosomiasis in China during the past six decades, evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis outbreak on the national schistosomiasis control program and proposed management of schistosomiasis outbreak and prevention of schistosomiasis resurgence as the key point and difficulty for schistosomiasis control in the current stage. Improving the surveillance⁃response mechanisms and minimizing the development of schistosomiasis outbreak and the resultant damages and losses are recommended to provide technical supports for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Identification of factors affecting Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions
    ZHENG Ying⁃Yan, ZHANG Na, WANG Zheng⁃Zhong, XIONG Ying, SHI Ying, LI Chun⁃Lin, TONG Yi⁃Xin, JIANG Feng, ZHOU Jie, HE Zhong, JIANG Jie, GUO Wen, JIANG Qing⁃Wu, ZHOU Yi⁃Biao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 457-.  
    Abstract141)      PDF (1299KB)(76)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the impact of water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors on the Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control. Methods O. hupensis snails were surveyed using a systematic sampling method in snail⁃infested marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake regions from 2007 to 2014, and data pertaining to water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors were collected. The duration of submergence and the date of the start of submergence were calculated. The snail density and its influencing factors were descriptively analyzed, and a linear mixed model was generated to examine the impacts of variables on the snail density. In addition, smooth curves were fitted to investigate the relationship between snail density and variables. Results The snail density appeared a fluctuation in Eastern Dongting Lake regions during the period from 2007 to 2014, with the highest density on October, 2010 (52.79 snails/0.1 m2) and the lowest density on January 2009 (2.15 snails/0.1 m2). Linear mixed⁃model analysis showed that permanganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affected the snail density (t = 6.386, -2.920 and -3.892, all P values < 0.01). Smooth curve analysis revealed that the associations of the snail density with the permanganate index and total phosphorus appeared an approximately quadratic curve. After the end of April, the earlier date of the start of submergence resulted in a higher snail density. Conclusion Permenganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affect the O. hupensis snail density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions.
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    Establishment of an indicator system for schistosomiasis transmission risk assessment after transmission interruption in Hubei Province based on the Delphi method
    CHEN Yan⁃Yan, LIU Jian⁃Bing, ZHONG Chen⁃Hui, XIAO Ying, WEI Feng⁃Hua, YANG Jun⁃Jing, ZHANG Wei⁃Hong, LIU Si
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 240-.  
    Abstract140)      PDF (944KB)(118)       Save
    Objective To establish an indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk after transmission interruption in Hubei Province, so as to provide insights into the precise control of schistosomiasis. Methods The indicator system was preliminarily established based on data collection, literature review, expert interviews. Two rounds of expert consultation were performed. The indicator system was screened based on the importance, operability, sensitivity and comprehensive score of the indicators, and the weights of each indicator were calculated. The credibility of the Delphi method was evaluated by calculating the active coefficient of the experts, degree of expert authority and coordination levels of experts’ opinions. Results An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk was preliminarily established, including 3 primary indicators, 12 secondary indicators and 44 tertiary indicators. A Delphi consultation was performed among 17 experts participating in schistosomiasis control, management and research. Following two rounds of consultation, a risk assessment indicator system was finally constructed, including 3 primary indicators, 10 secondary indicators and 35 tertiary indicators. Among the primary indicators, the variable with the highest normalized weight was the current status of schistosomiasis (0.420 2), followed by social factors (0.397 3) and natural environments (0.182 5). Among the secondary indicators, those with high combined weights included risk monitoring (0.142 3), current snail status (0.140 1), and current prevalence of human and livestock infections (0.137 8). Among the tertiary indicators, those with high combined weights included the positive rate of wild feces (0.049 8), the prevalence of snail infections (0.047 4), and the area of snail habitats submerged by floods (0.046 8). During the two⁃round consultation, the active coefficients of the experts were 85.00% and 100.00%, the degree of expert authority was both 0.75 and greater, and the coordination levels of experts’opinions were 0.405 to 0.521 and 0.592 to 0.695 (all P values < 0.05). Conclusion An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk is successfully established after transmission interruption in Hubei Province based on the Delphi method, which provides insights into the identification of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and the targets for schistosomiasis control in Hubei Province.
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    Plasmodium falciparum infection complicated by bronchopneumonia in a peacekeeper: a case report
    LI Kai, LIU Li⁃Jie, DENG Yun⁃Dian, WU Jin⁃Hui, LU Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 325-.  
    Abstract139)      PDF (1000KB)(64)       Save
    Malaria is an acute febrile illness caused by Plasmodium. In Africa where the burden of malaria is extremely high, febrile symptoms caused by respiratory tract infections may challenge the diagnosis of malaria, and patients with unclear diagnosis and administration of antimalarial drugs require more attention. Hereby, a peacekeeper with Plasmodium falciparum infection complicated with bronchopneumonia was reported.
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    Follow⁃up prognostic study on two imported patients with human African trypanosomiasis
    LI Yuan⁃Yuan, CHEN Xiao⁃Ling, LIU Qing, WANG Xin⁃Yu, CHEN Mu⁃Xin, LIU Qin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 293-.  
    Abstract136)      PDF (1048KB)(39)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prognosis of two rare imported patients with human African trypanosomias (HAT) after treatment in a follow⁃up study, and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, so as to provide insights into the treatment of imported HAT patients. Methods The white blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid samples and the trypomastigotes in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were monitored in an imported case with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection 1, 3, 11 and 25 months post⁃treatment and in an imported case with T. brucei gambiense infection 1, 3, 8 and 12 months post⁃treatment to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and prognosis. Results There were 1, 1, 4 and 2 white blood cells in per μL of cerebrospinal fluid in the case with T. brucei rhodesiense infection 1, 3, 11 and 25 months post⁃treatment, and there were 3, 6, 4 and 3 white blood cells in per μL of cerebrospinal fluid in the case with T. brucei gambiense infection 1, 3, 8 and 12 months post⁃treatment. In addition, no trypomastigotes were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood samples of either case with T. brucei rhodesiense or T. brucei gambiense infection. Conclusion Following standardized treatment, two imported cases with human African trypanosomiasis cases recover satisfactorily, without any signs of relapse.
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    Epidemic situation of malaria in Jiangsu Province in 2019
    WANG Wei⁃Ming, CAO Yuan⁃Yuan, YANG Meng⁃Meng, GU Ya⁃Ping, XU Sui, ZHOU Hua⁃Yun, ZHU Guo⁃Ding
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 411-.  
    Abstract134)      PDF (982KB)(57)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of malaria in Jiangsu Province in 2019, so as to provide the scientific basis for the development of the strategy for the prevention of re⁃introduction of imported malaria. Methods The malaria case report information, epidemiological case investigation information, epidemic foci investigation and management report in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were collected, and all epidemiological data were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 244 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2019, and all cases were laboratory⁃confirmed overseas imported cases, including 4 cases with vivax malaria, 206 cases with falciparum malaria, 12 cases with malariae malaria and 22 cases with ovale malaria. In 2019, there were 12 malaria cases progressing into severe cases in Jiangsu Province, with one death. Nanjing, Nantong, Lianyungang, Taizhou and Changzhou cities contributed the largest number of malaria cases in 2019, with the number of malaria cases accounting for 59.84% of total cases in Jiangsu Province. The infections occurred in Papua New Guinea (2 cases), Pakistan (1 case) and 27 African countries (241 cases), including Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire and so on. There were 77 cases (31.55%) with a visit to doctor on the day of onset, and 146 cases (59.84%) within 1 to 3 days after onset. In addition, there were 149 cases (61.06%) with definitive diagnosis at the first visit and 77 cases (31.55%) diagnosed within 1 to 3 days after the visit, and the mean duration from the visit to definitive diagnosis was (0.80 ± 1.59) d, which significantly shortened as compared to that (1.34 d ± 2.59 d) in 2018 (U = 2.53, P < 0.05). Conclusions Intensifying the surveillance and management of imported malaria and improving the diagnostic capability of imported malaria and the treatment of severe malaria cases are required to consolidate the achievements of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province.
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    A local case with alveolar echinococcosis in Nanzhang County, Hubei Province
    WANG Dao⁃Hu, ZHANG Juan, WU Kai
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 442-.  
    Abstract133)      PDF (1225KB)(33)       Save
    The diagnosis and treatment of a local case with alveolar echinococcosis was presented. Based on clinical data and epidemiological surveys, this is a rare, local case with alveolar echinococcosis in Nanzhang County, suggesting the possibility of local transmission of echinococcosis. The prevention, control and surveillance of echinococcosis requires to be reinforced in non⁃endemic areas.
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    Chromosomal karyotypes and C⁃band analysis of Triatoma rubrofasciata in China 
    WANG Meng⁃Xia, LIU Qin, ZHANG Yi, ZHU Dan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 297-.  
    Abstract130)      PDF (1096KB)(43)       Save
    Objective To investigate the karyotypes and C bands of Triatoma rubrofasciata in China, so as to understand its chromosome number, morphology and C⁃band staining of T. rubrofasciata. Methods The testis specimens were sampled from male T. rubrofasciata collected from Shunde City, Guangdong Province, prepared into slides of metaphase chromosomes and subjected to Giemsa staining and C⁃band staining. The morphology of metaphase chromosomes and the location of heterochromatin were observed using microscopy, and the long arm and short arm of each chromosome and total chromosome length were recorded to analyze the karyotypes and C bands of T. rubrofasciata. Results The male T. rubrofasciata presented a chromosome number of 2n = 25, including 22 autosomes and 3 sex chromosomes. The relative length of chromosomes ranged from 3.59% to 12.76%, the arm ratio was 1.06 to 1.24, and the centromere index was 44.76% to 48.47%. All chromosomes were metacentric chromosomes and the karyotype formula was 2n = 22 metacentric + X1X2Y, and the C bands varied on different chromosomes. No heterochromatin was found in the X chromosome, and the overall staining appeared pale, while heterochromatin was detected in all regions of the Y chromosome, and the overall staining appeared dark. In addition, heterochromatin was present in both ends of the autosome. Conclusions The male T. rubrofasciata presents a chromosome number of 2n = 25 in China, and the karyotype formula is 2n = 22 metacentric + X1X2Y. C⁃banding shows dark staining of the Y chromosome, pale staining of the X chromosome, and dark staining of both ends of the autosome. Our data may provide insights into the investigation on the origin, evolution and gene mapping of T. rubrofasciata in China.
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    Surveillance of Enterobius vermicularis infections among children in Shandong Province from 2016 to 2020
    BU Xiu⁃Qin, ZHAO Chang⁃Lei, YAN Ge, WANG Yong⁃Bin, WANG Long⁃Jiang, KONG Xiang⁃Li, XU Yan, ZHANG Ben⁃Guang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 401-.  
    Abstract128)      PDF (1435KB)(33)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and changing trend of Enterobius vermicularis infections among children in Shandong Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the adjustment and development of the enterobiasis control strategy. Methods Soil⁃borne nematodiasis surveillance sites were assigned in 51 counties (districts, cities) in Shandong Province from 2016 to 2020, and the E. vermicularis infections were detected using a modified Kato⁃Katz technique and the cellophane tape method among children at ages of 3 to 9 years living in these surveillance sites. The epidemiological profiles of E. vermicularis⁃infected children were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 5 060 children at ages of 3 to 9 years were detected in 51 soil⁃borne nematodiasis surveillance sites in Shandong Province from 2016 to 2020, and the overall prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 2.23%. The annual prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 3.99% (26/651), 1.70% (14/824), 0.96% (8/837), 2.90% (45/1 552) and 1.67% (20/1 196) from 2016 to 2020, respectively, with a significant difference detected among years ([χ2] = 21.455, P < 0.01). The prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 1.25% (15/1 198), 1.85% (14/755), 3.18% (84/2 640) and 0 (0/467) among children from central, eastern, southern and northern Shandong Province ([χ2] = 27.326, P < 0.01). In addition, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of E. vermicularis infections between male (1.98%, 56/2 831) and female children (2.56%, 57/2 229) ([χ2] = 1.916, P > 0.05); however, there was age⁃specific prevalence of E. vermicularis infections among children ([χ2] = 16.448, P < 0.05), with the greatest prevalence detected among children at ages of 6 years (3.18%, 25/786), and the lowest prevalence seen among children at ages of 3 years (0.75%, 6/800). Conclusions The prevalence of E. vermicularis infections remained at a medium level among children at ages of 3 to 9 years in Shandong Province from 2016 to 2020, with region⁃specific prevalence found across the province. An integrated strategy is required for enterobiasis control.
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    Epidemic situation and diagnosis of imported malaria before and after malaria elimination in Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province
    HE Yi⁃Sha, WANG Yu, LI Yan⁃Jing, XIE Chao⁃Yong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 373-.  
    Abstract128)      PDF (1165KB)(51)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of imported malaria before and after malaria elimination in Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the malaria control strategy after malaria elimination. Methods Data pertaining to the epidemic situation and individual investigation of malaria in Nanjing City before (from 2012 to 2016) and after malaria elimination (from 2017 to 2020) were captured from the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention and were analyzed statistically. Results A total of 178 malaria cases were reported in Nanjing City from 2012 to 2020, and all were imported cases. There were 99 malaria cases reported before malaria elimination in Nanjing City, including 78 cases with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (78.79%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (5.05%), 10 cases with P. ovale malaria (10.10%), 3 cases with P. malariae malaria (3.03%) and 3 cases with mixed infections (3.03%), and 79 malaria cases reported after elimination, including 63 cases with P. falciparum malaria (79.75%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (6.33%), 9 cases with P. ovale malaria (11.39%), 2 cases with P. malariae malaria (2.53%). There was no significant difference in the proportion of each type of malaria cases in Nanjing City before and after malaria elimination ([χ2] = 2.400, P > 0.05). Malaria cases mainly acquired Plasmodium infections in African regions, and no significant difference was seen in the proportion of malaria cases returning to Nanjing City from African countries before and after malaria elimination ([χ2] = 0.093, P > 0.05). The number of malaria cases peaked in Nanjing City in January and during the period from May to July before elimination, and there was no apparent seasonal variation in the distribution of malaria cases after elimination. The proportion of malaria cases living in Nanjing City was significantly greater after malaria elimination than before elimination (72.15% vs. 55.56%; [χ2] = 5.187, P = 0.023). The proportions of businessmen and international students were both 5.05% before malaria elimination, and increased to 15.19% and 13.92% after elimination, respectively ([χ2] = 5.229 and 4.229, both P values < 0.05). The percentage of definitive diagnosis of malaria at initial diagnosis was 18.75% in county⁃level hospitals before malaria elimination and increased to 61.11% after elimination ([χ2] = 6.275, P = 0.012), while the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses in county⁃level hospitals was 4.04% before malaria elimination and increased to 13.92% after elimination ([χ2] = 5.562, P = 0.018). During the period from 2012 to 2020, the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses within 1 to 3 days post⁃admission increased from 27.27% in Nanjing City before malaria elimination to 45.57% after elimination ([χ2] = 6.433, P = 0.011). Conclusions The epidemic situation of imported malaria remains serious in Nanjing City during the post⁃elimination stage, and malaria parasite infections predominantly occur in African regions. In addition, there are changes in regional and occupational distributions of malaria cases and the diagnostic capability of malaria increases in county⁃level hospitals in Nanjing City after malaria elimination. Further improvements in the malaria surveillance system and the diagnostic and treatment capability of malaria in medical institutions at each level are required to consolidate malaria elimination achievements in Nanjing City.
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    Treatment of Chilomastix mesnili infection with traditional Chinese medicine: a case report
    LIANG Qin, LU Yu⁃Bei, FU Hui, YAN Xue⁃Bo, MIAO Feng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 327-.  
    Abstract127)      PDF (1015KB)(24)       Save
    This paper reports a case with Chilomastix mesnili infections, and summarizes the diagnosis and treatment with traditional Chinese medicine.
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    Progress of researches on Fasciola and fascioliasis in Yunnan Province
    XIANG Zheng, SHEN Li⁃Jie, JIA Xue⁃Mei
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 317-.  
    Abstract127)      PDF (929KB)(67)       Save
    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that seriously endangers human health and hinders socioeconomic development. Fasciola mainly infects ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. However, there has recently been a rise in the number of human cases with fascioliasis with the improvements of diagnostic techniques. During the past decades, sporadic cases of fascioliasis were predominantly identified; however, there were outbreaks of fascioliasis in Yunnan Province, which has been paid much attention. The review summarizes the advances in the distribution of Fasciola species and the progress of researches on fascioliasis in Yunnan Province.
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    Prevalence and influencing factors of Enterobius vermicularis infections among children in Fanxian County of Henan Province in 2019
    SONG Chuan⁃Qing, JIAO Xue⁃Cheng, JIANG Tian⁃Tian, LIANG Gui⁃Hua, WANG Lan⁃Zhen, XU Yin⁃Huai, HUANG Shou⁃Hai, CHEN Wei⁃Qi, DENG Yan, ZHANG Ya⁃Lan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 406-.  
    Abstract121)      PDF (987KB)(22)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of Enterobius vermicularis infections among children in Fanxian County, Henan Province in 2019, so as to provide insights into the management of enterobiasis. Methods Five kindergartens were selected in urban and rural areas of Fanxian County, Henan Province using the stratified sampling method in 2019, and a census of E. vermicularis infections was performed among all children in the kindergartens. E. vermicularis eggs were detected using adhesive and scotch cellophane⁃tape anal swab methods, and the basic characteristics of children and their families, health habits and the kindergartens’ information were investigated with questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors and protective factors of pinworm infection in children. Results A total of 671 children were tested, and the mean prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 15.50% (104/671). The prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was higher among children in rural kindergartens (28.13%, 72/256) than in urban kindergartens (7.71%, 32/415) ([χ2] = 50.380, P < 0.01), and greater in private kindergartens (32.26%, 60/186) than in public kindergartens (9.07%, 44/485) ([χ2] = 55.183, P < 0.01). There was no gender⁃specific prevalence of E. vermicularis infections among children ([χ2] = 1.442, P > 0.05), and the prevalence of E. vermicularis infections presented a tendency towards a rise with age ([χ2] trend = 8.373, P < 0.05) and school grade ([χ2] trend = 30.274,P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified rural kindergartens and high grades as risk factors, and separate washing of children’s and adults’ cloths, frequent bathing and frequent dinnerware disinfection in kindergartens as protective factors for E. vermicularis infections among children. In addition, there was no significant difference in the detection of E. vermicularis infections among children by using adhesive (73.08%, 76/104) and scotch cellophane⁃tape anal swab methods (56.73%, 59/104) ([χ2] = 3.959, P > 0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of E. vermicularis infection is high among children in Fanxian Country, Henan Province. Health education and surveillance of enterobiasis are required to be intensified among children in rural kindergartens and senior grades and their parents and teachers.
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    Progress of researches on the actions of praziquantel against hepatic fibrosis
    YUAN Xuan, DAI Jian⁃Rong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 540-.  
    Abstract120)      PDF (976KB)(142)       Save
    Praziquantel not only has broad⁃spectrum anti⁃trematode and anti⁃tapeworm effects, but also has pharmacological effects such as regulating inflammatory response and anti⁃fibrosis. Hereby, the anti⁃fibrosis effect of praziquantel and its mechanism were reviewed in order to provide theoretical basis for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
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    Effects of climate changes on the distribution of Rhipicephalus microplus in China 
    YAO Xiao⁃Yan, TIAN Na, MA Ben, ZHANG Yi, CUN De⁃Jiao, LI Lan⁃Hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 267-.  
    Abstract119)      PDF (1524KB)(60)       Save
    Objective To identify the environmental factors affecting the geographical distribution of Rhipicephalus microplus in China, and to examine the impact of climate changes on the distribution of R. microplus in China. Methods The national and international publications pertaining to the geographical distribution of R. microplus in China were retrieved, and the geographical location was extracted. The suitable habitats of R. microplus and the dominant environmental factors affecting the distribution of suitable habitats of R. microplus were predicted in China based on the geographical data and environmental variables using the ArcGIS 10.7 software and the maximum entropy model. Results Among the main climatic factors affecting the geographical distribution of R. microplus in China, the factors contributing more than 10% to the suitable habitats of R. microplus mainly include the annual mean precipitation (38.2%), the average temperature of the coldest quarter (28.4%) and the precipitation of the driest month (14.2%). The current suitable habitats of R. microplus were mainly found in southern China, and the high⁃, medium⁃ and low⁃suitable areas accounted for 8.6%, 13.1% and 10.5% of the total land area of China, respectively. The suitable habitats of R. microplus were predicted to increase by 399 800 km2 in China using the maximum entropy model under the RCP 4.5 emissions scenario in 2070, and the emerging suitable habitats were mainly distributed in Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Hebei Province, Shaanxi Province, Liaoning Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Shandong Province, Sichuan Province and Tibeten Autonomous Region. In addition, the suitable habitats of R. microplus were predicted to show an overall expansion towards northward from present to 2070. Conclusions Climate changes affect the distribution of suitable habitats of R. microplus in China, and annual mean precipitation may be a key factor affecting the distribution of suitable habitats of R. microplus.
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