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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2020
    ZHANG Li⁃Juan, XU Zhi⁃Min, YANG Fan, DANG Hui, Li Yin⁃Long, LÜ Shan, CAO Chun⁃Li, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃Zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃Nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 225-.  
    Abstract355)      PDF (1047KB)(210)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero⁃positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis⁃endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person⁃time individuals and 266 280 herd⁃time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five⁃Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.
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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2019
    ZHANG Li-Juan, XU Zhi-Min, DANG Hui, LI Yin-Long, Lü Shan, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2020, 32 (6): 551-.  
    Abstract242)      PDF (993KB)(1153)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were sero?positive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person?times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd?times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five?Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.
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    Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China based on the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC)
    YANG Fan, XU Jing, LÜ Shan, CAO Chun⁃Li, LI Shi⁃Zhu, ZHANG Li⁃Juan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 234-.  
    Abstract99)      PDF (966KB)(86)       Save
    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups ([χ2] = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease⁃type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow⁃up is required.
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    Concept and mechanism innovations provide a sustainable driver for echinococcosis control in China
    XIAO Ning
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 329-.  
    Abstract89)      PDF (1130KB)(59)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest disease burden of echinococcosis in the world. China’s progress in echinococcosis control started with limited scientific research projects, followed by nationwide epidemiological surveys, and then launched a national echinococcosis control programme on the basis of a pilot intervention project. During this process, science-based control and technological innovations have been integrated into echinococcosis control in China. The concept and mechanism innovations-based echinococcosis control models and successful experiences in highly endemic foci promote the sustainable echinococcosis control achievements in China. In addition, the joint echinococcosis prevention and control and sharing of successful experiences with other echinococcosis-endemic countries will provide China’s wisdom, China’s strategy and China’s contributions to global echinococcosis control and the health of human beings.
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    Establishment of an indicator system for schistosomiasis transmission risk assessment after transmission interruption in Hubei Province based on the Delphi method
    CHEN Yan⁃Yan, LIU Jian⁃Bing, ZHONG Chen⁃Hui, XIAO Ying, WEI Feng⁃Hua, YANG Jun⁃Jing, ZHANG Wei⁃Hong, LIU Si
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 240-.  
    Abstract76)      PDF (944KB)(85)       Save
    Objective To establish an indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk after transmission interruption in Hubei Province, so as to provide insights into the precise control of schistosomiasis. Methods The indicator system was preliminarily established based on data collection, literature review, expert interviews. Two rounds of expert consultation were performed. The indicator system was screened based on the importance, operability, sensitivity and comprehensive score of the indicators, and the weights of each indicator were calculated. The credibility of the Delphi method was evaluated by calculating the active coefficient of the experts, degree of expert authority and coordination levels of experts’ opinions. Results An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk was preliminarily established, including 3 primary indicators, 12 secondary indicators and 44 tertiary indicators. A Delphi consultation was performed among 17 experts participating in schistosomiasis control, management and research. Following two rounds of consultation, a risk assessment indicator system was finally constructed, including 3 primary indicators, 10 secondary indicators and 35 tertiary indicators. Among the primary indicators, the variable with the highest normalized weight was the current status of schistosomiasis (0.420 2), followed by social factors (0.397 3) and natural environments (0.182 5). Among the secondary indicators, those with high combined weights included risk monitoring (0.142 3), current snail status (0.140 1), and current prevalence of human and livestock infections (0.137 8). Among the tertiary indicators, those with high combined weights included the positive rate of wild feces (0.049 8), the prevalence of snail infections (0.047 4), and the area of snail habitats submerged by floods (0.046 8). During the two⁃round consultation, the active coefficients of the experts were 85.00% and 100.00%, the degree of expert authority was both 0.75 and greater, and the coordination levels of experts’opinions were 0.405 to 0.521 and 0.592 to 0.695 (all P values < 0.05). Conclusion An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk is successfully established after transmission interruption in Hubei Province based on the Delphi method, which provides insights into the identification of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and the targets for schistosomiasis control in Hubei Province.
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    Key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period
    XU Jing, HU Wei, YANG Kun, Lü Shan, LI Shi-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (1): 1-.  
    Abstract74)      PDF (1061KB)(750)       Save
    Schistosomiasis was once endemic in 12 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) along and south of the Yangtze River basin, which seriously damages human health and hinders socioeconomic developments in China. Following the concerted efforts for 70 years, remarkable achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. However, there are still multiple challenges for elimination of schistosomiasis in the country. This paper describes the current status of schistosomiasis and the challenges during the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis, and proposes the goals, key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five?Year Plan Period.
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    Epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020
    ZHANG Xuan, RUAN Wei, CHEN Hua⁃Liang, LU Qiao⁃Yi, YAO Li⁃Nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 262-.  
    Abstract72)      PDF (1001KB)(36)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features and diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the management of imported malaria in the province. Methods The data of malaria cases reported in Zhejiang Province were captured from the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention from 2017 to 2020, and the temporal, spatial and human distribution, and initial and definitive diagnosis of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 593 malaria cases were reported in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and all were overseas imported cases, including 532 men and 61 women, with a mean age of 41 years. There were 93.93% of the malaria cases from African countries, and the malaria parasites infecting these cases included Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed infections, with P. falciparum as the predominant species (76.73%, 455/593). All malaria cases received totally correct initial diagnoses in county⁃ and city⁃level centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) and entry⁃exit inspection and quarantine sectors, and the proportion of malaria cases with confirmation at the day of initial diagnosis was 41.48% (207/499) in medical institutions and 66.18% (45/68) in CDC ([χ2] = 14.779, P < 0.001). In addition, the median interval [M (QR)] of malaria cases was 1 (2) d from onset to initial diagnosis and 1 (2) d from initial diagnosis to confirmation in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and the median interval [M (QR)] of severe malaria cases was significantly longer than that of non⁃severe cases [2 (3) d vs. 1 (2) d; Z = -3.002, P < 0.05)]. Conclusions Zhejiang Province faces great challenges of malaria control, and post⁃elimination surveillance of malaria still requires to be reinforced. Meanwhile, the awareness of seeking medical services requires to be improved among returners from malaria⁃endemic regions and the diagnostic capability of malaria requires to be improved among medical professionals.
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    Surveillance of malaria vector Anopheles in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019
    DING Xu, SHI Wei⁃Fang, ZHANG Yu⁃Qiong, LAN Zi⁃Yao, ZHANG Ai⁃Hua, XU Jian⁃Jun, ZHOU Guang⁃Rong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 274-.  
    Abstract64)      PDF (1245KB)(26)       Save
    Objective To understand the density, populations and habitats of malaria vector Anopheles in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the countermeasures to tackle the risk of local transmission of imported malaria in the province. Methods The malaria vector Anopheles density and populations were monitored using human⁃bait trapping and light trapping techniques in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019, and all captured Anopheles was morphologically identified and counted. In addition, the distribution of Anopheles habitats was investigated. Results During the period from 2005 through 2019, the malaria vector Anopheles density increased from early June in Guizhou Province, peaked on early July and then declined, which appeared a single peak. The greatest Anopheles density was seen on early August, 2018 [57.34 mosquitoes/(person⁃night)], and the lowest density was found on late October, 2009 [1.29 mosquitoes/(person⁃night)]. The annual mean Anopheles density slowly reduced from 17.91 mosquitoes/(person⁃night) in 2005 to 12.34 mosquitoes/(person⁃night) in 2012, with a 38.02% reduction ([χ2] trend = 115.04, P < 0.01), while the annual mean Anopheles density showed a tendency towards a rise from 2017 to 2019 ([χ2] trend = 420.00, P < 0.01). The malaria vector Anopheles was captured during the period between 19:00 and 7:00 of the next day in Guizhou Province from 2017 to 2019, with the overall density appearing a tendency towards a rise followed by a decline, and the Anopheles activity was highly frequent during the period between 19:00 and 21:00. The malaria vector Anopheles was monitored for 938 times using the light trapping method in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019, and a total of 52 781 Anopheles mosquitoes were captured, including 49 705 An. sinensis, 804 An. minimus, 238 An. anthropophagus, and 2 034 other Anopheles mosquitoes, with a significant difference seen in the Anopheles composition ([χ2] =165.68, P < 0.01). From 2017 to 2019, a total of 24 557 Anopheles mosquitoes were captured in human housings, outdoors and livestock housings in Guizhou Province, with 67.68% captured in livestock housings and 12.01% in human housings, and there was a significant difference in the number of Anopheles mosquitoes captured from the three types of habitats ([χ2] = 55.04, P < 0.01). An. sinensis, An. minimus and An. anthropophagus were captured form all three types of habitats, in which 98.07% was An. sinensis, and 0.09% was An. anthropophagus. Conclusions The population structure of malaria vector Anopheles has changed in historically malaria⁃endemic areas of Guizhou Province, and An. sinensis has replaced An. minimus and An. anthropophagus to become the predominant malaria vector. The malaria vector Anopheles density has shown a tendency towards a rise in Guizhou Province during the recent years, and there have been a rise in the type and number of Anopheles mosquitoes, leading to a potential risk of local transmission of imported malaria. Long⁃term, persistent and extensive surveillance of malaria vectors is recommended in Guizhou Province.
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    Follow⁃up prognostic study on two imported patients with human African trypanosomiasis
    LI Yuan⁃Yuan, CHEN Xiao⁃Ling, LIU Qing, WANG Xin⁃Yu, CHEN Mu⁃Xin, LIU Qin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 293-.  
    Abstract62)      PDF (1048KB)(22)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prognosis of two rare imported patients with human African trypanosomias (HAT) after treatment in a follow⁃up study, and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, so as to provide insights into the treatment of imported HAT patients. Methods The white blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid samples and the trypomastigotes in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were monitored in an imported case with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection 1, 3, 11 and 25 months post⁃treatment and in an imported case with T. brucei gambiense infection 1, 3, 8 and 12 months post⁃treatment to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and prognosis. Results There were 1, 1, 4 and 2 white blood cells in per μL of cerebrospinal fluid in the case with T. brucei rhodesiense infection 1, 3, 11 and 25 months post⁃treatment, and there were 3, 6, 4 and 3 white blood cells in per μL of cerebrospinal fluid in the case with T. brucei gambiense infection 1, 3, 8 and 12 months post⁃treatment. In addition, no trypomastigotes were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood samples of either case with T. brucei rhodesiense or T. brucei gambiense infection. Conclusion Following standardized treatment, two imported cases with human African trypanosomiasis cases recover satisfactorily, without any signs of relapse.
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    Application of health economics assessment techniques in the prevention and control of important infectious diseases: a review
    WU Ling⁃Ling, ZHOU Xiao⁃Nong, JIA Tie⁃Wu, XU Jing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 311-.  
    Abstract62)      PDF (961KB)(28)       Save
    Due to the relative shortage of health resources, rational allocation and utilization of health resources is critical to achieving the maximum economic benefits in developing countries, which requires a health economic assessment to meet the needs to balance the competitive requirements of cost reduction and effectiveness enhancement. This review describes the advances in applications of health economic assessment techniques in four major infectious diseases, including AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and schistosomiasis. Currently, there is no standard economic assessment in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and notably, the transparency of cost research is limited, which may affect the popularization of the study conclusions. Further health economic assessments of infectious diseases are required to improve the quality, standard and transparency of the economic evaluation through formulating strategies, to improve the standardization of studies, to improve the popularization of the study conclusions and to improve the applicability of the economic evaluation for policies.
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    Progress of researches on the application of risk assessment models in assessment of the schistosomiasis transmission risk
    WANG Can, ZHANG Li⁃Juan, LÜ Shan, XU Jing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 320-.  
    Abstract61)      PDF (936KB)(50)       Save
    With the deepening of the schistosomiasis research, risk assessment models have been widely used in schistosomiasis research and control. This paper reviews the theoretical basis and applications of common schistosomiasis risk assessment models and the Bayesian model, so as to provide insights into national schistosomiasis elimination program in China.
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    Effectiveness of a new health education pathway for echinococcosis control among primary school students in hyper⁃endemic regions
    KUI Yan, HAN Shuai, LIU Bai⁃Xue, TIAN Tian, YU Wen⁃Jie, YAO Ren⁃Xin, WANG Xu, WU Wei⁃Ping
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 254-.  
    Abstract60)      PDF (998KB)(38)       Save
    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a new health education pathway for echinococcosis control among primary school students in regions highly prevalent for echinococcosis in China. Methods Six primary schools were randomly selected from echinococcosis hyper⁃endemic regions, with 13 classes assigned to the intervention group and 9 to the control group, and all students in these 21 classes were recruited as the study subjects. Echinococcosis health education was performed through the pathway of assessing the current status⁃strengthening the building of teaching resources⁃focusing on practices in the intervention group, while routine health education was given in the control group. A questionnaire survey was performed to assess the score of echinococcosis control knowledge (including theoretical knowledge score and mean daily practical capability score) before and after the health education interventions to evaluate the effectiveness of this new health education pathway for echinococcosis control. Results The mean score of echinococcosis control knowledge was 68.86 ± 18.70 points at baseline, with the mean theoretical knowledge score of 40.97 ± 10.75 points, and the mean daily practical capability score of 27.89 ± 12.50 points. Clustering analysis showed three types of populations, including “unsatisfactory”, “learn and apply creatively”, and “rote learning”, which accounted for 24.62% (240/975), 45.74% (446/975) and 29.64% (289/975), respectively. The mean score of echinococcosis control knowledge was 81.08 ± 18.15 points in the intervention group during the final assessment, with the mean theoretical knowledge score of 43.65 ± 9.40 points, and the mean daily practical capability score of 37.43 ± 12.22 points, and both were significantly higher relative to baseline (t = -4.201 and -15.202, both P values < 0.01). The mean score of echinococcosis control knowledge was comparable between at baseline (70.55 ± 19.46 points) and final assessment (71.74 ± 19.37 points) in the control group (t = -0.87, P > 0.05). Conclusions The awareness of echinococcosis control knowledge is fair among primary school students in echinococcosis hyper⁃endemic regions; however, the capability of combining theoretical learning and practices requires to be improved. The health education mode based on the pathway of assessing the current status⁃strengthening the building of teaching resources⁃focusing on practices seems to remarkably improve the understanding of echinococcosis control knowledge among primary school students in echinococcosis hyper⁃endemic regions.
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    Effects of climate changes on the distribution of Rhipicephalus microplus in China 
    YAO Xiao⁃Yan, TIAN Na, MA Ben, ZHANG Yi, CUN De⁃Jiao, LI Lan⁃Hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 267-.  
    Abstract58)      PDF (1524KB)(22)       Save
    Objective To identify the environmental factors affecting the geographical distribution of Rhipicephalus microplus in China, and to examine the impact of climate changes on the distribution of R. microplus in China. Methods The national and international publications pertaining to the geographical distribution of R. microplus in China were retrieved, and the geographical location was extracted. The suitable habitats of R. microplus and the dominant environmental factors affecting the distribution of suitable habitats of R. microplus were predicted in China based on the geographical data and environmental variables using the ArcGIS 10.7 software and the maximum entropy model. Results Among the main climatic factors affecting the geographical distribution of R. microplus in China, the factors contributing more than 10% to the suitable habitats of R. microplus mainly include the annual mean precipitation (38.2%), the average temperature of the coldest quarter (28.4%) and the precipitation of the driest month (14.2%). The current suitable habitats of R. microplus were mainly found in southern China, and the high⁃, medium⁃ and low⁃suitable areas accounted for 8.6%, 13.1% and 10.5% of the total land area of China, respectively. The suitable habitats of R. microplus were predicted to increase by 399 800 km2 in China using the maximum entropy model under the RCP 4.5 emissions scenario in 2070, and the emerging suitable habitats were mainly distributed in Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Hebei Province, Shaanxi Province, Liaoning Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Shandong Province, Sichuan Province and Tibeten Autonomous Region. In addition, the suitable habitats of R. microplus were predicted to show an overall expansion towards northward from present to 2070. Conclusions Climate changes affect the distribution of suitable habitats of R. microplus in China, and annual mean precipitation may be a key factor affecting the distribution of suitable habitats of R. microplus.
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    Molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus velezensisis Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis and its preliminary mechanisms of molluscicidal actions
    YANG Cheng, QIAO Yun⁃Long, LIU Hui, PAN Zhong⁃Wu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 248-.  
    Abstract58)      PDF (1435KB)(36)       Save
    Objective To assess the molluscicidal activity of the of Bacillus Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis in laboratory, and to preliminarily investigate its mechanisms of molluscicidal actions. Methods Biological identification of the Y6 strain was performed based on analysis of its morphological and physiochemical features and homology analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence. Bacillus Y6 suspensions were formulated at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL, and the molluscicidal activity of Bacillus Y6 suspensions against O. hupensis was tested in laboratory using the immersion method. In addition, the Bacillus Y6 content and glycogen content were detected in O. hupensis following exposure to Bacillus Y6 suspensions to preliminarily explore the molluscicidal mechanism of the Bacillus Y6 strain against O. hupensis. Results The colony of the Bacillus Y6 strain appeared non⁃transparent milky white, and mycoderma was produced on the surface of the nutrient agar liquid medium. The Y6 stain was Gram positive and rod⁃shaped, and the endospore was located at the center of the Bacillus Y6 strain and appeared an achromatic, transparent and refractive body, which was encapsulated by the Y6 strain. The Y6 strain was positive for the lecithinase test, and the 16S rDNA gene sequence showed a 100% homology with those of multiple B. velezensisis strains, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. The Y6 strain was therefore identified as B. velezensisis. Following immersion in the Bacillus Y6 suspensions at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL for 24, 48 h and 72 h, the mortality rates of Oncomelania snails were 28.3%, 31.7% and 81.6%, 43.3%, 58.3% and 93.3%, and 63.3%, 78.3% and 98.3%, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus Y6 suspensions increased with the suspension concentration and duration of immersion. Microscopy and colony counting revealed the highest Y6 content in dead snails and the lowest in living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions, and the mean glycogen contents were (0.68 ± 0.06), (1.09 ± 0.16) μg/mg and (2.56 ± 0.32) μg/mg in the soft tissues of dead, dying and living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions (F = 59.519, P < 0.05), and the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in living snails than in dead (t = 14.073, P < 0.05) and dying snails (t = 10.027, P < 0.05), while the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in dying snails than in dead snails (t = 5.983, P < 0.05). Conclusion The B. velezensisis Y6 strain shows a high molluscicidal activity against O. hupensis snails, and its invasion may cause glycogen metabolism disorders, leading to snail death.
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    Plasmodium falciparum infection complicated by bronchopneumonia in a peacekeeper: a case report
    LI Kai, LIU Li⁃Jie, DENG Yun⁃Dian, WU Jin⁃Hui, LU Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 325-.  
    Abstract58)      PDF (1000KB)(39)       Save
    Malaria is an acute febrile illness caused by Plasmodium. In Africa where the burden of malaria is extremely high, febrile symptoms caused by respiratory tract infections may challenge the diagnosis of malaria, and patients with unclear diagnosis and administration of antimalarial drugs require more attention. Hereby, a peacekeeper with Plasmodium falciparum infection complicated with bronchopneumonia was reported.
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    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections among patients with autoimmune diseases
    CAO Ping⁃Ping, YE Xu⁃Fang, QIAN Chun⁃Yan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 305-.  
    Abstract57)      PDF (977KB)(8)       Save
    Objective To understand the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections among patients with autoimmune diseases, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the management of toxoplasmosis in patients with autoimmune diseases. Methods A total of 237 patients with definitive diagnosis of autoimmune disease were selected as the study subjects, including 79 cases with systemic lupus erythematosus, 71 cases with rheumatoid arthritis and 87 cases with inflammatory bowel disease, while 237 healthy volunteers served as controls. The serum anti⁃T. gondii IgG antibody was detected using enzyme⁃linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy controls, and the detection of serum IgG antibody against T. gondii was compared between the autoimmune disease patients and healthy controls. Results The seroprevalence of serum IgG antibody against T. gondii was significantly greater in patients with autoimmune diseases than in healthy controls (29.96% vs. 4.22%; [χ2] = 55.41, P < 0.01), and the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was all significantly higher in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (31.65%), rheumatoid arthritis (23.94%) and inflammatory bowel disease (33.33%) than in healthy controls ([χ2] = 45.25, 26.58 and 50.95; all P values < 0.01). Conclusion The seroprevalence of anti⁃T. gondii IgG antibody is significantly higher in patients with autoimmune diseases than in healthy controls, and T. gondii infection may be a potential risk factor for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
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    Effects of environmental factors on the distribution of suitable habitats of Ixodes ovatus in China
    MA Ben, MA Xiao⁃Yu, CHEN Hui⁃Bo, ZHANG Yi, LI Lan⁃Hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 281-.  
    Abstract57)      PDF (1678KB)(12)       Save
    Objective To identify the environmental factors affecting the distribution of suitable habitats of Ixodes ovatus, and to examine the effects of environmental changes on the distribution of suitable habitats of I. ovatus. Methods Data pertaining to the distribution of I. ovatus in China were captured by literature review. The distribution of suitable habitats of I. ovatus in China was simulated using the maximum entropy model with the environmental variable data and the I. ovatus distribution data. In addition, the potential distribution of suitable habitats of I. ovatus was predicted based on the 2050 and 2070 environmental data.Results The current suitable habitats of I. ovatus cover 3.11 million km2, accounting for 32.28% of the total land area of China, and they are mainly concentrated in southwestern and northwestern China. Among the screened 16 environmental factors, the standard deviation of seasonal variation of temperature, average annual precipitation and altitude were predominant environmental factors affecting the distribution of suitable habitats of I. ovatus, and these three variables contributed 76.5% to the distribution of suitable habitats of I. ovatus in China. The suitable habitats of I. ovatus were predicted to showing a tendency towards expansion to northwestern and northeastern China in 2050 and 2070, and the proportion of highly suitable habitats of I. ovatus was predicted to increase. Conclusions Moderate climate, adequate precipitation and high altitude are favorable for the survival of I. ovatus. Future climate changes may cause expansion of suitable habitats of I. ovatus in China.
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    Establishment of a nucleic acid dipstick test for detection of Schistosoma japonicum specific gene fragments based on the recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification assay
    YE Yu⁃Ying, ZHAO Song, LIU Yan⁃Hong, ZHANG Jian⁃Feng, XIONG Chun⁃Rong, YING Qing⁃Jie, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 334-.  
    Abstract53)      PDF (1262KB)(41)       Save
    Objective To develop a rapid test for detection of Schistosoma japonicum specific gene fragments based on the recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification assay (RAA) and nucleic acid dipstick test. Methods The S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment was selected as the target gene fragment, and the primers and fluorescent probe were designed and synthesized. Then, a S. japonicum nucleic acid dipstick test was established. The sensitivity of this dipstick test was evaluated by detecting different copies of recombinant plasmids containing the S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment and different concentrations of genomic DNA from adult worms of S. japonicum, and the specificity of the dipstick test was evaluated by detecting the genomic DNA from Clonorchis sinensis, S. mansoni, Ancylostoma duodenale, S. haematobium, Babesia and Paragonimus westermani. Results The S. japonicum nucleic acid dipstick test based on the S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment showed the minimum detectable limit of 10 copies/μL of the recombinant plasmid containing the S. japonicum SjG28 gene fragment and the minimum detectable limit of 1 pg/μL of S. japonicum genomic DNA, and the dipstick assay tested negative for the genomic DNA from C. sinensis, S. mansoni, A. duodenale, S. haematobium, Babesia and P. westermani. Conclusion A rapid, simple, and visualized assay is established for detection of S. japonicum specific gene fragments based on RAA and nucleic acid dipstick test.
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    Treatment of Chilomastix mesnili infection with traditional Chinese medicine: a case report
    LIANG Qin, LU Yu⁃Bei, FU Hui, YAN Xue⁃Bo, MIAO Feng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 327-.  
    Abstract52)      PDF (1015KB)(15)       Save
    This paper reports a case with Chilomastix mesnili infections, and summarizes the diagnosis and treatment with traditional Chinese medicine.
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    Intensified surveillance promotes the process towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China
    ZHANG Shi-Qing
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (2): 107-.  
    Abstract50)      PDF (974KB)(121)       Save
    Surveillance is an important part of the national schistosomiasis control program of China, which play a critical role in facilitating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China. The coverage of schistosomiasis surveillance has shifted from the high?risk regions at the initial stage of the national schistosomiasis control program of China to the current all endemic counties (cities, districts), and the surveillance contents have extended from single surveillance of endemic status to comprehensive surveillance of endemic status, epidemic factors and transmission risks. With the continuous progress towards schistosomiasis elimination, the national schistosomiasis control program has shifted from “extensive control” to surveillance and early warning?based “precision control” in China, which proposes much higher requirements for schistosomiasis surveillance. Currently, the surveillance of schistosomiasis has been covered in all schistosomiasis?endemic counties (cities, districts) of China, and the development of rapid and early identification of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae and S. japonicum?infected Oncomelania hupensis snails will greatly improve the sensitivity of and the duration of responses to schistosomiasis surveillance, which will provide powerful tools for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Analysis of invalid patents associated with schistosomiasis control filed by Chinese applicants
    XIONG Yan⁃Hong, XU Xue⁃Nian, ZHENG Bin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 301-.  
    Abstract50)      PDF (1018KB)(24)       Save
    The invalid patents associated with schistosomiasis control were retrieved in the Chinese Patent Database of China National Intellectual Property Administration, the Baiten database and the incoPat database, and the overall trends, legal status, types, patent indexing and technical fields of all retrieved invalid patents were analyzed. As of December 30, 2020, there were totally 859 patents relating to schistosomiasis control, and 512 were invalid patents, with an invalid rate of 59.6%. The number of patent applications and invalid patents peaked in 2018, including 71 patent applications and 53 invalid patents. Among the 511 schistosomiasis control⁃related invalid patents with complete records, there were 425 invention patents, 81 utility model patents and 5 design patents, and 219 patents (42.9%) were invalid due to the termination of the patented right and 292 (57.1%) due to loss of the right for patent applications. The major technical points included medicines (chemicals), basic research, devices and detections, and the specialized fields were mainly concentrated in A61P33, G01N33, C12N15, C07K14 and A01N65. Our data demonstrate a high invalid rate of patents relating to schistosomiasis control in China. Secondary development and mining of the invalid patents in relation to schistosomiasis are recommended to make use of their values in the national schistosomiasis elimination program of China.
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    Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province from 2014 to 2015
    ZHAO Dong⁃Yang, JIANG Tian⁃Tian, CHEN Wei⁃Qi, ZHANG Ya⁃Lan, DENG Yan, XU Bian⁃Li, ZHANG Hong⁃Wei, GUO Wan⁃Shen, LIN Xi⁃Meng, LI Peng, ZHAO Yu⁃Ling, YANG Cheng⁃Yun, QIAN Dan, ZHOU Rui⁃Min, LIU Ying, LI Su⁃Hua, CHEN Jian⁃She
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 287-.  
    Abstract49)      PDF (980KB)(20)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province. Methods A total of 104 survey sites were sampled from 35 counties (cities) in Henan Province using the stratified cluster sampling method to investigate the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children from 2014 to 2015. The trophozoites and cysts of intestinal protozoa were identified using the iodine staining method and the physiological saline direct smear method (one detection for one stool sample). The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was compared among rural children with different characteristics, and the factors affecting intestinal protozoan infections among rural children were identified. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 0.60% (40/6 771) among rural children in Henan Province from 2014 to 2015. There were 7 species of intestinal protozoa identified, and there was no species⁃specific prevalence ([χ2] = 37.732, P = 0.000). No significant differences were found in prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in terms of gender ([χ2] = 1.793, P = 0.181), age ([χ2] = 1.443, P = 0.486), occupation ([χ2] = 0.219, P = 0.896) or ecological region ([χ2] = 1.700, P = 0.637). In addition, terrain ([χ2] = 2.311, P = 0.510), economic level ([χ2] = 4.322, P = 0.229), source of drinking water ([χ2] = 0.731, P = 0.393), eating raw vegetables ([χ2] = 1.134, P = 0.287) and deworming ([χ2] = 1.089, P = 0.297) had no remarkable effects on the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province; however, the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections varied significantly among rural children living in regions with different coverage of non⁃harmless toilets ([χ2] = 10.050, P = 0.018). Conclusion The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections is low among rural children in Henan Province.
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    Evaluation of the effectiveness of community health education for the prevention and control of retransmission of imported malaria in Zhangjiagang City
    HUANG Feng, WANG Xue⁃Dong, JIANG Ling, QIU Hai⁃Yan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 308-.  
    Abstract49)      PDF (993KB)(11)       Save
    Objective To increase the awareness of malaria prevention and control among people going abroad and returners, so as to prevent the local retransmission of oversea imported malaria.Methods Health education interventions for malaria control were given to people going abroad and returners in communities, and the changes of malaria prevention and control knowledge and medical⁃seeking behaviors were observed among the target populations. Results There were 367 people going abroad and oversea returners from malaria⁃endemic areas in Zhangjiagang City from July 2018 to December 2019, and 18 imported malaria cases were found. Following the implementation of community health education, the awareness of malaria prevention and control knowledge increased significantly from 35.09% to 93.05% among the target populations (χ2 = 78.130, P < 0.01), and the proportions of carrying anti⁃malarial drugs and administration of anti⁃malarial drugs for emergency treatment increased from 12.14% and 11.46% to 26.79% and 26.79% (χ2 = 8.793 and 9.834, P < 0.05), respectively. In addition, the mean duration from malaria onset to the definitive diagnosis reduced from (5.86 ± 4.45) days to (3.11 ± 1.28) days (U = 64.000, P < 0.05). Conclusion Community health education based on the precision community administration is an effective approach for malaria control in current era.
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    Chromosomal karyotypes and C⁃band analysis of Triatoma rubrofasciata in China 
    WANG Meng⁃Xia, LIU Qin, ZHANG Yi, ZHU Dan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 297-.  
    Abstract48)      PDF (1096KB)(12)       Save
    Objective To investigate the karyotypes and C bands of Triatoma rubrofasciata in China, so as to understand its chromosome number, morphology and C⁃band staining of T. rubrofasciata. Methods The testis specimens were sampled from male T. rubrofasciata collected from Shunde City, Guangdong Province, prepared into slides of metaphase chromosomes and subjected to Giemsa staining and C⁃band staining. The morphology of metaphase chromosomes and the location of heterochromatin were observed using microscopy, and the long arm and short arm of each chromosome and total chromosome length were recorded to analyze the karyotypes and C bands of T. rubrofasciata. Results The male T. rubrofasciata presented a chromosome number of 2n = 25, including 22 autosomes and 3 sex chromosomes. The relative length of chromosomes ranged from 3.59% to 12.76%, the arm ratio was 1.06 to 1.24, and the centromere index was 44.76% to 48.47%. All chromosomes were metacentric chromosomes and the karyotype formula was 2n = 22 metacentric + X1X2Y, and the C bands varied on different chromosomes. No heterochromatin was found in the X chromosome, and the overall staining appeared pale, while heterochromatin was detected in all regions of the Y chromosome, and the overall staining appeared dark. In addition, heterochromatin was present in both ends of the autosome. Conclusions The male T. rubrofasciata presents a chromosome number of 2n = 25 in China, and the karyotype formula is 2n = 22 metacentric + X1X2Y. C⁃banding shows dark staining of the Y chromosome, pale staining of the X chromosome, and dark staining of both ends of the autosome. Our data may provide insights into the investigation on the origin, evolution and gene mapping of T. rubrofasciata in China.
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    Investigation on population dynamics and Echinococcus infections in small rodents around human settlement in Yushu City, Qinghai Province
    WANG Xu, ZUO Qing⁃Qiu, YU Qing, SONG Cheng⁃Xi, WANG Zheng⁃Huan, XIAO Ning, WANG Yuan⁃Jia, WENG Xiao⁃Dong, WEI Xu, ZHOU Hong⁃Rang, CUI Xiao⁃Yu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 346-.  
    Abstract45)      PDF (1355KB)(29)       Save
    Objective To investigate the population dynamics and Echinococcus infections in small rodents around human settlement in Yushu City, Qinghai Province. Methods Rodents were captured using the mouse trap method in pastures from Batang Township and Longbao Township of Yushu City, Qinghai Province on May, August and October, 2018. The body weight and snout⁃vent length of all captured rodents were measured, and the species was identified according to the rodent morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from rodent liver specimens and lesion specimens, and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Echinococcus was amplified using PCR assay for identification of parasite species. In addition, the tissue specimens positive for PCR assay were sampled for pathological examinations. The prevalence of Echinococcus infections was estimated in rodents, and a phylogenetic tree was created based on Echinococcus cox1 gene sequences. Results A total of 285 small rodents were captured, including 143 Ochotona curzoniae (50.2%), 141 Lasiopodomys fuscus (49.5%), and 1 Neodon irene (0.3%), and there was a remarkable variation in habitat selection among these three rodent species. The number of L. fuscus correlated positively with vegetation coverage (r = 0.350, P = 0.264), with the greatest number seen in August, and the number of O. curzoniae negatively with vegetation coverage(r = –0.371, P = 0.235), with the highest number seen in August and the lowest number in May. The female/male ratios of O. curzoniae and voles were 1∶0.96 and 0.82∶1, respectively. The body weight (r = 0.519, P < 0.01) and snout⁃vent length (r = 0.578, P < 0.01) of O. curzoniae showed a tendency towards a rise with month, while the body weight (r = –0.401, P < 0.01) and snout⁃vent length (r = –0.570, P < 0.01) of voles presented a tendency towards a reduction with month. No Echinococcus infection was detected in voles, while 2.1% prevalence of E. shiquicus infection was seen in O. curzoniae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed consistent sequences of cox1 gene from E. shiquicus in Yushu City of Qinghai Province and Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province. Conclusions The small rodents around the human settlement in Yushu City of Qinghai Province mainly include O. curzoniae and L. fuscus, with the greatest numbers seen in May and August, respectively. Following the concerted efforts for echinococcosis control, the prevalence of Echinococcus infections is low in small rodents around the human settlement in Yushu City; however, there is still a risk of echinococcosis transmission.
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    National surveillance of schistosomiasis morbidity in China, 2015—2019
    DANG Hui, LI Yin-Long, GUO Jing-Yi, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu, Lü Shan
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (2): 120-.  
    Abstract45)      PDF (1184KB)(135)       Save
    Objective To understand the morbidity due to Schisotsoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis?endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero?prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg?positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. Results S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis?endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5?year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero?prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero?prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg?positives were identified during the 5?year period, including 97 local residents (inter?quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter?quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations. There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Progress of research on animal models of Blastocystis hominis infections
    FENG Xia, ZHANG Fu-Qiang, XU Fu-Yang, MEI Xue-Fang, ZHANG Zhen-Chao, LI Xiang-Rui, WANG Shuai
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (1): 102-.  
    Abstract44)      PDF (1048KB)(947)       Save
    Blastocystis hominis is a common parasitic protozoa in human and animal intestines; however, its pathogenicity remains controversial. Construction of animal models is of great significance to investigate the pathogenicity, pathogenic mechanisms and drug screening of B. hominis. Experimental animals, mode of infections, parasite strains and host immune status are important factors affecting the successful modeling of B. hominis infections in animals. Hereby, we review the progress of researches on animal models of B. hominis infections, and summarize the influencing factors and application of animal models of B. hominis infections, in order to provides insights into the selection of animals models of B. hominis infections.
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    Status and control of common food⁃borne parasitic diseases in China: a review
    HUANG Ji⁃Lei, WANG Yao, ZHOU Xia
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 424-.  
    Abstract44)      PDF (1011KB)(52)       Save
    Food⁃borne parasitic diseases include meat⁃borne, fish⁃borne, plant⁃borne, water⁃borne, mollusk⁃borne and freshwater crustacean⁃borne parasitic diseases. The review summarizes the current status and control of 6 major food⁃borne parasitic diseases in China, including clonorchiasus, paragonimiasis, Taenia solium taeniasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and angiostrongyliasis, aiming to increase the understanding of food⁃borne parasitic diseases and provide insights into the development of the control strategy for food⁃borne parasitic diseases. The transmission of food⁃borne parasitic diseases are predominantly associated with diet, and neither eating raw nor semi⁃cooked food is the most effective measure to prevent the development of food⁃borne parasitic diseases.
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    Progress of researches on traveler's diarrhea caused by parasitic infections
    XU Jie, CAO Jian-Ping, SHEN Yu-Juan
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (2): 110-.  
    Abstract42)      PDF (1073KB)(97)       Save
    With the rapid development of global tourism, traveling gradually becomes an important part of daily lives, and travelers’ health is paid more and more attention. Traveler’s diarrhea (TD) is one of the most common diseases among international or trans?regional travelers, which causes great disease and economic burdens. Currently, there is still a lack of systematic studies on the correlation between parasites and TD. The review mainly summarizes intestinal protozoa and helminth infections among patients with TD, so as to provide insights into the development of the control measures for parasitic diseases associated with TD and the prevention of risk factors before the journey to and during the journey of the areas endemic for parasitic diseases.
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    Potential suitable habitats of Haemaphysalis longicornis in China under different climatic patterns
    CUN De⁃Jiao, WANG Qiang, YAO Xiao⁃Yan, MA Ben, ZHANG Yi, LI Lan⁃Hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 359-.  
    Abstract42)      PDF (1290KB)(28)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the impact of environmental and climatic factors on the distribution of suitable habitats of Haemaphysalis longicornis, and to predict the potential distribution of H. longicornis under different climate patterns in China. Methods Data pertaining to the distribution of H. longicornis were retrieved from public literatures. The effects of 19 climatic factors (annual mean temperature, annual mean temperature difference between day and night, isothermality, standard deviation of seasonal variation of temperature, maximum temperature of the warmest month, minimum temperature of the coldest month, temperature annual range, mean temperature of the wettest season, mean temperature of the driest season, mean temperature of the warmest season, mean temperature of the coldest season, annual mean precipitation, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest month, coefficient of variance of precipitation, precipitation of the wettest season, precipitation of the driest season, precipitation of the warmest season and precipitation of the coldest season) and 4 environmental factors (elevation, slope, slope aspect and vegetation coverage) on the potential distribution of H. longicornis were assessed using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on the H. longicornis distribution data and climatic and environmental data, and the potential distribution of H. longicornis was predicted under the RCP 2.6 and 8.5 emissions scenarios. Results Among the environmental and climatic factors affecting the geographical distribution of H. longicornis in China, the factors contributing more than 10% to the distribution of H. longicornis mainly included the precipitation of the driest month (26.0%), annual mean temperature (11.2%), annual mean precipitation (10.0%) and elevation (24.2%). Under the current climate pattern, the high⁃, medium⁃ and low⁃suitable habitats of H. longicornis are 1 231 900, 1 696 200 km2 and 1 854 400 km2 in China, respectively. The distribution of H. longicornis increased by 336 100 km2 and 367 300 km2 in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 2.6 emissions scenario, and increased by 381 000 km2 and 358 000 km2 in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 8.5 emissions scenario in China, respectively. Conclusions Climatic and environmental factors, such as precipitation, temperature and elevation, greatly affect the distribution of H. longicornis in China, and the suitable habitats of H. longicornis may expand in China under different climate patterns in future.
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    Progress of researches on Fasciola and fascioliasis in Yunnan Province
    XIANG Zheng, SHEN Li⁃Jie, JIA Xue⁃Mei
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (3): 317-.  
    Abstract41)      PDF (929KB)(35)       Save
    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that seriously endangers human health and hinders socioeconomic development. Fasciola mainly infects ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. However, there has recently been a rise in the number of human cases with fascioliasis with the improvements of diagnostic techniques. During the past decades, sporadic cases of fascioliasis were predominantly identified; however, there were outbreaks of fascioliasis in Yunnan Province, which has been paid much attention. The review summarizes the advances in the distribution of Fasciola species and the progress of researches on fascioliasis in Yunnan Province.
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    National surveillance of Oncomelania hupensis in China, 2015—2019
    LI Yin-Long, DANG Hui, GUO Su-Ying, CAO Chun-Li, Lü Shan, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (2): 127-.  
    Abstract41)      PDF (1452KB)(140)       Save
    Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis?endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis?endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5?year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop?mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re?emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re?emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5?year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.
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    Expert consensus on the strategy and measures to interrupt the transmission of schistosomiasis in China
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (1): 10-.  
    Abstract37)      PDF (995KB)(419)       Save
    Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance?response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five?Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five?Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five?Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five?Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights into the development of The 14th Five?Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.
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    Appendiceal schistosomiasis complicated by low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm: a report of two cases
    TANG Wei, WANG Peng
    Chin J Schisto Control    2020, 32 (6): 661-.  
    Abstract37)      PDF (1323KB)(283)       Save
    This report presents two cases with appendiceal schistosomiasis complicated by low?grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm.
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    Construction of a cDNA library for Sparganum mansoni and screening of diagnostic antigen cadidates
    LU Yan, CHEN Jia⁃Xu, SONG Peng, LI Hao, AI Lin, CAI Yu⁃Chun, CHU Yan⁃Hong, CHEN Shao⁃Hong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 380-.  
    Abstract37)      PDF (1037KB)(13)       Save
    Objective To construct a cDNA library of Sparganum mansoni and immunoscreen antigen candidates for immunodiagnosis of sparganosis mansoni. Methods Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni, and reversely transcribed into cDNA, which was ligated into the phage vector. These recombinant vectors were packaged in vitro to construct the SMART cDNA library of S. mansoni. Then, the cDNA library was immunoscreened with sera from patients with sparganosis mansoni to yield positive clones. The inserted fragments of positive clones were sequenced and subjected to homology analyses, and the structure and functions of the coding proteins were predicted. Results The SMATR cDNA library of S. mansoni was successfully constructed. The titer of the cDNA library was 6.25 × 106 pfu/mL, with a recombinant efficiency of 100%, and the mean length of the inserted fragments in the library was larger than 1 100 bp. A total of 12 positive clones were obtained by immunoscreening, and were categorized into Sm⁃I (Sm60⁃1), Sm⁃II (Sm58⁃1), Sm⁃III (Sm20⁃1) and Sm⁃IV (Sm22⁃3), with 1 134, 1 063, 883 bp and 969 bp long inserted fragments. Their coding proteins were highly homologous with the Spirometra erinaceieuropaei antigenic polypeptide, cytoplasmic antigen, ribosomal protein S4⁃like protein and unnamed protein product, respectively. Conclusions A SMART cDNA library of S. mansoni has been successfully constructed and 4 categories of positive clones have been identified, which provides a basis for further studies on diagnostic antigens for sparganosis mansoni.
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    A local case with alveolar echinococcosis in Nanzhang County, Hubei Province
    WANG Dao⁃Hu, ZHANG Juan, WU Kai
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (4): 442-.  
    Abstract36)      PDF (1225KB)(20)       Save
    The diagnosis and treatment of a local case with alveolar echinococcosis was presented. Based on clinical data and epidemiological surveys, this is a rare, local case with alveolar echinococcosis in Nanzhang County, suggesting the possibility of local transmission of echinococcosis. The prevention, control and surveillance of echinococcosis requires to be reinforced in non⁃endemic areas.
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    Endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019
    ZHANG Jian-Feng, DU Hai-Juan, YAN Xiao-Lan, YU Li-Ling, YANG Ming-Jin, LIU Rong, GU Sheng-Feng, WEN Li-Yong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (2): 195-.  
    Abstract36)      PDF (966KB)(107)       Save
    Objective To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new schistosomiasis surveillance program and consolidating schistosomiasis elimination achievements. Methods A total of 54 to 55 national surveillance sites and 6 risk monitoring sites were assigned in historical endemic regions of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, where the Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock, snails and wild feces were monitored. All data pertaining to the surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. Results There were 34 530 person?time local residents receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.29% to 0.68%; however, no egg?positives were detected. During the period from 2015 to 2019, there were 62 086 person?time mobile populations receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.32% to 0.56%; additionally, there were 27 egg?positives identified, including 3 imported cases with schistosomiasis haematobia and one case with acute schistosomiasis japonica, indicating that the adjusted prevalence of Schistosoma infections were 0.01% to 0.07% among mobile populations. A total of 829 livestock were examined for S. japonicum infections, with no positives detected. There were 10.55 hm2 and 2.89 hm2 snail habitats found in national surveillance sites and risk monitoring sites of Zhejiang Province during the 5?year period, respectively; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails. Moreover, a total of 305 wild feces were tested for S. japonicum infections, and no egg?positives were identified. Conclusions The schistosomiasis elimination achievement have been consolidated in Zhejiang Province; however, the risk factors of re?emerging schistosomiasis have not been completely eliminated, such as residual snails and imported schistosomiasis cases. Further surveillance and control activities of snails and the source of S. japonicum infections should be reinforced.
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    Spatial and temporal characteristics of reported schistosomiasis cases in China based on a Bayesian interrupted time?series model
    WEN Chu-Chun, ZHAO Ting-Ting, HU Wei-Hua, CAO Wen-Rui, LAI Ying-Si
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (1): 15-.  
    Abstract36)      PDF (1880KB)(364)       Save
    Objective To investigate the spatial?temporal characteristics of reported schistosomiasis cases in China from 2004 to 2017, so as to provide insights into the development of different schistosomiasis control strategies at various stages. Methods The monthly data of reported schistosomiasis cases at a provincial level of China from 2004 to 2017 were collected from the Public Health Science Data Center, and the spatial?temporal distribution of reported schistosomiasis cases was preliminarily identified using a descriptive statistical method. According to the goals at different stages proposed by the National Mid? and Long?term Program for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control in China (2004—2015), a Bayesian interrupted time?series model was established to analyze the provincial reported incidence, time trend and seasonal variations of schistosomiasis in China at different stages. Results The reported schistosomiasis cases were mainly concentrated in 5 provinces of Anhui, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Hubei and Hunan and 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan in China from 2004 to 2017, and the number of reported cases in endemic areas decreased gradually. The incidence of reported schistosomiasis cases predominantly peaked during the period from May to September in the marshland and lake regions, while no regular seasonality was seen in hilly regions. Bayesian interrupted time?series analysis showed the peak incidence of reported schistosomiasis cases in 4 provinces of Anhui, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi between May and September and in Jiangsu Province from July to November; however, no regular seasonal cycle was identified in hilly regions. The number of reported schistosomiasis cases showed a tendency towards an increase in 2 provinces of Hubei and Hunan from 2008 to 2014, with a minor peak during the period between March and April, and since 2015, the seasonality was not remarkable any longer in 3 provinces of Anhui, Jiangsu and Jiangxi with a decline in the incidence of reported schistosomiasis cases, while the seasonality remained in Hubei Province. Conclusions The spatial?temporal characteristics of schistosomiasis in China, notably seasonality, vary at different control stages. Bayesian interrupted time?series model is effective to identify the spatial?temporal changes of schistosomiasis, and the schistosomiasis control strategy may be adjusted according to the spatial?temporal changes to improve the schistosomiasis control efficiency.
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    Immune characteristics of Plasmodium reinfections in mice following chloroquine cure of primary Plasmodium infections
    Chin J Schisto Control    2020, 32 (6): 569-.  
    Abstract36)      PDF (2220KB)(284)       Save
    Objective To investigate the disease progression and immunoprotective characteristics in mice re?infected with homogeneous/heterogeneous Plasmodium strains following cure of Plasmodium infections with chloroquine at the peak of parasitemia. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected with the non?lethal P. yoelii 17XNL strain, and half of mice were given treatment with chloroquine at the peak of parasitemia (9 days post?infection), while the other mice were self?cured naturally. Then, all cured mice were re?infected with the equivalent lethal P. yoelii 17XL or P. berghei ANKA strain 90 days following primary Plasmodium infections. The parasitemia levels during primary infections and reinfections were measured by microscopic examinations of Giemsa?stained thin blood films, and the levels of the IgG antibody in sera and the percentages of memory T cell subsets in spleen cells were detected in mice using ELISA and flow cytometry before and after parasite reinfections, respectively. Results Following primary infections with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain, the serum IgG antibody levels were (5.047 ± 0.924) pg/mL in the self?cured mice and (4.429 ± 0.624) pg/mL in the chloroquine?treated mice, respectively (t = 0.437, P > 0.05), which were both significantly higher than that in the uninfected mice (1.624 pg/mL ± 0.280 pg/mL) (F = 22.522, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the serum IgG antibody level among self?cured and chloroquine?treated mice re?infected with the P. yoelii 17XL strain or the P. berghei ANKA strain (F = 0.542, P > 0.05); however, the serum IgG antibody levels were all significantly higher in self?cured and chloroquine?treated mice re?infected with the P. yoelii 17XL strain [(15.487 ± 1.173) pg/mL and (15.965 ± 1.150) pg/mL] or the P. berghei ANKA strain [(14.644 ± 1.523) pg/mL and (15.185 ± 1.333) pg/mL] relative to primary infections (F = 67.383, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of CD4+ [(34.208 ± 2.106), (32.820 ± 1.930), (34.023 ± 2.289), (35.608 ± 1.779) pg/mL] or CD8+ T memory cells [(17.935 ± 2.092), (18.918 ± 2.823), (17.103 ± 1.627), (17.873 ± 1.425) pg/mL] in self?cured and chloroquine?treated mice with primary infections with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain followed by re?infections with the P. yoelii 17XL strain or the P. berghei ANKA strain (F = 0.944 and 0.390, both P > 0.05); however, the proportions of the CD4+ or CD8+ T memory cells were significantly greater in self?cured and chloroquine?treated mice with primary infections with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain followed by re?infections with the P. yoelii 17XL strain or the P. berghei ANKA strain than in mice with primary infections (F = 50.532 and 21.751, both P < 0.01). Conclusions The cure of murine Plasmodium infections with chloroquine does not affect the production of effective immune protections in mice during parasite re?infections. Following a primary infection, mice show a protection against re?infections with either homogeneous or heterogeneous Plasmodium strains, and a higher?level resistance to re?infections with homogeneous parasite strains is found than with heterogeneous strains.
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    Assessment of the burden of clonorchiasis and its temporal changes in China
    ZHAO Ting-Ting, FANG Yue-Yi, LAI Ying-Si
    Chin J Schisto Control    2021, 33 (2): 162-.  
    Abstract35)      PDF (1180KB)(66)       Save
    Objective To assess the burden of clonorchiasis and identify its temporal and spatial changes in China, thus to provide insights into the control and prevention of the diseases. Methods The disability?adjusted life years (DALYs) was employed as the primary indicator for the disease burden. The prevalence data of Clonorchis sinensis infection were obtainted from the three national surveys on important human parasitic diseases in China, conducting during the period from 1988 to 1922, from 2001 to 2004 and from 2014 to 2016, respectively, and the demographic data from National Bureau of Statistics of China. DALYs of clonorchiasis were calculated and the temporal changes were analyzed at both national and provincial levels, using the disability weight (DW) obtained from a community study in China. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to compare the resulted DALYs of China calculated under the method adopted in this study and that calculated with other commonly used methods. Results The national burden of clonorchiasis was 489 174.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): (391 648.87, 597 509.87)] DALYs in China in 2016, indicating 0.36 [95% CI: (0.28, 0.43)] DALYs per 1 000 populations. The regions with a high burden of clonorchiasis were concentrated in southern China and northeastern China, and the provinces with the three highest burdens of clonorchiasis included Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong Province and Heilongjiang Province, which accounted for 91.18% of total burdens of clonorchiasis in China. During the periods of the three national surveys on important human parasitic diseases in China, the national burden of clonorchiasis was found to show a tendency of first rise and then decrease in China; however, the burden of clonorchiasis has recently shown a tendency towards a rise in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province and Jiangxi Province. Sensitivity analysis showed that the calculation of diseases burden with age?stratified prevalence of clonorchiasis was similar to that of our method without age stratification; however, the burden estimates calculated only based on the DW of the severe symptoms were much lower than our estimates. Conclusions The burden of clonorchiasis is high in China, with a large regional difference. Recently, the overall burden of clonorchiasis has shown a tendency of decline in China; however, there is a tendency towards a rise in some provinces. Therefore, the control of clonorchiasis requires more adaptations to local circumstances.
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