Most Read articles

    Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All

    All
    Please wait a minute...
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Progress of schistosomiasis control in People’s Republic of China in 2022
    ZHANG Lijuan, HE Junyi, YANG Fan, DANG Hui, LI Yinlong, GUO Suying, LI Shizhen, CAO Chunli, XU Jing, LI Shizhu, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 217-224,250.  
    Abstract979)      PDF (939KB)(933)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance program in the People’s Republic of China in 2022. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to maintain the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2022. A total of 452 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2022, with 27 434 endemic villages covering 73 424 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 452 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.89% (343/452), 23.45% (106/452) and 0.66% (3/452) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. In 2022, 4 317 356 individuals received serological tests for schistosomiasis, and 62 228 were sero⁃positive. A total of 208 646 individuals received stool examinations for schistosomiasis, with one positive and another two cases positive for urine microscopy, and these three 3 cases were imported schistosomiasis patients from Africa. There were 28 565 cases with advanced schistosomiasis documented in China by the end of 2022. Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 18 891 endemic villages in China in 2022 and O. hupensis snails were found in 6 917 villages (36.62% of all surveyed villages), with 8 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 655 703.01 hm2 and 183 888.60 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 110.58 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 844.35 hm2 re⁃emerging snail habitats. There were 477 200 bovines raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China in 2022, and 113 946 bovines received serological examinations for schistosomiasis, with 204 sero⁃positives detected. Among the 131 715 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2022, there were 19 726 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was performed in 714 465 person⁃time for humans and 234 737 herd⁃time for bovines in China. In 2022, snail control with chemical treatment was performed at an area of 119 134.07 hm2, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 825.27 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed at an area of 1 163.96 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance program of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections was both zero in humans and bovines in 2022, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in O. hupensis snails. These data demonstrated that the endemic status of schistosomiasis continued to decline in China in 2022, with 3 confirmed schistosomiasis patients that had a foreign nationality and all imported from Africa, and the areas of snail habitats remained high. Further improvements in the construction of the schistosomaisis surveillance and forecast system, and reinforcement of O. hupensis survey and control are required to prevent the re⁃emerging schistosomiasis.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia in dogs and cats from a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality
    ZHANG Jing, QIN Yuan, SHEN Yujuan, WANG Yaxue, CAO Jianping, SU Yaxin, LIU Hua
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 258-262.  
    Abstract294)      PDF (1340KB)(134)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia in dogs and cats from a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality. Methods A total of 145 fresh fecal samples were collected from pet dogs and cats in a pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality during the period from November 2021 to June 2022, including 99 dog fecal samples and 46 cat fecal samples. The small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium and the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene of G. lamblia were amplified using nested PCR assay, and the positive amplification products were sequenced from both directions. The sequence assembly was performed using the software Clustal X 2.1, and sequence alignment was conducted using BLAST. A phylogenetic tree was created with the Neighbor⁃Joining method using MEGA 11.0 to identify parasite species or genotype. Results The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia was 20.00% (29/145) in 145 pet dog and cat fecal samples, with the prevalence of 0.69% (1/145) and 19.31% (28/145) in Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia, respectively. G. lamblia was only detected in dog fecal samples, with prevalence of 18.18% (18/99), while the detection rates of Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia were 2.17% (1/46) and 21.74% (10/46) in cat fecal samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that one Cryptosporidium positive sample was characterized as C. felis, and 28 G. lamblia positive samples were all characterized as Giardia assemblage A, which showed 100% sequence homology with human isolates of Giardia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences obtained in this study belonged to the same branch with the reported Giardia assemblage A. Conclusions Cryptosporidium and G. lamblia infection was prevalent in pet dogs and cats from the study pet hospital in Shanghai Municipality, and there is a zoonotic risk for the species and genotype. Intensified surveillance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection is recommended in pets and their owners, and improved management of pet keeping is required.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Intelligent identification of livestock, a source of Schistosoma japonicum infection, based on deep learning of unmanned aerial vehicle images
    XUE Jingbo, XIA Shang, LI Zhaojun, WANG Xinyi, HUANG Liangyu, HE Runchao, LI Shizhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 121-.  
    Abstract274)      PDF (2620KB)(215)       Save
    Objective To develop an intelligent recognition model based on deep learning algorithms of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images, and to preliminarily explore the value of this model for remote identification, monitoring and management of cattle, a source of Schistosoma japonicum infection. Methods Oncomelania hupensis snail⁃infested marshlands around the Poyang Lake area were selected as the study area. Image datasets of the study area were captured by aerial photography with UAV and subjected to augmentation. Cattle in the sample database were annotated with the annotation software VGG Image Annotator to create the morphological recognition labels for cattle. A model was created for intelligent recognition of livestock based on deep learning⁃based Mask R⁃convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithms. The performance of the model for cattle recognition was evaluated with accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score and mean precision. Results A total of 200 original UAV images were obtained, and 410 images were yielded following data augmentation. A total of 2 860 training samples for working cattle recognition were labeled. A total of 2 860 training samples of cattle recognition were labeled. The created deep learning⁃based Mask R⁃CNN model converged following 200 iterations, with an accuracy of 88.01%, precision of 92.33%, recall of 94.06%, F1 score of 93.19%, and mean precision of 92.27%, and the model was effective to detect and segment the morphological features of cattle. Conclusion The deep learning⁃based Mask R⁃CNN model is highly accurate for recognition of cattle based on UAV images, which is feasible for remote intelligent recognition, monitoring, and management of the source of S. japonicum infection.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Application of machine learning in clinical predictive models for infectious diseases: a review
    ZHENG Ruiying, LIU Genyan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 317-321.  
    Abstract258)      PDF (1025KB)(131)       Save
    Infectious diseases are one of the major threats to global public health. Inconvenience of diagnosis and treatment frequently causes misdiagnosis, missing diagnosis or overtreatment, resulting in serious clinical outcomes. As an important branch of artificial intelligence, machine learning has been widely used in multiple fields. Predictive models created based on patients’ clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, and imaging examinations are effective for prediction and evaluation of clinical diagnosis, therapeutic efficacy and prognosis, as well as detection of outbreaks. Machine learning modeling has the advantages of high efficiency, high accuracy and interpretability as compared to traditional modeling approaches, which provides a new tool for diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. This review summarizes the advances of applications of machine learning in clinical predictive models for infectious diseases.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Risk predictive models of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province based on the machine learning
    ZHANG Yuying, CAO Yuanyuan, YANG Kai, WANG Weiming, YANG Mengmeng, CHAI Liying, GU Jiyue, LI Mengyue, LU Yan, ZHOU Huayun, ZHU Guoding, CAO Jun, LU Guangyu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 225-235,243.  
    Abstract245)      PDF (1362KB)(266)       Save
    Objective To create risk predictive models of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province based on machine learning algorithms, so as to provide insights into early identification of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province. Methods Case investigation, first symptoms and time of initial diagnosis of imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were captured from Infectious Disease Report Information Management System and Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control Information Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The risk predictive models of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients were created with the back propagation (BP) neural network model, logistic regression model, random forest model and Bayesian model using thirteen factors as independent variables, including occupation, species of malaria parasite, main clinical manifestations, presence of complications, severity of disease, age, duration of residing abroad, frequency of malaria parasite infections abroad, incubation period, level of institution at initial diagnosis, country of origin, number of individuals travelling with patients and way to go abroad, and time of healthcare⁃seeking delay as a dependent variable. Logistic regression model was visualized using a nomogram, and the nomogram was evaluated using calibration curves. In addition, the efficiency of the four models for prediction of risk of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients was evaluated using the area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC). The importance of each characteristic was quantified and attributed by using SHAP to examine the positive and negative effects of the value of each characteristic on the predictive efficiency. Results A total of 244 imported malaria patients were enrolled, including 100 cases (40.98%) with the duration from onset of first symptoms to time of initial diagnosis that exceeded 24 hours. Logistic regression analysis identified a history of malaria parasite infection [odds ratio (OR) = 3.075, 95% confidential interval (CI): (1.597, 5.923)], long incubation period [OR = 1.010, 95% CI: (1.001, 1.018)] and seeking healthcare in provincial or municipal medical facilities [OR = 12.550, 95% CI: (1.158, 135.963)] as risk factors for delay in seeking healthcare among imported malaria cases. BP neural network modeling showed that duration of residing abroad, incubation period and age posed great impacts on delay in healthcare⁃seek among imported malaria patients. Random forest modeling showed that the top five factors with the greatest impact on healthcare⁃seeking delay included main clinical manifestations, the way to go abroad, incubation period, duration of residing abroad and age among imported malaria patients, and Bayesian modeling revealed that the top five factors affecting healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients included level of institutions at initial diagnosis, age, country of origin, history of malaria parasite infection and individuals travelling with imported malaria patients. ROC curve analysis showed higher overall performance of the BP neural network model and the logistic regression model for prediction of the risk of healthcare⁃seeking delay among imported malaria patients (Z = 2.700 to 4.641, all P values < 0.01), with no statistically significant difference in the AUC among four models (Z = 1.209, P > 0.05). The sensitivity (71.00%) and Youden index (43.92%) of the logistic regression model was higher than those of the BP neural network (63.00% and 36.61%, respectively), and the specificity of the BP neural network model (73.61%) was higher than that of the logistic regression model (72.92%). Conclusions Imported malaria cases with long duration of residing abroad, a history of malaria parasite infection, long incubation period, advanced age and seeking healthcare in provincial or municipal medical institutions have a high likelihood of delay in healthcare⁃seeking in Jiangsu Province. The models created based on the logistic regression and BP neural network show a high efficiency for prediction of the risk of healthcare⁃seeking among imported malaria patients in Jiangsu Province, which may provide insights into health management of imported malaria patients.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Epidemiology of pathogenic tick-borne viruses in China: a review#br# #br#
    MA Jingge, LIU Ning, LIU Ziyan, LIU Quan, WEI Feng, WANG Zedong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 325-330,348.  
    Abstract230)      PDF (973KB)(345)       Save
    Ticks are obligate, haematophagous arthropods that are distributed across the world, which may transmit more than 200 pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. A large number of tick species are widespread in China, and their transmitting tick-borne viral diseases pose a great threat to human health in endemic foci. This review describes the epidemiology of common, emerging and potentially pathogenic tick-borne viruses in China, and recommends the assessment of public health significance and pathogenicity of emerging tick-borne viruses using reverse microbial etiology, so as to provide insights into the management of emerging tick-borne diseases in China.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Geographical and temporal weighted regression model and its application in epidemiology: A review
    WANG Zhe, LIU Lu, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 199-.  
    Abstract221)      PDF (1050KB)(700)       Save
    Geographical and temporal weighted regression (GTWR) model is a local regression linear model, which indirectly reflects the spatio⁃temporal non⁃stationary characteristics of the study data by calculating the trends for changes in parameters with space and time. Recently, GTWR model has become one of the hot topics in the study on spatio⁃temporal heterogeneity of diseases. This review summarizes the basic principles and study methods of the GTWR model, and describes the applications of this model in epidemiology.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Visceral leishmaniasis in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region during the COVID⁃19 pandemic: a case report
    MAIMAITIJIANG Wumaier, ZHAI Xiaohu, AYIXIAMU Keyoumu, SHI Guangzhong, WANG Shuo, CHENG Xia, KADERYA Eemayil, ZHAO Jiangshan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 213-.  
    Abstract207)      PDF (1045KB)(73)       Save
    Objective To perform an epidemiological investigation on a case of visceral leishmaniasis reported from Shule County, Kashi Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2021, so as to provide insights into differential diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis during the COVID⁃19 pandemic. Methods The epidemiological history of this case was collected, and the case was diagnosed for Leishmania infection with the immunochromatographic (rK39) strip test, bone marrow smear microscopy and PCR assay. Results The patient had typical clinical symptoms of leishmaniasis, including irregular fever, hepatosplenomegaly, low serum albumin and elevated globulin. Bone marrow smear microscopy identified L. donovani amastigotes, and both rK39 strip test and PCR assay were positive, while the case was tested negative for SARS⁃CoV⁃2. COVID⁃19 was therefore excluded and visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed. Standard full⁃dose treatment with sodium stibogluconate was given, and no Leishmania was found on blood smears during the reexamination. No recurrence was found during the followup after discharge for hospital. Conclusions During the COVID⁃19 pandemic, it is recommended to increase the perception of differential diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis among first⁃contact doctors, and reinforce the capability of differential diagnosis and health education of visceral leishmaniasis among medical and healthcare institutions at all levels, to prevent missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The role of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in the development of global health and its collaboration with China
    XU Ming
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 116-.  
    Abstract207)      PDF (1009KB)(152)       Save
    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (The Global Fund) has become an increasingly active and influential organization in global health during the past two decades. It is now playing an increasingly important role in the prevention and control of major infectious diseases, international financing for health, public procurement market development across the world. The article outlines the basic architecture of the Global Fund, including its overall information, financing mechanism, operational models and key experiences accumulated. Based on previous cooperation, the article analyzes the importance of the long-term partnership between China and the Global Fund, and proposes policy suggestions to achieve more win-win outcomes in the near future.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Sequence characteristics of Rhipicephalus microplus Enolase gene and prediction of structure and antigenic epitopes of its encoding protein
    BAI Ling, LI Zhongbo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 163-.  
    Abstract207)      PDF (2050KB)(87)       Save
    Objective To analyze the sequence characteristics of Rhipicephalus microplus Enolase gene, and to predict the secondary and tertiary structure and antigenic epitopes of the Enolase protein. Methods Sixty⁃two engorged female R. microplus were sampled from a yellow cattle breeding farm in Zhijiang County, Huaihua City, Hunan Province in June 25, 2022. Genomic DNA was isolated from R. microplus, and the Enolase gene was amplified using PCR assay, followed by cloning, sequencing and expression of the amplification product. The sequence characteristics of the Enolase gene were analyzed using the software Clustal X, and the gene sequence was translated into amino acid sequences. The secondary and tertiary structures of the Enolase protein were deduced using the software PRABI, and the physicochemical properties of the Enolase protein were analyzed using the software PRABI. In addition, the B⁃ and T⁃cell epitopes of the Enolase protein were predicted using the software ABCpred Prediction, Scratch, IEDB and NetCTL. Results The R. microplus Enolase gene sequence was 1 323 bp in size, and the contents of A, T, G and C bases were 24.5%, 22.5%, 27.0% and 26.0%,with 47.0% of A + T content and 53.0% of G + C content. The R. microplus Enolase gene encoded 434 amino acids, and the Enolase protein had a molecular weight of 47.12 kDa. The secondary structure of the Enolase protein contained 186 α⁃helixes (42.86%), 32 β⁃turns (7.37%), 144 random coils (33.18%) and 72 extended strands (16.59%). The Enolase protein was most probably present in cytoplasm (76.7%), followed by in mitochondrion (39.1%) and nucleus (21.7%), and the Enolase protein had no signal peptide or transmembrane domain. In addition, the Enolase protein had 14 B⁃cell dominant epitopes and 8 T⁃cell dominant epitopes. Conclusions The R. microplus Enolase gene sequence exhibits a GC preference, and its encoding Enolase protein is an acidic and hydrophilic protein, with α⁃helixes and random coils as its primary structure, and presenting B⁃ and T⁃cell dominant epitopes, which is a potential target for development of vaccines against R. microplus.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Single⁃cell RNA sequencing deciphers transcriptional profiles of hepatocytes in mouse with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis
    YANG Qingqing, JIA Wanzhong, WANG Xiangqian, CAI Qigang, GE Xin, WANG Wei, HAN Xiumin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 236-243.  
    Abstract201)      PDF (2690KB)(135)       Save
    Objective To investigate the cell composition and the transcriptional characteristics in microenvironments of hepatic tissues in mice at late stage of Echinococcus multilocularis infection at a single⁃cell level. Methods Peri⁃lesion and paired distal hepatic specimens were collected from two BALB/c mice (6 to 8 weeks old) infected with E. multilocularis for single⁃cell RNA sequencing. The Seurat package in the R software was employed for quality control of data, multi⁃sample integration and correction of batch effects, and uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) algorithm was used for cell clustering. Cell types were annotated using classical marker genes. Differentially expressed genes were screened in each cell type through differential gene expression analysis, and the biological roles of cells were predicted using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses. Results A total of 43 710 cells from peri⁃lesion and distal hepatic tissues of E. multilocularis⁃infected mice were analyzed, and were classified into 11 cell types, including neutrophils, T cells, macrophages, granulocyte⁃monocyte progenitor cells, B cells, plasma cells, basophils, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and platelets. T cells were the largest population of immune cells in the microenvironment of hepatic tissues, including five CD4+ T cell subsets, two CD8+ T cell subsets and phosphoantigen⁃reactive γδT cells. The proportions of CD4+ helper T cells and cytotoxic CD4+ T cells decreased and the proportion of T helper 2 (Th2) cells increased in peri⁃lesion tissues relative to distal hepatic tissues. In addition, the differentially expressed genes in Th2 cells were associated with negative regulation of the immune system, and the highly expressed genes in cytotoxic CD4+ T cells correlated with activation of the immune system. Conclusions Single⁃cell RNA sequencing deciphers the cell composition and distribution in microenvironments of hepatic tissues from mice infected with E. multilocularis, and the increased proportion of Th2 cells in peri⁃lesion hepatic tissues may be associated with formation of immunosuppressive microenvironments.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Protective effect of recombinant Schistosoma japonicum cystatin against acute kidney injury associated with acute liver failure in mice
    XUE Yuan, YANG Xiaodi, ZHANG Huaping, ZHANG Tingting, CHEN Weihao, CHANG Xinyue, WANG Yanhong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 331-339.  
    Abstract199)      PDF (2448KB)(166)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the protective effect of recombinant Schistosoma japonicum cystatin (rSj⁃Cys) against acute kidney injury induced by acute liver failure and unravel the underlying mechanism, so as to provide insights into the clinical therapy of acute kidney injury. Methods Twenty⁃four male C57BL/6J mice at ages of 6 to 8 weeks were randomly divided into the normal control group, rSj⁃Cys control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D⁃galactosamine (D⁃GaIN) model group and LPS/D⁃GaIN +rSj⁃Cys treatment group, of 6 mice each group. Mice in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group and LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (10 μg/kg) and D⁃GaIN (700 mg/kg), and mice in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group were additionally administered with rSj⁃Cys (1.25 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection 30 min post⁃modeling, while mice in the rSj⁃Cys group were intraperitoneally injected with rSj⁃Cys (1.25 mg/kg), and mice in the normal control group were injected with the normal volume of PBS. All mice were sacrificed 6 h post⁃modeling, and mouse serum and kidney samples were collected. Serum creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured, and the pathological changes of mouse kidney specimens were examined using hematoxylin⁃eosin (HE) staining. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)⁃α and interleukin (IL)⁃6 levels were detected using enzyme⁃linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression of inflammatory factors and pyroptosis⁃related proteins was quantified in mouse kidney specimens using immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of pyroptosis⁃related proteins and nuclear factor⁃kappa B (NF⁃κB) signaling pathway⁃associated proteins was determined in mouse kidney specimens using Western blotting assay. Results HE staining showed no remarkable abnormality in the mouse kidney structure in the normal control group and the rSj⁃Cys control group, and renal tubular injury was found in LPS/D⁃GaIN group, while the renal tubular injury was alleviated in LPS/D⁃GaIN+rSj⁃Cys treatment group. There were significant differences in serum levels of Cr (F = 46.33, P < 0.001), BUN (F = 128.60, P < 0.001), TNF⁃α (F = 102.00, P < 0.001) and IL⁃6 (F = 202.10, P < 0.001) among the four groups , and lower serum Cr [(85.35 ± 32.05) µmol/L], BUN [(11.90 ± 2.76) mmol/L], TNF⁃α [(158.27 ± 15.83) pg/mL] and IL⁃6 levels [(56.72 ± 4.37) pg/mL] were detected in the in LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (all P values < 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining detected significant differences in TNF⁃α (F = 24.16, P < 0.001) and IL⁃10 (F = 15.07, P < 0.01) expression among the four groups , and lower TNF⁃α [(106.50 ± 16.57)%] and higher IL⁃10 expression [(91.83 ± 5.23)%] was detected in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (both P values < 0.01). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry detected significant differences in the protein expression of pyroptosis⁃related proteins NOD⁃like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3) (F = 24.57 and 30.72, both P values < 0.001), IL⁃1β (F =19.24 and 22.59, both P values < 0.001) and IL⁃18 (F = 16.60 and 19.30, both P values < 0.001) in kidney samples among the four groups, and lower NLRP3, IL⁃1β and IL⁃18 expression was quantified in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys treatment group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (P values < 0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in the protein expression of NF⁃κB signaling pathway⁃associated proteins p⁃NF⁃κB p⁃P65/NF⁃κB p65 (F = 71.88, P < 0.001), Toll⁃like receptor (TLR)⁃4 (F = 45.49, P < 0.001) and p⁃IκB/IκB (F = 60.87, P < 0.001) in mouse kidney samples among the four groups, and lower expression of three NF⁃κB signaling pathway⁃associated proteins was determined in the LPS/D⁃GaIN + rSj⁃Cys treatment group than in the LPS/D⁃GaIN group (all P values < 0.01). Conclusion rSj⁃Cys may present a protective effect against acute kidney injury caused by acute liver failure through inhibiting inflammation and pyroptosis and downregulating the NF⁃κB signaling pathway.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Discovery and distribution of and response to arbovirus in China over the past seven decades
    XIA Han, YUAN Zhiming
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 427-436,450.  
    Abstract195)      PDF (1541KB)(254)       Save
    Arbovirus is a group of virus transmitted by blood⁃sucking arthropod bites, which infects both arthropods and vertebrates. More than 600 arboviruses have been characterized worldwide until now, including 65 highly pathogenic viruses, which pose a high threat to public health. The risk of arbovirus transmission is increasing due to climate change, international trade and urbanization. The review summarizes the discovery and distribution of emerging and reemerging arboviruses and novel arboviruses with potential pathogenic risks, and proposes responses to the arbovirus transmission risk, so as to provide insights into the research and management of arboviruses and arthropod⁃borne infectious diseases in China.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress in methodology of the Global Burden of Disease Study and its impact on the disease burden of parasitic diseases
    ZENG Ting, JIA Tiewu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 299-306.  
    Abstract189)      PDF (1232KB)(225)       Save
    Currently, the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is the most comprehensive, systematic, and largest-scale global observational epidemiological project, which measures the national, regional and global mortality and disability of diseases, injuries and risk factors that threaten human health using unified indicators, such as disability-adjusted life year. This review describes the development history, assessment process and methodological advances of GBD, and discusses the impact of GBD on the burden of parasitic diseases, aiming to provide insights into the widespread use of GBD.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria cases after malaria elimination in Yixing City of Jiangsu Province
    LIANG Jing, XUE Zhiqiang, LI Xuebing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 294-298.  
    Abstract168)      PDF (1017KB)(152)       Save
    Objective To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria cases after malaria elimination in Yixing City, Jiangsu Province, so as to provide reference for malaria prevention and control in grassroots healthcare institutions. Methods All data pertaining to malaria cases reported in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022 were retrieved from Chinese Disease Control and Prevention Information System, and the data pertaining to vector monitoring and human malaria parasite infections from 2016 to 2022 were collected for a descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 14 imported malaria cases were reported in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022, including 12 cases with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, one case with P. vivax malaria and one case with P. ovale malaria, and all cases acquired infections in Africa and then returned to Yixing City. Malaria cases were reported across 2016 to 2022 except in 2020 and 2021. Malaria cases were predominantly reported during the period between December and February of the next year, and workers were the predominant occupation. The institutions where malaria was initially diagnosed included county⁃level general hospitals, county⁃level disease prevention and control institutions and grassroots healthcare centers, and there were 10 cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria on the day of initial diagnosis, with a 64.29% (9/14) correct rate of initial diagnosis. There were 5 cases diagnosed with severe malaria, and the standardized response rate was 100.00% following the “1⁃3⁃7” surveillance and response strategy. Of all malaria vectors, only Anopheles sinensis was monitored in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022, and all humans were tested negative for blood smears except imported malaria cases. Conclusions The correct rate of initial malaria diagnosis was not high in healthcare institutions in Yixing City from 2016 to 2022, and there are still multiple challenges for prevention of re⁃establishment of imported malaria.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence of parasitic infections in human stool samples from a hospital in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province
    PENG Yufeng, LIAO Xiaomei, ZHU Lepan, ZHANG Yangnan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 291-293.  
    Abstract163)      PDF (895KB)(98)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in human stool samples from a hospital in Chenzhou City, Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the management of intestinal parasitic diseases. Methods Stool samples were collected from patients admitted to a hospital in Chenzhou City from September 2020 to March 2021, subjected to physiological saline smearing and microscopy for detection of intestinal parasites. The prevalence of parasitic infections and the species of parasites were descriptively analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 1.61% in the 10 728 stool samples, and there were 3 samples with mixed infections of two parasite species. A total of seven parasite species were identified, including Blastocystis hominis (162 cases, 1.55%), Giardia lamblia (5 cases, 0.05%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5 cases, 0.05%), Endolimax nana (one case, 0.01%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (one case, 0.01%), Strongyloides stercoralis (one case, 0.01%) and Trichomonas hominis (one case, 0.01%). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was significantly higher among women than in men (2.14% vs. 1.25%; [χ2] = 13.01, P < 0.01), and a high prevalence rate was seen among patients at ages of 20 to 30 years (2.99%) and 80 years and older (2.86%); however, no age⁃specific prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was detected ([χ2] = 12.45, P > 0.05). Conclusions The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was low among patients admitted to a hospital in Chenzhou City, and gender⁃specific prevalence was found. Food⁃borne and opportunistic parasites were predominant intestinal parasites, including B. hominis, G. lamblia and D. fragilis.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Preliminary study on the mechanism underlying the ecological isolation of Oncomelania hupensis populations in Changde City
    CHEN Shen, DUAN Lei, LI Shengming, ZHOU Jie, ZHOU Yingcai, YANG Yuanzhi, LIU Mengli, WANG Yanren, XIA Shang, XU Jing, LÜ Shan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 147-.  
    Abstract159)      PDF (1500KB)(85)       Save
    Objective To investigate ecological isolation between Oncomelania hupensis snail populations in hilly regions and marshland and lake regions in Yuanjiang valley, Changde City, Hunan Province, and to unravel its underlying mechanisms. Methods Taoyuan County, Shimen County, Linli County and Lixian County in Changdezhou City were selected as snail sampling sites in hilly regions, and Lixian County, Jinshi City, West Lake Administration District, Hanshou County and Dingcheng District were selected as snail sampling sites in marshland and lake areas. Cytochrome C oxidase 1 (cox 1) gene was amplified in snail samples and sequenced. The genetic sequences of O. hupensis snails were aligned using the software MEGA 11, and the haplotypes of O. hupensis snails were determined using the software DNASP 5.10.01. The phylogenetic tree was generated using Bayesian inference with the software MrBayes 3.2, and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was performed to analyze the source of genetic divergence and estimate the genetic divergence index (FST) among snail populations with the software Arlequin 3.5.2.2. The genetic barrier among 11 O. hupensis snail populations was estimated using the Monmonier algorithm of adegenet toolkit in R package. The settings with “land in winter and water in summer” in the Yuanjian River section were divided into two categories according to the upstream and downstream, and the areas with “land in winter and water in summer” in the upstream and downstream were transformed into raster data, and then loaded into the software Fragstats 4 for analysis of landscape indicators. The trends in changes of digital elevation were extracted from the Ruanjiang River section based on the digital elevation model, and made three⁃dimensional visualization using the R package. Results The mitochondrial cox 1 gene were amplified in 165 O. hupensis snais from 11 sampling sites and sequenced, and a total of 152 valid gene sequences were obtained, with 46 haplotypes or 9 populations determined. No haplotype was shared in snails between Taoyuan County and Dingcheng District and Hanshou County along the downstream of the Yuanjiang River. The total area of settings with “land in winter and water in summer” was 617.66 hm2 in the upsteram of the Yuanjiang River, which consisted of 473 patches, with each patch measuring 1.31 hm2, the largest area index of 0.735 2, the landscape division index of 0.999 9, and the landscape shape index of 45.293 7. The total area of settings with “land in winter and water in summer” was 9 956.92 hm2 in the downstream of the Yuanjiang River, which consisted of 771 patches, with each patch measuring 12.91 hm2, the largest area index of 97.839 9, the landscape division index of 0.042 7, and the landscape shape index of 7.249 6. The area of settings with “land in winter and water in summer” was much larger in the downstream than that in the upstream of the Yuanjiang River, and the stronger landscape connectivity and non⁃remarkable alteration of riverbed elevation provided suitable habitats for snail breeding. Conclusion The hydrological and environmental characteristics of the upstream of the Yuanjiang River restrain the breeding and spread of O. hupensis, resulting in ecological isolation between Oncomelania hupensis in Taoyuan County and those in the downstream of Yuanjiang River.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Distribution characteristics of emerging and reemerging Oncomelania hupensis in China from 2015 to 2021
    YANG Fan, FENG Ting, HE Junyi, ZHANG Lijuan, XU Jing, CAO Chunli, LI Shizhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 437-443.  
    Abstract159)      PDF (1289KB)(205)       Save
    Objective To analyze the distribution characteristics of emerging and reemerging Oncomelania hupensis snails after the criteria for transmission control of schistosomiasis were achieved in China, so as to provide insights into assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk and formulation of snail control strategies during the elimination phase. Methods O. hupensis survey data in China from 2015 to 2021 were collected from the National Schistosomiasis Pevention and Control Information Management System, and the distribution characteristics of emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were descriptively analyzed. Results Emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were identified in China each year from 2015 to 2021, with relatively larger areas with emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snail habitats in 2016 and 2021, and relatively higher numbers of counties (districts) where emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were detected in 2016 and 2021. A total of 4 586.30 hm2 of emerging O. hupensis snail habitats were found in 10 schistosomiasis⁃endemic provinces of China (except Fujian and Yunnan Provinces) from 2015 to 2021, with 96.80% in Anhui, Hunan and Hubei provinces, where marshland and lake endemic foci were predominant. A total of 21 023.90 hm2 of reemerging O. hupensis snail habitats were found in 12 schistosomiasis⁃endemic provinces of China from 2015 to 2021, with 97.67% in six provinces of Hubei, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Anhui, where marshland and lake and hilly endemic regions were predominant. Emerging snail habitats were found in 15.08% of all schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts) in China from 2015 to 2021, and 78.75% of all emerging snail habitats were identified in 11 schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts), with the largest area of emerging snail habitats found in Lixian County, Hunan Province (645.00 hm2). Reemerging snail habitats were found in 47.67% of all schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts) in China from 2015 to 2021, and 43.29% of all reemerging snail habitats were identified in 11 schistosomiasis⁃endemic counties (districts), with the largest area of reemerging snail habitats found in Weishan Li and Hui Autonomous County of Hunan Province (1 579.70 hm2). Conclusions Emerging and reemerging O. hupensis snails were identified in China each year from 2015 to 2021, with much larger areas of reemerging snail habitats than emerging snail habitats, and larger numbers of schistosomiasis⁃endemic provinces and counties (districts) with reemerging snails were found that those of provinces and counties (districts) with emerging snails. Specific snail control interventions are required tailored to the causes of emerging and reemerging snail habitats. Both emergence and reemergence of O. hupensis snails should be paid attention to in marshland and lake endemic areas, and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Shanghai Municipality and Zhejiang Province where schistosomiasis had been eliminated, and reemergence of O. hupensis snails should be given a high priority in hilly areas. In addition, monitoring of O. hupensis snails should be reinforced in snail⁃free areas after flooding.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Regular assessment is an effective approach to maintaining the capacity of prevention of re-establishment from imported malaria in China
    ZHU Guoding, CAO Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 113-.  
    Abstract158)      PDF (998KB)(139)       Save
    After achieving malaria elimination, preventing re-establishment from imported malaria and consolidating malaria elimination achievements are top priorities of the national malaria control program in China. Due to the long-term existence of overseas imported malaria cases and incomplete eradication of local epidemic conditions, there are multiple challenges for prevention of re-establishment from imported malaria in China. Hereby, we propose that regular assessment is an effective approach to maintaining the capability of prevention of re-establishment from imported malaria, and describe the purpose, significance, management and implementation of the capability assessment for prevention of re-establishment from imported malaria, so as to provide insights into the formulation and adjustment of malaria control strategies during the post-elimination phase.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence and influencing factors of human soil⁃transmitted nematode infections in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021
    YE Zehao, CHU Kun, ZHANG Jienan, SUN Yawei, LU Feng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 286-290,298.  
    Abstract152)      PDF (1036KB)(101)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021, so as to provide insights into the development of targeted control measures against soil⁃transmitted nematodiasis. Methods Permanent residents at ages of 3 years and older were sampled in Ningbo City using a multi⁃stage sampling method each year during the period from 2016 to 2021. Soil⁃transmitted nematode eggs were detected in stool samples using a modified Kato⁃Katz thick smear method (two slides for each stool sample), and Enterobius vermicularis eggs were additionally identified among children at ages of 3 to 12 years using the adhesive cellophane⁃tape perianal swab method. The time⁃ and regions⁃specific prevalence of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections was calculated, and the factors affecting hookworm infections were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results A total of 11 573 person⁃times were detected for soil⁃transmitted nematode infections in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021, and 296 egg⁃positives were detected, with a mean prevalence rate of 2.56% [95% confidential interval (CI): (2.28%, 2.87%)]. Hookworm was the predominant species of soil⁃transmitted nematode among egg⁃positives in Ningbo City (98.31%, 291/296), and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hookworm infections among years ([χ2] = 190.27, P < 0.01). The highest prevalence of hookworm infections was observed in Ninghai County (4.06%), and there was a region⁃specific prevalence rate of hookworm infection in Ningbo City ([χ2] = 148.43, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that elderly residents at ages of over 60 years [odds ratio (OR)= 1.94, 95% CI: (1.07, 3.54), P < 0.05], males [OR = 2.19, 95% CI: (1.72, 2.80), P < 0.01], farmers [OR = 6.94, 95% CI: (3.37, 14.29), P < 0.01] and residents with a low education level [illiteracy or semi⁃illiterate: OR = 3.82, 95% CI: (1.56, 9.35), P < 0.05; primary school: OR = 2.70,95% CI: (1.11, 6.59), P < 0.05] were at a higher risk for hookworm infections. Conclusions The overall prevalence of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections was low among residents in Ningbo City from 2016 to 2021. The surveillance and health education for human hookworm disease remain to be reinforced among male farmers with a low education level at ages of over 60 years in Ninghai County.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Optimization of the medium and fermentation condition for the Penicillium aurantiocandidum Z12 strain with molluscicidal actions against Oncomelania hupensis
    XIONG Ying, XU Ning, HUANG Junhui, WANG Jiamin, WANG Zhengzhong, JIANG Honglin, TONG Yixin, YIN Jiangfan, GONG Yanfeng, JIANG Qingwu, ZHOU Yibiao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 137-.  
    Abstract151)      PDF (2194KB)(100)       Save
    Objective To optimize the culture and fermentation conditions of the Penicillium aurantiocandidum Z12 strain, a fungal strain with molluscicidal actions against Oncomelania hupensis, so as to provide the basis for the research and development of molluscicidal active substances from the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain and its fermentation broth and large⁃scale fermentation. Methods The carbon source, nitrogen source and mineral salts were identified in the optimal culture medium for the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain with a single⁃factor experiment to determine the best fermentation condition for the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain. Factors that significantly affected the growth of the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain were identified using the Plackett⁃Burman design, and the best range of each factor was determined using the steepest climb test. Response surface analyses of temperature, pH value, seeding amount and liquid⁃filling quantity were performed using the Box⁃Behnken design to create a regression model for fermentation of the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain to identify the optimal culture medium. Results Single⁃factor experiment preliminarily identified the best culture medium and conditions for the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain as follows: sucrose as the carbon source at approximately 20 g/L, tryptone as the nitrogen source at approximately 5 g/L, K2HPO4 as the mineral salt at approximately 5 g/L, initial pH at approximately 8, temperature at approximately 28 ℃, seeding amount at approximately 6%, and liquid⁃filling quantity at approximately 50 mL/100 mL. Plackett⁃Burman design showed that factors that significantly affected the growth of the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain included temperature (t = -5.28, P < 0.05), seeding amount (t = 5.22, P < 0.05), pH (t = -4.30, P < 0.05) and liquid⁃filling quantity (t = -4.39, P < 0.05). Steepest climb test showed the highest mycelial growth at pH of 7.5, seeding amount of 8%, and liquid⁃filling quantity of 40 mL/100 mL, and this condition was selected as the central point of response surface analysis for the subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions. Response surface analyses using the Box⁃Behnken design showed that the optimal conditions for fermentation of the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain included sucrose at 15 g/L, tryptone at 5 g/L, K2HPO4 at 5 g/L, temperature at 28.2 ℃, pH at 7.5, seeding amount at 10%, and liquid⁃filling quantity at 35.8 mL/100 mL, resulting in 0.132 g yield of the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain. Conclusion The optimal culture condition for the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain has been identified, and the optimized culture medium and fermentation condition may effectively improve the fermentation yield of the P. aurantiocandidum Z12 strain.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress of international and national researches on disease burden of echinococcosis
    MIAO Liyuan, TIAN Tian, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 307-312.  
    Abstract148)      PDF (943KB)(167)       Save
    As a neglected tropical disease defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), echinococcosis causes a huge public health burden. Understanding the disease burden due to echinococcosis facilitates the progress towards elimination of the disease. This review analyzes the advances in disease and economic burdens of echinococcosis, describes the status quo disease burden due to echinococcosis in different areas of the world, compares the difference between international and national studies on disease and economic burdens of echinococcosis, and discusses the shortcomings of the current international and national studies on disease burden of echinococcosis. Currently, the studies on disease burden of echinococcosis suffer from problems of few field survey data and lack of authoritative disability weights for echinococcosis, while the studies on economic burden of echinococcosis suffer from problems of lack of comprehensive study populations and indicators.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Comparison of the disease burden of schistosomiasis globally and in China and Zimbabwe
    LI Hongmei, ZHENG Jinxin, QIAN Yingjun, LÜ Shan, XIA Shang, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 128-.  
    Abstract147)      PDF (2712KB)(155)       Save
    Objective To investigate the trends in the disease burden of schistosomiasis worldwide and in China, and Zimbabwe from 1990 to 2019, so as to provide insights into the formulation of the schistosomiasis control strategy in Zimbabwe. Methods Based on Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019) data sources, the age⁃standardized prevalence, mortality, disability⁃adjusted life year (DALY) rate of schistosomiasis were compared in the world, China, and Zimbabwe and the trends in the disease burden of schistosomiasis from 1990 to 2019 were investigated using Joinpoint regression analysis. In addition, the associations between the burden of schistosomiasis worldwide and in China, and Zimbabwe from 1990 to 2019 and socio⁃demographic index (SDI) were examined using Pearson correlation analysis. Results The age⁃standardized prevalence, mortality, and DALY rate of schistosomiasis were 1 804.95/105, 0.14/105 and 20.92/105 in the world, 707.09/105, 0.02/105 and 5.06/105 in China, and 2 218.90/105, 2.39/105 and 90.09/105 in Zimbabwe in 2019, respectively. The global prevalence, mortality, and DALY rate of schistosomiasis appeared a tendency towards a rise followed by a decline with age in 2019, while the prevalence and DALY rate of schistosomiasis appeared a tendency towards a sharp rise followed by a fluctuating decline in both China and Zimbabwe, and the mortality of schistosomiasis appeared a tendency towards a rise. The age⁃standardized prevalence [average annual percent change (AAPC) = -1.31%,-2.22% and -6.12%; t = -20.07, -83.38 and -53.06; all P values < 0.05)] and DALY rate of schistosomiasis (AAPC = -1.91%,-4.17% and -2.08%; t = -31.89,-138.70 and -16.45; all P values < 0.05) appeared a tendency towards a decline with years. From 1990 to 2019, for the world, China and Zimbabwe, and the age⁃standardized mortality of schistosomiasis appeared a tendency towards a decline with years in the world and China (AAPC = -3.46% and -8.10%,t = -41.03 and-61.74; all P values < 0.05), and towards a rise followed by a decline in Zimbabwe (AAPC = 1.35%,t = 4.88,P < 0.05). In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that the age⁃standardized prevalence (r = -0.75, P < 0.05), mortality (r = -0.73, P < 0.05), and DALY rate of schistosomiasis (r = -0.77, P < 0.05) correlated negatively with SDI in the world, China and Zimbabwe from 1990 to 2019. Conclusions The disease burden of schistosomiasis appeared a remarkable decline in China from 1990 to 2019, and the prevalence of schistosomiasis showed a tendency towards decline in Zimbabwe from 1990 to 2019; however, the mortality and DALY rate of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe topped in the world. A schistosomiasis control strategy with adaptations to local epidemiology and control needs of schistosomiasis is needed to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial distribution characteristics of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and seroprevalence of anti⁃ Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province in 2020
    ZHOU Yu, TANG Ling, TONG Yixin, HUANG Junhui, WANG Jiamin, ZHANG Yue, JIANG Honglin, XU Ning, GONG Yanfeng, YIN Jiangfan, JIANG Qingwu, ZHOU Jie, ZHOU Yibiao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 444-450.  
    Abstract146)      PDF (2702KB)(166)       Save
    Objective To investigate the spatial distribution characteristics of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody, and to examine the correlation between the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province in 2020, so as to provide insights into advanced schistosomiais control in the province. Methods The epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province in 2020 were collected, including number of permanent residents in survey villages, number of advanced schistosomiasis patients, number of residents receiving serological tests and number of residents sero⁃positive for anti⁃Schistosoma antibody, and the prevalence advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody were descriptively analyzed. Village⁃based spatial distribution characteristics of prevalence advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody were identified in Hunan Province in 2020, and the correlation between the revalence advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody was examined using Spearman correlation analysis. Results The prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis was 0 to 2.72% and the sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody was 0 to 20.25% in 1 153 schistosomiasis⁃endemic villages in Hunan Province in 2020, and spatial clusters were identified in both the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis was 0 to 2.72% (global Moran’s I = 0.416, P < 0.01) and the sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody (global Moran’s I = 0.711, P < 0.01) in Hunan Province. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis identified 98 schistosomiasis⁃endemic villages with high⁃high clusters of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis, 134 endemic villages with high⁃high clusters of the sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody and 36 endemic villages with high⁃high clusters of both the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province. In addition, spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody (rs = 0.235, P < 0.05). Conclusions There were spatial clusters of the prevalence of advanced schistosomiasis and sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Schistosoma antibody in Hunan Province in 2020, which were predominantly located in areas neighboring the Dongting Lake. These clusters should be given a high priority in the schistosomiasis control programs.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human ocular helaziasis in China from 2011 to 2022 based on bibliometrics
    ZHAO Yuhui, PEI Fengting, YANG Naifu, SUN Huayue, GAO Zihui, TIAN Qingmei, LU Xiuzhen
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 513-516.  
    Abstract146)      PDF (884KB)(185)       Save
    Objective To understand the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of human ocular thelaziasis patients in China. Methods Case reports regarding human ocular thelaziasis cases in China were retrieved in international and national electronic databases, including CNKI, VIP, CBM, Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Wanfang Database, PubMed and Web of Science from 2011 to 2022. Patients’ gender, age, clinical symptoms, treatment, recurrence, site of infections, time of onset, affected eye, affected sites, number of infected Thelazia callipaeda, sex of T. callipaeda and source of infections were extracted for descriptive analyses. Results A total of 85 eligible publications were included, covering 101 cases of human ocular thelaziasis, including 57 males (56.44%) and 44 females (43.56%) and aged from 3 months to 85 years. The main clinical manifestations included foreign body sensation (56 case⁃times, 22.49%), eye itching (38 case⁃times, 15.26%), abnormal or increased secretions (36 case⁃times, 14.46%), tears (28 case⁃times, 11.24%) and eye redness (28 case⁃times, 11.24%), and conjunctival congestion (50 case⁃times, 41.67%) was the most common clinical sign. The most common main treatment (99/101, 98.02%) was removal of parasites from eyes using ophthalmic forceps, followed by administration with ofloxacin and pranoprofen. In publications presenting thelaziasis recurrence, there were 90 cases without recurrence (97.83%) and 2 cases with recurrence (2.17%). Of all cases, 51.96% were reported in four provinces of Hubei, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Henan, and ocular thelaziasis predominantly occurred in summer (42.19%) and autumn (42.19%). In addition, 56.45% (35/62) had a contact with dogs. Conclusions The human thelaziasis cases mainly occur in the continental monsoon and subtropical monsoon climate areas such as the Yellow River and the Yangtze River basin, and people of all ages and genders have the disease, with complex clinical symptoms and signs. Personal hygiene is required during the contact with dogs, cats and other animals, and individual protection is required during outdoor activities to prevent thelaziasis.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Bioinformatics analysis and prokaryotic expression of Strongyloides stercoralis serine protease inhibitor 1
    HAN Xue, BI Xianglian, ZHAO Hongying, SHI Yunliang, WEN Qing, LÜ Jiayin, SUN Jiayue, FU Xiaoyin, LIU Dengyu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 244-250.  
    Abstract142)      PDF (1446KB)(101)       Save
    Objective To predict the structure and antigenic epitope of the Strongyloides stercoralis serine protease inhibitor 1 (Ss⁃SRPN⁃1) protein using bioinformatics tools, and to construct prokaryotic expression plasmids for expression of recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein, so as to provide the basis for unraveling the function of the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein. Methods The amino acid sequence of the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein was downloaded from the NCBI database, and the physicochemical properties, structure and antigenic epitopes of the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein were predicted using bioinformatics tools, including ExPASy, SWISS⁃MODEL and Protean. Primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of Ss⁃SRPN⁃1, and the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced with genomic DNA extracted from the infective third⁃stage larvae of S. stercoralis as a template. The Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein sequence was cloned into the pET28a (+) expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE) cells for induction of the recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein expression. The recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein was then purified and identified using Western blotting and mass spectrometry. Results Bioinformatics analysis showed that the Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein, which was composed of 372 amino acids and had a molecular formula of C1948H3046N488O575S16, was a stable hydrophilic protein, and the subcellular localization of the protein was predicted to be extracellular. The Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein was predicted to contain 11 dominant B⁃cell antigenic epitopes and 20 T⁃cell antigenic epitopes. The Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 gene with a length of 1 119 bp was successfully amplified, and the recombinant plasmid pET28a (+)/Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE) cells. The expressed recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein had a molecular weight of approximately 43 kDa, and was characterized as a Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein. Conclusions The recombinant Ss⁃SRPN⁃1 protein has been expressed successfully, and this recombinant protein may be a potential vaccine candidate against strongyloidiasis.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Epidemiological features of echinococcosis cases reported in the National Notifiable Disease Report System in Henan Province from 2010 to 2021
    ZHANG Yalan, JIANG Tiantian, WANG Dan, DENG Yan, CHEN Weiqi, ZHU Yankun, ZHANG Hongwei
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 177-.  
    Abstract141)      PDF (1270KB)(127)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of echinococcosis cases reported in the National Notifiable Disease Report System in Henan Province from 2010 to 2011, so as to provide insights into for echinococcosis control and surveillance. Methods The data pertaining to reported echinococcosis cases in Henan Province from 2010 to 2021 were retrieved from the National Notifiable Disease Report System, and a descriptive epidemiological analysis was performed using the software SPSS 22.0. Results A total of 150 echinococcosis cases were reported in Henan Province from 2010 to 2021, including 88 confirmed cases (58.67%) and 62 clinically diagnosed cases (41.33%), 77 cases reported by Henan Province (51.33%) and 73 cases reported by other provinces (48.67%). Echinococcosis cases were reported in each month, with 8 to 21 cases reported in each month, and the number of reported echinococcosis cases appeared no remarkable temporal changes. The echinococcosis cases were reported across 18 cities of Henan Province, with the highest number of cases reported in Zhoukou (17.33%) and Nanyang cities (17.33%) and the lowest number reported in Sanmenxia City (0.67%). The reported echinococcosis cases had a male to female ratio of 1.17∶1, and the cases were found at each age group, with the the highest number of cases seen at ages of 20 to 59 years (73.33%). Farmer was the predominant occupation (63.33%), followed by housekeepers and the unemployed (12.67%). Of all reported echinococcosis cases, there were 25 local cases (16.67%) and 125 imported cases (83.33%), 144 cases reported by medical institutions (96.00%) and 6 cases reported by centers for disease control and prevention (4.00%). Conclusions Although imported echinococcosis cases were the predominant source of echinococcosis cases reported in the National Notifiable Disease Report System in Henan Province from 2010 to 2021, there were still sporadic local cases, and the emergence of local sources of infection cannot be excluded. Further expanded field surveys and surveillance of echinococcosis are required.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress of researches on techniques for detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in intermediate host snails
    ZHAO Yongbo, LI Tianmei, GUO Yunhai
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 313-316.  
    Abstract140)      PDF (904KB)(119)       Save
    Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease in China. Snails are intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and play a critical role in the transmission of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis. Detection of A. cantonensis in snails is an important part of epidemiological surveys. Currently, the rapid developments in the techniques for detection of A. cantonensis in snails facilitate the surveillance of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis and provide an important support for angiostrongyliasis cantonensis prevention and control. This review summarizes the advances in the techniques for detection of A. cantonensis in snails.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Prediction of potential suitable habitats of Haemphysalis concinna in Heilongjiang Province based on the maximum entropy model
    ZHANG Yaming, WANG Yue, YUAN Shuang, TANG Lei, ZHANG Wenjia, CHEN Qu, CHEN Shulin, YU Yang, JIA Yuehui
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 263-270.  
    Abstract140)      PDF (2698KB)(117)       Save
    Objective To predict the potential suitable habitat of Haemaphysalis concinna in Heilongjiang Province under different climatic scenarios. Methods The geographic locations of ticks in Heilongjiang Province from 1980 to 2022 were captured from literature review and field ticks monitoring data from Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Heilongjiang Province, and the tick distribution sites with spatial correlations were removed using the software ArcGIS 10.2. The environment data under historical climatic scenarios from 1970 to 2000 and the climatic shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) 126 scenario model from 2021 to 2040 and from 2041 to 2060 were downloaded from the WorldClim website, and the elevation (1 km, 2010), population (1 km grid population dataset of China, 2010) and annual vegetation index (1 km, 2010) data were downloaded from the Resource and Environmental Science and Data Center, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The contribution of environmental factors to H. concinna distribution was evaluated and environmental variables were screened using the software MaxEnt 3.4.1 and R package 4.1.0, and the areas of suitable habitats of H. concinna and changes in center of gravity were analyzed using the maximum entropy model in Heilongjiang Province under different climatic scenarios. In addition, the accuracy of the maximum entropy model for prediction of H. concinna distribution was assessed using the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results A total of 79 H. concinna distribution sites and 24 environmental variables were collected, and 70 H. concinna distribution sites and 9 environmental factors that contributed to distribution of the potential suitable habitats of H. concinna in Heilongjiang Province were screened. The three most significant contributing factors included precipitation seasonality, annual precipitation, and mean temperature of the driest quarter, with cumulative contributions of 60.7%. The total area of suitable habitats of H. concinna was 29.05 × 104 km2 in Heilongjiang Province under historical climatic scenarios, with the center of gravity of suitable habitats located at (47.31° N, 129.16° E), while the total area of suitable habitats of H. concinna reduced by 0.97 × 104 km2 in Heilongjiang Province under the climatic SSP126 scenario from 2041 to 2060, with the center of gravity shifting to (47.70° N, 129.28° E). Conclusions The distribution of suitable habitats of H. concinna strongly correlates with temperature and humidity in Heilongjiang Province. The total area of potential suitable habitats of H. concinna may appear a tendency towards a decline with climatic changes in Heilongjiang Province, and high⁃, medium⁃ and low⁃suitable habitats may shift.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in snails in Fujian Province from 2017 to 2021
    XIE Xianliang, CHEN Yunhong, LI Yanrong, XIE Hanguo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 282-285.  
    Abstract136)      PDF (970KB)(92)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in market⁃sold and field⁃captured snails in Fujian Province, so as to provide the scientific basis for the formulation of the angiostrongyliasis control measures. Methods In each month from May to October during the period from 2017 through 2021, Pomacea snails were collected from two field fixed surveillance sites and Bellamya aeruginosa collected from one agricultural product market in Fuzhou City, while Pomacea and B. aeruginosa snails were collected from two agricultural product markets and four restaurants in Xiamen City. At least 50 Pomacea snails and 500 g B. aeruginosa were sampled each time. A. cantonensis infection was detected in Pomacea snails using lung microscopy, and in B. aeruginosa using a tissue homogenate method. Results A total of 9 531 Pomacea snails were detected for A. cantonensis infection in two cities of Fuzhou and Xiamen, and the overall prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was 4.40%, with the highest prevalence in 2017 (6.82%, 116/1 701) and the lowest prevalence in 2019 (3.46%, 83/2 400). The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was significantly higher in Pomacea snails sampled from Fuzhou City (11.23%, 326/2 903) than from Xiamen City (1.40%, 93/6 628) ([χ2] = 461.48, P < 0.01). A. cantonensis larvae were detected in larval Pomacea snails in two cities of Fuzhou and Xiamen each month. The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Pomacea snails appeared an overall tendency towards a rise with month in Fuzhou City, with the highest prevalence in October (15.24%), and there was a significant difference among month ([χ2] = 14.56, P < 0.05), while the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Pomacea snails was low in Pomacea snails sampled from Xiamen City each month, with the highest prevalence in June (2.64%), and there was a significant difference among month ([χ2] = 23.17, P < 0.05). A total of 18 966 B. aeruginosa snails were detected for A. cantonensis infection in two cities of Fuzhou and Xiamen, and the overall prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was 0.01%. Conclusions A. cantonensis infection was identified in Pomacea and B. aeruginosa snails in Fujian Province from 2017 to 2021, and there is a potential risk of human A. cantonensis infection.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Molluscicidal effect of spraying 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules with drones against Oncomelania hupensis in hilly regions
    HE Junyi, ZHANG Yun, BAO Ziping, GUO Suying, CAO Chunli, DU Chunhong, CHA Jianwei, SUN Jiayu, DONG Yi, XU Jing, LI Shizhu, ZHOU Xiaonong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 451-457,507.  
    Abstract135)      PDF (1268KB)(145)       Save
    Objective To establish a snail control approach for spraying chemicals with drones against Oncomelania hupensis in complex snail habitats in hilly regions, and to evaluate its molluscicidal effect. Methods The protocol for evaluating the activity of spraying chemical molluscicides with drones against O. hupensis snails was formulated based on expert consultation and literature review. In August 2022, a pretest was conducted in a hillside field environment (12 000 m2) north of Dafengji Village, Dacang Township, Weishan County, Yunnan Province, which was assigned into four groups, of no less than 3 000 m2 in each group. In Group A, environmental cleaning was not conducted and 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules were sprayed with drones at a dose of 40 g/m2, and in Group B, environmental cleaning was performed, followed by 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules sprayed with drones at a dose of 40 g/m2, while in Group C, environmental cleaning was not conducted and 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules were sprayed with knapsack sprayers at a dose of 40 g/m2, and in Group D, environmental cleaning was performed, followed by 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules sprayed with knapsack sprayers at a dose of 40 g/m2. Then, each group was equally divided into six sections according to land area, with Section 1 for baseline surveys and sections 1 to 5 for snail surveys after chemical treatment. Snail surveys were conducted prior to chemical treatment and 1, 3, 5, 7 days post⁃treatment, and the mortality and corrected mortality of snails, density of living snails and costs of molluscicidal treatment were calculated in each group. Results The mortality and corrected mortality of snails were 9.49%, 69.09%, 53.57% and 83.48%, and 68.58%, 68.17%, 52.19% and 82.99% in groups A, B, C and D 14 days post⁃treatment, and the density of living snails reduced by 58.40%, 63.94%, 68.91% and 83.25% 14 days post⁃treatment relative to pre⁃treatment in four groups, respectively. The median concentrations of chemical molluscicides were 37.08, 35.42, 42.50 g/m2 and 56.25 g/m2 in groups A, B, C and D, and the gross costs of chemical treatment were 0.93, 1.50, 0.46 Yuan per m2 and 1.03 Yuan per m2 in groups A, B, C and D, respectively. Conclusions The molluscicidal effect of spraying 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules with drones against O. hupensis snails is superior to manual chemical treatment without environmental cleaning, and chemical treatment with drones and manual chemical treatment show comparable molluscicidal effects following environmental cleaning in hilly regions. The cost of chemical treatment with drones is slightly higher than manual chemical treatment regardless of environmental cleaning. Spraying 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules with drones is recommended in complex settings with difficulty in environmental cleaning to improve the molluscicidal activity and efficiency against O. hupensis snails.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress of researches on developmental processes and reproduction mode of Pneumocystis
    XUE Ting, DU Weiqin, WANG Jing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 522-528.  
    Abstract134)      PDF (1242KB)(148)       Save
    Pneumocystis, an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that parasitizes in multiple mammalian lungs, may cause life⁃threatening Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and even death among immunocompromised individuals. With the rapid development of high⁃throughput sequencing and multi⁃omics technologies, systematic comparative analyses of genome, transcriptome, and whole⁃genome sequencing results demonstrate that Pneumocystis is a type of obligate biotrophic fungi, and requires obtaining nutrition from hosts. In addition, sexual reproduction is an essential process for Pneumocystis survival, production and transmission, and asexual reproduction facilitates Pneumocystis survival, which provides new insights into understanding of the whole developmental process of Pneumocystis in the host lung and inter⁃host transmission of Pneumocystis. This review summarizes the advances in the reproduction mode of Pneumocystis and underlying mechanisms, which provides insights into prevention and treatment of PCP, notably for the prophylaxis against nosocomial transmission of PCP.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress of researches on molecular mechanisms underlying helminth infection⁃mediated type 1/2 host immune responses
    MU Qianqian, ZHOU Biying
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 534-538.  
    Abstract131)      PDF (1049KB)(148)       Save
    Helminth infections are widespread worldwide, and pose a serious threat to human health and animal husbandry development. Understanding of helminth⁃host interactions is critical to effective control and ultimate eradication of helminthiasis. Following host infections, helminth infections firstly initiate innate immune responses and then mediate adaptive immune responses. Type 1 immune responses are predominant at early stage of helminth infections, which mainly play anti⁃infective actions, and type 2 immune responses are predominant at late stage of infections, which are associated with helminth immune evasion and aggravation of tissue damages. This review summarizes the progress of researches on type 1/2 immune responses⁃associated signaling pathways mediated by helminth infections in hosts.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Cross⁃species regulation and underlying mechanisms of parasite⁃derived non⁃coding RNAs: a review
    DAI Yue, YANG Qingli
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 529-533.  
    Abstract130)      PDF (1075KB)(143)       Save
    Parasite⁃derived non⁃coding RNAs (ncRNAs) not only contribute to life activities of parasites, and microRNA (miRNA), long non⁃coding RNA (lncRNA), and circular RNA (circRNA) may generate a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network with host miRNAs and mRNAs via extracellular vesicles, thereby participating in infection and pathogenic processes. This article presents an overview of characterizing ncRNAs derived from parasites and the cross⁃species regulatory role of parasite⁃derived ncRNAs in host gene expression and its underlying mechanisms.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Interpretation of Detection and identification standard of hookworm—Hookworm larvae coproculture techniques (WS/T 791—2021)
    DENG Yan, JIANG Tiantian, CHEN Weiqi, ZHANG Yalan, ZHANG Hongwei, ZHAO Dongyang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 279-281,285.  
    Abstract129)      PDF (1037KB)(91)       Save
    Detection and identification standard of hookworm—Hookworm larvae coproculture techniques (WS/T 791—2021) is the first recommended technical standard for hookworm detection and species identification using the hookworm larvae coproculture technique in China. This standard was issued on November 23, 2021, and had been in effect since May 1, 2022. This article provides a detailed interpretation pertaining to the background, drafting process, main contents, and dos and don’ts for better understanding and application of this standard among professionals working in disease control and prevention institutions and medical institutions.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Effect of information⁃knowledge⁃attitude⁃practice theory⁃based health education on clonorchiasis control among community residents and primary school students in Zhongshan City
    HUO Shuting, ZHENG Yingyan, DENG Shaona, HUANG Guoxian
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (5): 517-521.  
    Abstract127)      PDF (892KB)(108)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the effect of information⁃knowledge⁃attitude⁃practice (IKAP) theory⁃based health education interventions on clonorchiasis control among community residents and primary school students in Torch High⁃tech Development Zone of Zhongshan City, so as to provide insights into formulation of clonorchiasis control strategies among different types of populations. Methods Residents were randomly sampled from two communities and students from two primary schools using a random cluster sampling method in Torch High⁃tech Development Zone, Zhongshan City from 2019 to 2021, and health education pertaining to clonorchiasis control was performed based on the IKAP theory. The changes in the awareness of basic clonorchiasis control knowledge and belief, self⁃reported risk of Clonorchis sinensis infections and dietary behaviors were compared among community residents and primary school students before and after health education interventions. Results The participants included 146 male and 151 female community residents and 158 male and 153 female primary school students, with no significant difference detected in gender distribution ([χ2] = 0.16, P > 0.05). The mean awareness of basic clonorchiasis control knowledge increased by 44.71% and 43.28% among primary school students and community residents 6 months following health education, and there were significant differences in the awareness of each item of basic clonorchiasis control knowledge before and after health education ([χ2] = 41.53 to 284.44, all P values < 0.05). The proportions of primary school students and community residents thinking very high and high risks of C. sinensis infections increased from 9.35% and 6.71% before health education to 22.15% and 37.75% after health education, but only the difference of the attitudes in community residents achieve statistical significance ([χ2] = 92.18, P < 0.05). The frequency of separation of raw and cooked foods with chopping board and knife significantly increased among community residents and primary school students following health education ([χ2] = 16.04 to 62.65, all P values < 0.05). The frequency of eating raw freshwater fish ([χ2] = 32.85,P < 0.05), fish congee ([χ2] = 7.02,P < 0.05) and fish fillet hot pot ([χ2] = 4.88,P < 0.05) significantly reduced among primary school students following health education, while only the frequency and proportions of eating raw freshwater fish have significantly reduced in community residents ([χ2] = 11.77, P < 0.05). Conclusions Health education interventions based on the IKAP theory are effective to increase the awareness of clonorchiasis control knowledge and improve dietary behaviors associated with C. sinensis infections among community residents and primary school students in Zhongshan City.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Application of the “virtual⁃real combination” experimental teaching model in Human Parasitology teaching: a case study of comprehensive schistosome experiments
    CHEN Xiaojun, ZHOU Sha, QIU Jingfan, CHEN Lin, XU Zhipeng, JI Minjun, GUO Jing, ZHANG Rong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (2): 180-.  
    Abstract126)      PDF (1016KB)(83)       Save
    Information technology has become an important driver to facilitate higher education developments in the context of new medical sciences. A new “virtual⁃real combination” experimental teaching model was designed and created through integrating information technology with experimental teaching by Experimental Teaching Center of Basic Medical Sciences and Department of Pathogen Biology, Nanjing Medical University and was applied in Human Parasitology teaching, which achieved satisfactory teaching effectiveness. This new model showed effective to deepen the understanding of the basic human parasitology knowledge, improve the operative skills, and cultivate the moral literacy and comprehensive capability among medical students. This report presents the teaching protocols and implementation, teaching effectiveness and evaluation, and experiences of comprehensive schistosome experiments.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Cystic echinococcosis misdiagnosed as hepatic cyst: a case report
    PANG Chongmin, ZHANG Bo, CHEN Yao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 322-324.  
    Abstract125)      PDF (1672KB)(90)       Save
    This case report presents the diagnosis and treatment of a case of cystic echinococcosis misdiagnosed as hepatic cyst. The case had anaphylactic shock caused by extravasation of cyst fluid during extraction of hepatic cyst and suffered from postoperative recurrence of echinococcosis. This case report may provide insights into diagnosis and treatment of cystic echinococcosis among healthcare workers in non⁃endemic areas.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety and effect of psychological interventions among schistosomiasis patients in China: a meta⁃analysis
    WANG Meiti, JIN Guixiang, CHENG Ying, ZHENG Jinxin, TIAN Liguang, ZHANG Shunxian, HONG Wu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (4): 340-348.  
    Abstract121)      PDF (1627KB)(154)       Save
    Objective To investigate the prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety and to evaluate the effect of psychological interventions among schistosomiasis patients in China, so as to provide insights into improvements of psychological health among schistosomiasis patients. Methods Publications pertaining to comorbid depression and anxiety and psychological interventions among Chinese schistosomiasis patients were retrieved in electronic databases, including CNKI, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. The prevalence of comorbidity, psychological interventions, and scores for the Self⁃Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self⁃Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after psychological interventions among Chinese schistosomiasis patients were extracted. The prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety was investigated among Chinese schistosomiasis patients using a meta⁃analysis, and the effect of psychological interventions for depression and anxiety was evaluated. Results A total of 231 publications were retrieved, and 14 publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the final analysis, including 2 English publications and 12 Chinese publications. Meta⁃analysis showed that the prevalence rates of comorbid depression and anxiety were 61% [95% confidential interval (CI): (48%, 72%)] and 64% [95% CI: (42%, 81%)] among Chinese schistosomiasis patients. Both the SDS [1.45 points, 95% CI: (1.30, 1.60) points] and SAS scores [2.21 points, 95% CI: (2.05, 2.38) points] reduced among Chinese schistosomiasis patients after psychological interventions than before psychological interventions, and the SDS [−0.47 points, 95% CI: (−6.90, −0.25) points] and SAS scores [−1.30 points, 95% CI: (−1.52, −1.09) points] reduced among Chinese schistosomiasis patients in the case group than in the control group. Conclusions The comorbid anxiety and depression are common among Chinese schistosomiasis patients, and conventional psychological interventions facilitate the improvements of anxiety and depression among schistosomiasis patients.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of angiotensin⁃converting enzyme on reproduction of Culex pipiens pallens
    WANG Huan, LIU Jin, KAILIMAI Aini, ZHENG Junnan, SHEN Bo, SUN Yan, ZHOU Dan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2023, 35 (3): 251-257.  
    Abstract117)      PDF (1811KB)(86)       Save
    Objective To investigate the role of angiotensin⁃converting enzyme (ACE) in the reproduction of Culex pipiens pallens, so as to provide insights into selection of targets for controlling mosquito vector populations. Methods Cx. pipiens pallens was collected from Tangkou County, Shandong Province in 2009. Female and male mosquitoes were selected at 72 hours post⁃eclosion, and quantitative real⁃time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) assay was used to detect the expression of ACE gene in the whole body and reproductive tissues of male mosquitoes and fertilized female mosquitoes before (0 h) and after blood meals (24, 48, 72 h), respectively. Then, 150 female and 150 male mosquitoes at 0 to 4 hours post⁃eclosion were selected and divided into the wild⁃type group (WT group), small interfering RNA⁃negative control group (siNC group) and small interfering RNA⁃ACE group (siACE group), of 50 mosquitoes in each group. Mosquitoes in the WT group were given no treatment, and mosquitoes in the siNC and siACE groups were given microinjection of siNC and siACE into the hemolymph at a dose of 0.3 μg per mosquito. The knockdown efficiency was checked using qPCR assay, and the reproductive phenotype of mosquitoes was observed. Results The relative ACE gene expression was higher in the whole body of male mosquitoes (5.467 ± 1.006) relative to females (1.199 ± 0.241) (t = 5.835, P = 0.004) at 72 h post⁃eclosion, and the highest ACE expression was seen in reproductive tissues of male mosquitoes (199.100 ± 24.429), which was 188.3 times higher than in remaining tissues (1.057 ± 0.340) (t = 6.602, P = 0.002). Blood meal induced high ACE expression in all body tissues of fertilized female mosquitoes, with peak expression at 24 h after blood meals (14.957 ± 2.815), which was 14.8 times higher than that before blood meals (1.009 ± 0.139) (P = 0.002). The transcriptional level of ACEs continued to increase in the ovaries of female mosquitoes after blood meals during the vitellogenesis phase, peaking at 48 h after blood meals (5.500 ± 0.734), which was 5.1 times higher than that before blood meals (1.072 ± 0.178) (P = 0.002). Small RNA interference targeting ACE resulted in a 57.2% reduction in ACE expression in female mosquitoes in the siACE group (0.430 ± 0.070) relative to the siNC group (1.002 ± 0.070) (P = 0.001), and a 41.1% reduction in male mosquitoes in the siACE group (0.588 ± 0.067) relative to the siNC group (1.008 ± 0.131) (P = 0.016). Knockdown of ACE expression resulted in a 48.0% decrease in the number of eggs laid by female mosquitoes in the siACE group [(94.000 ± 27.386) eggs] relative to the siNC group [(180.800 ± 27.386)] (P < 0.001), and a 45.0% decrease in the number of eggs laid by wild female mosquitoes mated with males in the siACE group [(104.500 ± 20.965) eggs] relative to the siNC group [(190.050 ± 10.698) eggs] (P < 0.001). Conclusions Reduced ACE expression may inhibit the fecundity of male and female mosquitoes, and ACE may be as a potential target for mosquito vector population suppression.
    Related Articles | Metrics