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    Current status and challenges for taeniasis and cysticercosis control in China
    GUO Zhao⁃yu, LIU Jian⁃feng, ZHOU Chang⁃hai, QIAN Men⁃bao, CHEN Ying⁃dan, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong, LI Shi⁃zhu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 563-.  
    Abstract419)      PDF (944KB)(203)       Save
    In the WHO new road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, the disease⁃specific targets are classified into control, elimination as a public health problem, elimination and eradication, and taeniasis and cysticercosis are targeted for control. The overall prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis is low in China, and varies remarkably in regions and populations; however, there are many challenges for elimination of taeniasis and cysticercosis in China. Based on previous taeniasis and cysticercosis control programs, developing a sensitive taeniasis and cysticercosis surveillance⁃response system, updating criteria for diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, proposing a national guideline for treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis, and strengthening interdisciplinary and intersectoral communications and collaborations are urgently needed under the One Health concept.
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    Harder maintained than achieved: Challenges of maintaining malaria-free in China
    ZHU Guo⁃ding, GAO Qi, CAO Jun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (2): 109-.  
    Abstract419)      PDF (1006KB)(148)       Save
    On June 2021, China was certified malaria-free by WHO. However, the global number and death of malaria cases have recently increased, and the malaria vectors will continue to inhabit in China, resulting in a high difficulty in consolidation of malaria elimination achievements. Hereby, we analyze the current challenges and propose the future priority of the national malaria control program in China, in order to provide insights into prevention of re⁃establishment of imported malaria in the country.
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    Epidemiological trends of schistosomiasis in Poyang County of Jiangxi Province from 2004 to 2020 based on the Joinpoint regression model
    WU Xin⁃hua, WU Jun, XU Ren⁃mei, XIONG Ying, CHEN Zhe
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 7-.  
    Abstract380)      PDF (1296KB)(232)       Save
    Objective To analyze the dynamic changes of schistosomiasis in Poyang County of Jiangxi Province from 2004 to 2020, so as to provide insight into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. Methods Schistosomiasis control data were captured from Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and the epidemiological data of schistosomiasis were collected from national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in Poyang County from 2005 to 2020. The endemic status of schistosomiasis was analyzed in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and a Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to investigate the trends of schistosomiasis in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020. Results The sero⁃prevalence and egg⁃prevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 24.39% (24 976/102 397) and 4.53% (259/5 721) in 2004 to 5.37% (2 421/45 100) [annual percent change (APC) = average annual percent change (AAPC) = -8.64% ] and 0 (0/3 963) in 2020 (APC = AAPC = -32.07%) in Poyang County, and the trends were both significant (both P < 0.01). The sero⁃prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 1.21% (294/24 332) in bovines in 2013 to 0.58% (35/5 999) in 2020 in Poyang County, with one turning point (AAPC = -8.20%,P > 0.05). There were no townships or villages with emerging snail habitats in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020, and there were three turning points of trend in the proportion of snail areas detected in total snail areas (AAPC = -2.30%,P > 0.01).The sero⁃prevalence and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 60.82% (742/1 220) and 10.16% (124/1 220) in local residents in 2005 to 5.73% (70/1 221) and 0 in 2020 in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Poyang County, and the trends for sero⁃prevalence (APC = AAPC = 17.47%, P < 0.01) and adjusted prevalence of S. japonicum infections (APC = AAPC = -44.92%, P < 0.01) were both statistically significant. S. japonicum infections were identified in 10 (2005) and 2 local livestock (2007), with prevalence of 10.00% (10/100) and 13.33% (2/15), respectively, and S. japonicum infections were detected in snails in 2008 and 2009; however, no positive samples of mixed O. hupensis were detected by loop⁃mediated isothermal amplification. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis control had remarkably reduced in Poyang County from 2004 to 2020; however, there are still challenges for consolidating schistosomiasis control achievements and even elimination of schistosomiasis.
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    Development and application of the world’s first malaria subunit vaccine RTS, S/AS01
    XU Wen⁃yue
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 557-.  
    Abstract372)      PDF (643KB)(141)       Save
    On October, 2021, the WHO announced the recommendation of RTS, S/AS01 for use among children living in moderately and highly malaria⁃endemic areas, which receives global attention. Here, the history of RTS, S/AS01 vaccine development and its role in malaria control are described.
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    Analysis of the new WHO guideline to accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China
    GUO Zhao-yu, FENG Jia-xin, ZHANG Li-juan, ZHOU Yi-biao, ZHOU Jie, YANG Kun, LIU Yang, LIN Dan-dan, LIU Jian-bing, Dong Yi, WANG Tian-ping, WEN Li-yong, JI Min-jun, WU Zhong-dao, JIANG Qing-wu, LIANG Song, GUO Jia-gang, CAO Chun-li, XU Jing, LÜ Shan, LI Shi-zhu, ZHOU Xiao-nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 217-.  
    Abstract358)      PDF (6857KB)(142)       Save
    On February 2022, WHO released the evidence-based guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in disease-endemic countries by 2030 and promote the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission across the world. Based on the One Health concept, six evidence-based recommendations were proposed in this guideline. This article aims to analyze the feasibility of key aspects of this guideline in Chinese national schistosomiasis control program and illustrate the significance to guide the future actions for Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Currently, the One Health concept has been embodied in the Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Based on this new WHO guideline, the following recommendations are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China: (1) improving the systematic framework building, facilitating the agreement of the cross-sectoral consensus, and building a high-level leadership group; (2) optimizing the current human and livestock treatments in the national schistosomiasis control program of China; (3) developing highly sensitive and specific diagnostics and the framework for verifying elimination of schistosomiasis; (4) accelerating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases through integrating the national control programs for other parasitic diseases.
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    One Health: Re⁃thinking of zoonoses control
    FEI Si⁃wei, XU Jing⁃shan, LÜ Shan, GUO Xiao⁃kui, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 1-.  
    Abstract326)      PDF (1170KB)(224)       Save
    Under the dual pressure of emerging zoonoses and the difficulty in eliminating conventional zoonoses, many uncertainties in global control of infectious diseases are challenging the achievement of sustainable development goals set by the United Nations General Assembly. One Health, developed on the basis of understanding the relationship between human diseases and animal diseases, is conducive to the prevention and control of zoonoses. The connotation of “One Health” is mainly explained by three aspects, namely the systems thinking mode of “unity of environment and man”, the practice guidance of “multi⁃sectoral concert” and the economic evaluation strategy of “cost⁃effectiveness analysis”. One Health approach has been successfully applied in the control of major infectious diseases in China, such as schistosomiasis, leading to remarkable achievements; however, there are still multiple challenges. This review proposes that much attention should be paid to top⁃level design, the difference between emerging zoonoses and conventional zoonoses, and the dynamic process of One Health governance during the development and application of One Health.
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    An acute schistosomiasis case in Wuhan City imported from another province of China in 2020
    ZUO Yu⁃ting, WANG Hao, ZHOU Shui⁃mao, HE Jian⁃min, SHI Xiao⁃ying, LUO Hua⁃tang, XU Ming⁃xing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 647-.  
    Abstract307)      PDF (1111KB)(169)       Save
    An imported case of acute schistosomiasis was reported in Wuhan City in 2020. The case was infected with Schistosoma by contact with the infested water due to playing water in the Yangtze River when working out of Hubei Province. The patient visited four medical institutions and the duration from onset to definitive diagnosis was 20 days. The patient’s low awareness of schistosomiasis prevention and control knowledge and lack of diagnosis and treatment awareness for schistosomiasis among medical institutions were considered as main causes of the development of acute schistosomiasis and progression to severe case. Intensifying schistosomiasis health education among mobile populations and improving the awareness and capability of early diagnosis of schistosomiasis among clinicians are recommended.
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    Epidemiological trends for human schistosomiasis prevalence in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 based on Joinpoint regression analysis
    XIAO Ying, ZHONG Chen⁃hui, WEI Feng⁃hua, DAI Ling⁃feng, YANG Jun⁃jing, CHEN Yan⁃yan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (2): 122-.  
    Abstract307)      PDF (1177KB)(131)       Save
    Objective To analyze the trends of human schistosomiasis prevalence in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy in the province. Methods All data pertaining to human schistosomiasis prevalence in Hubei Province were collected from 2004 to 2018, and the trends for changes in seroprevalence, egg⁃positive rate and prevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infection were analyzed using a Joinpoint regression model. Results Both of the numbers of residents seropositive and egg⁃positive for S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, and the prevalence of human S. japonicum infections reduced from 6.85% in 2004 to 0 in 2018. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that the prevalence of human S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a reduction in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 [average annual percent change (AAPC) = -24.1%, P < 0.01], and the trends for the reduction were both significant during the period from 2004 to 2006 [annual percent change (APC) = -35.1%, P < 0.01] and from 2006 to 2018 (APC = -22.1%, P < 0.01). The prevalence of human S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline in islet (AAPC = -25.1%, P < 0.01), inner embankment (AAPC = -26.4%, P < 0.01) and hilly subtypes of schistosomiasis⁃endemic areas (AAPC = -32.5%, P < 0.01) of Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, and the prevalence all appeared a tendency towards a decline during the infection control stage (from 2004 to 2008), the transmission control stage (from 2009 to 2013) and the transmission interruption stage (from 2014 to 2018) (AAPC = -28.0%, -24.4% and -63.8%, all P values < 0.01). The seroprevalence of human S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 (AAPC = -14.5%, P < 0.01), and the trends for the reduction were both significant during the period from 2004 to 2012 (APC = -8.4%, P < 0.01) and from 2012 to 2018 (APC = -22.1%, P < 0.01). In addition, the egg⁃positive rate of human S. japonicum infections appeared an overall tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018 (AAPC = -30.6%, P < 0.05), and the trend for the reduction was significant during the period from 2007 to 2014 (APC = -15.5%, P < 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of human schistosomiasis appeared a tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province from 2004 to 2018, and the islet and inner embankment subtypes of endemic areas are a high priority for schistosomiasis control during the stage moving towards elimination in Hubei Province.
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    Prospects and reflections on the research and development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines
    XIAO Bo, HUANG Zheng⁃hui, JIANG Lu⁃bin
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 555-.  
    Abstract292)      PDF (625KB)(89)       Save
    Vaccination is one of the most effective intervention for the containment and elimination of infectious diseases. Recently, the world’s first malaria vaccine RTS, S/AS01 was approved by WHO for use among children living in moderately and highly malaria endemic areas of Africa, which brings a hope for the research and development of malaria vaccines. Here, we review the current status of malaria vaccines development and provide a perspective on the development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines, so as to provide insights into the successful development of malaria vaccines.
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    Establishment of a deep learning⁃visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis
    SHI Liang, XIONG Chun⁃Rong, LIU Mao⁃Mao, WEI Xiu⁃Shen, WANG Xin⁃Yao, WANG Tao, HUANG Yi⁃Xin, HONG Qing⁃Biao, LI WEI, YANG Hai⁃Tao, ZHANG Jian⁃Feng, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 445-.  
    Abstract282)      PDF (1670KB)(148)       Save
    Objective To establish a deep learning⁃based visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and evaluate the effects of different training strategies for O. hupensis image recognition. Methods A total of 2 614 datasets of O. hupensis snails and 4 similar snails were generated through field sampling and internet capture, and were divided into training sets and test sets. An intelligent recognition model was created based on deep learning, and was trained and tested. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F1 score and Youden index were calculated. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model for snail recognition was plotted to evaluate the effects of “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies on the accuracy of the model for snail recognition. Results Under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” strategy, the precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index and F1 score of the model were 90.10%, 91.00%, 97.50%, 96.20%, 88.50% and 90.51% for snail recognition, which were all higher than those under both “new learning” and “transfer learning” strategies. There were significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the model for snail recognition under “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies (all P values < 0.001). In addition, the area under the ROC curve of the model was highest (0.94) under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy. Conclusions This is the first visual model for intelligent recognition of O. hupensis based on deep learning, which shows a high accuracy for snail image recognition. The “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy is helpful to improve the accuracy of the model for snail recognition.
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    he world’s first malaria vaccine: Hope and challenge
    ZHANG Yi⁃long, PAN Wei⁃qing
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 560-.  
    Abstract241)      PDF (649KB)(96)       Save
    The RTS,S/AS01 is a subunit malaria vaccine against the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. After over 30 years of research and development and clinical trials, this vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for use among children living in highly malaria endemic areas. Although the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine suffers from problems of a low protective efficacy (about 30%), need of four doses and short duration of protective immunity, this malaria vaccine is expected to save tens of thousands of children’s lives, and avoid tens of millions of malaria cases annually, because there have been tens of thousands of childhood deaths due to malaria recently. The introduction of the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is therefore, widely accepted as a milestone in the history of battle against malaria, which brings a hope to contain malaria and even eventually eliminate malaria. Although there are still multiple challenges in the development of a satisfactory malaria vaccine, the success of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria greatly facilitates the progress towards the development of parasitic disease vaccines, and a more perfect malaria vaccine deserves expectations.
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    Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infections in freshwater fish in mainland China: a meta⁃analysis
    DAI Si⁃min, YU Qing, MA Xiao⁃jiang, WANG Zhen⁃yu, ZHANG Yao⁃guang, ZHU Min, ZHANG Chen⁃gang, ZHU Qian, JIANG Li, JIN Yan⁃jun, PAN Hao, WU Huan⁃yu
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 16-.  
    Abstract241)      PDF (1460KB)(167)       Save
    Objective To understand the real prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infections in the freshwater fish in mainland China, so as to provide insights into clonorchiasis control and detection of freshwater fish. Methods All literatures reporting the prevalence of C. sinensis infections in the freshwater fish, the second intermediate host of the parasite, were jointly retrieved in Chinese and English electronic databases from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020, including Wanfang Data, CNKI, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library. All studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of all enrolled literatures was evaluated. The pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the software Stata version 15.0, and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the region⁃, season⁃ and sample source⁃specific pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish. In addition, the sensitivity and publication bias of all included studies were analyzed. Results A total of 40 eligible literatures were included in this study, including 37 Chinese literatures and 3 English literatures, and there were 10 high⁃quality literatures, 27 moderate⁃quality literatures and 3 low⁃quality literatures. A total of 53 species containing 37 959 freshwater fish were reported in these 40 studies, and 73.58% (39/53) of freshwater fish species were identified with C. sinensis infections. Meta⁃analysis showed 23.5% [95% CI: (0.19, 0.28)] pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in mainland China, and subgroup analyses higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in northeastern China [35.7%, 95% CI: (0.22, 0.50)] than in central [25.9%, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.48)] and southern China [20.6%, 95% CI: (0.09, 0.32)], higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled in spring [44.1%, 95% CI: (0.35, 0.53)] than in autumn [6.7%, 95% CI: (0.05, 0.08)] and summer [3.3%, 95% CI: (-0.01, 0.07)], and higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled from natural water [25.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.33)] than from retail trades [22.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.28)] and breeding chain [12.3%, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.22)]. However, all included studies had a publication bias with a low sensitivity. Conclusions The prevalence of C. sinensis infections is high in freshwater fish in mainland China, and there are still challenges for clonorchiasis control. Reinforcement of health education, diagnostics development and food safety supervision is recommended in future clonorchiasis control programs.
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    Potential challenges for large⁃scale uses of RTS, S/AS01 vaccine in malaria⁃endemic areas
    FENG Gao⁃qian
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 553-.  
    Abstract228)      PDF (654KB)(131)       Save
    RTS, S/AS01 vaccine has recently been recommended by the WHO for large⁃scale uses in malaria⁃endemic areas, which is a milestone in the history of the fight against parasitic infections. Nevertheless, RTS, S/AS01 vaccine is not perfect. Hereby, the shortages of RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine were discussed, and the potential challenges during the research and development of next⁃generation malaria vaccines were analyzed.
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    Progress of schistosomiasis control in People’s Republic of China in 2021
    ZHANG Li⁃juan, XU Zhi⁃min, YANG Fan, HE Jun⁃yi, DANG Hui, LI Yin⁃long, CAO Chun⁃li, XU Jing, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (4): 329-.  
    Abstract227)      PDF (1069KB)(141)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2021. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2021. A total of 451 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2021, with 27 571 endemic villages covering 73 250 600 people at risk of infections. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.17% (339/451), 22.17% (100/451) and 2.66% (12/451) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2021, 29 037 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2021, 4 405 056 individuals received serological tests and 72 937 were sero⁃positive. A total of 220 629 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive. In 2021, snail survey was performed in 19 291 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 026 villages, accounting for 36.42% of all surveyed villages, with 12 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 686 574.46 hm2 and 191 159.91 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 063.08 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 5 113.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. In 2021, 525 878 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 115 437 received serological examinations, with 231 positives detected. Among the 128 719 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2021, there were 19 927 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 729 113 person⁃time individuals and 256 913 herd⁃time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2021, snail control with chemicals was performed in 117 372.74 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 640.5 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 244.25 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2021, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in China in 2021; however, the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination was slowed and the areas of snail habitats rebounded mildly. Strengthening researches on snail diffusion and control, and improving schistosomiasis surveillance and forecast are recommended to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.
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    Decoding the evolution of preventive chemotherapy schemes for schistosomiasis in China to improve the precise implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis
    XU Jing, LI Yi⁃feng, DONG Yi, ZHAO Zheng⁃yuan, WEN Li⁃yong, ZHANG Shi⁃qing, LIN Dan⁃dan, ZHOU Jie, LIANG Song, GUO Jia⁃gang, LI Shi⁃zhu, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 223-.  
    Abstract218)      PDF (7139KB)(113)       Save
    Preventive chemotherapy is one of the pivotal interventions for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis, which is effective to reduce the morbidity and prevalence of schistosomiasis. In order to promote the United Nations’ sustainable development goals and the targets set for schistosomiasis control in the Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis in 2022, with major evidence⁃based updates of the current preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis. In China where great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control, the preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis has been updated several times during the past seven decades. This article reviews the evolution of the WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy and Chinese national preventive chemotherapy schemes, compares the current Chinese national preventive chemotherapy scheme and the recommendations for preventive chemotherapy proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, and proposes recommendations for preventive chemotherapy during the future implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control among public health professionals engaging in healthcare foreign aid.
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    Development of a fluorescent recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification⁃based nucleic acid assay for detection of Leishmania
    LIN Hong, ZHAO Song, LIU Yan⁃Hong, SHAO Lei, YING Qing⁃Jie, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 452-.  
    Abstract213)      PDF (1270KB)(183)       Save
    Objective To develop a fluorescent recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification (RAA)⁃based nucleic acid assay for detection of Leshimania. Methods Specific primers and probes were designed targeting Leishmania internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene for RAA assay, and a fluorescent RAA assay was developed for detection of Leishmania following screening of primer pairs and optimization of primer and probe concentrations. The sensitivity of RAA assay for detection of Leishmania was evaluated using recombinant plasmid containing Leishmania ITS1 gene sequences at different copies and Leshimania genomic DNA at different concentrations as templates, and the specificity of RAA assay for detection of Leishmania was evaluated using the genomic DNA of transfusion⁃transmitted parasites, including Babesia microti, Toxoplasma gondii, Plamodium vivax, P. ovale, P. falciparum, P. malariae, L.donovani and L. infantum. Results After the optimal primer pair was screened from 9 pairs of primer combinations, the final primer and probe concentrations were optimized as 0.3 μmol/L and 0.08 μmol/L, respectively. Nucleic acid detection of Leishmania was completed by the fluorescent RAA assay at an isothermal temperature of 39 ℃ within 20 min. Remarkable florescent signals were seen within 5 min following RAA detection of genomic DNA of L. donovani and L. infantum, and no cross⁃reactions were observed with B. microti, T. gondii, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. falciparum or P. malariae. The lowest limitation of detection of the fluorescent RAA assay was 10 copies/μL recombinant plasmid containing Leishmania ITS1 gene sequences and 1 fg/μL Leishmania genomic DNA. Conclusions A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific fluorescent RAA assay is successfully developed for detection of L. donovani and L. infantum, which is effective for field screening of leishmaniasis.
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    Emergency responses to schistosomiasis outbreak during the stage moving towards elimination in China
    CHEN Lin, CAO Chun⁃li, LIU Yang, ZHONG Bo
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 570-.  
    Abstract205)      PDF (673KB)(125)       Save
    Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission control and transmission interruption to elimination; however, there is still a threat of schistosomiasis outbreak in area where the transmission of schistosomiasis has not been interrupted, and in areas where transmission interruption and even elimination have been achieved because of the complex factors relating to schistosomiasis transmission, as well as socioeconomic factors and natural environments, which greatly affects the consolidation of schistosomiasis control outcomes and the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in the country. Here, we summarized the outbreaks of schistosomiasis in China during the past six decades, evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis outbreak on the national schistosomiasis control program and proposed management of schistosomiasis outbreak and prevention of schistosomiasis resurgence as the key point and difficulty for schistosomiasis control in the current stage. Improving the surveillance⁃response mechanisms and minimizing the development of schistosomiasis outbreak and the resultant damages and losses are recommended to provide technical supports for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.
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    Field evaluation and future applications of the world’s first malaria vaccine
    GAO Qi
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 551-.  
    Abstract201)      PDF (628KB)(178)       Save
    This paper describes the safety, efficacy and operability of the world’s first malaria vaccine (RTS, S/AS01) in latest field pilot studies and the recommendations from the WHO expert group for its use. In addition, further studies to examine the associations of inoculation rate and full⁃dose rate with the reduction in morbidity and mortality of malaria among target children and explore the scientific evidence for seasonable preventive vaccination with 5 doses and more among children at ages of below 5 years are recommended.
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    Identification of factors affecting Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions
    ZHENG Ying⁃Yan, ZHANG Na, WANG Zheng⁃Zhong, XIONG Ying, SHI Ying, LI Chun⁃Lin, TONG Yi⁃Xin, JIANG Feng, ZHOU Jie, HE Zhong, JIANG Jie, GUO Wen, JIANG Qing⁃Wu, ZHOU Yi⁃Biao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 457-.  
    Abstract189)      PDF (1299KB)(92)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the impact of water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors on the Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control. Methods O. hupensis snails were surveyed using a systematic sampling method in snail⁃infested marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake regions from 2007 to 2014, and data pertaining to water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors were collected. The duration of submergence and the date of the start of submergence were calculated. The snail density and its influencing factors were descriptively analyzed, and a linear mixed model was generated to examine the impacts of variables on the snail density. In addition, smooth curves were fitted to investigate the relationship between snail density and variables. Results The snail density appeared a fluctuation in Eastern Dongting Lake regions during the period from 2007 to 2014, with the highest density on October, 2010 (52.79 snails/0.1 m2) and the lowest density on January 2009 (2.15 snails/0.1 m2). Linear mixed⁃model analysis showed that permanganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affected the snail density (t = 6.386, -2.920 and -3.892, all P values < 0.01). Smooth curve analysis revealed that the associations of the snail density with the permanganate index and total phosphorus appeared an approximately quadratic curve. After the end of April, the earlier date of the start of submergence resulted in a higher snail density. Conclusion Permenganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affect the O. hupensis snail density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions.
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    Surveillance and response: The core intervention for malaria control during the post-elimination phase in China
    ZHOU Sheng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (2): 112-.  
    Abstract177)      PDF (993KB)(77)       Save
    China was certified malaria⁃free by the WHO on June, 2021. Nevertheless, there are thousands of overseas imported malaria cases annually in China, and there are deaths of imported malaria cases reported every year in the country. In addition, there are secondary cases of imported malaria, and malaria vectors remain in regions where malaria were formerly endemic, resulting in a high risk of local transmission of imported malaria in eliminated regions in China. This article analyzes the risk of malaria control and the challenges of malaria surveillance and response during the post⁃elimination stage in China, and proposes some suggestions for future priorities.
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    Progress of researches on the actions of praziquantel against hepatic fibrosis
    YUAN Xuan, DAI Jian⁃Rong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 540-.  
    Abstract166)      PDF (976KB)(178)       Save
    Praziquantel not only has broad⁃spectrum anti⁃trematode and anti⁃tapeworm effects, but also has pharmacological effects such as regulating inflammatory response and anti⁃fibrosis. Hereby, the anti⁃fibrosis effect of praziquantel and its mechanism were reviewed in order to provide theoretical basis for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
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    Progress of researches on the diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis
    SONG Lan⁃gui, WU Zhong⁃dao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 660-.  
    Abstract164)      PDF (939KB)(107)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease, and is categorized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Following the concerted efforts for more than 70 years, great achievements have been made in the national schistosomiasis control program in China, and the prevalence, disability and mortality due to schistosomiasis has remarkably dropped. Nevertheless, the frequent identification of imported schistosomiasis and the resulting potential transmission risk in mainland China have been recently paid much attention following the implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” and the China⁃Africa Cooperation Forum. This review describes the advances in the diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis, including pathogenic techniques, immunodiagnostic techniques and nucleic acid assays, in order to consolidate schistosomiasis control achievements and promote the capability for detection of external biological safety risks.
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    Effectiveness of integrated schistosomiasis control in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020
    HE Ming⁃zhen, XIE Yi⁃qing, ZOU Yong⁃gen, ZHU Shi⁃ying, GUO Yan⁃li
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 72-.  
    Abstract163)      PDF (962KB)(70)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide insights into the formulation of the strategy used to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements. Methods The annual schistosomiasis control working report and integrated schistosomiasis control data were collected in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail status were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures. Results During the period from 2015 to 2020, a total of 112 061 person⁃time individuals received serological tests for S. japonicum infections in Changzhou City, and the sero⁃prevalence was 0.15% to 1.09% during the 6⁃year period, with a significant difference seen among years ([χ2] = 288.11, P < 0.05). From 2015 to 2020, a total of 13 435 person⁃time individuals received stool examinations, with no egg⁃positives identified; among 5 840 herd⁃time livestock receiving schistosomiasis examinations, no positives were detected, while a 100% coverage of fencing livestock was seen each year. During the 6⁃year period, a total of 38.40 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 8.97 hm2 emerging snail habitats, and among the 2 344 snails dissected, no S. japonicum infection was found. Chemical treatment covered an area of 385.71 hm2, and environmental improvements covered an area of 200.39 hm2. The mean density of living snails was less than 0.1 snails/0.1 m2 in snail habitats found in Changzhou City each year from 2015 to 2020, and the coverage of harmless toilets was 100% in 2020. During the 6⁃year period, a total of 3.740 6 million person⁃time individuals were given schistosomiasis health education in Changzhou City. Conclusions Changzhou City is now at the post⁃elimination surveillance stage; however, there are still factors affecting schistosomiasis transmission. The schistosomiasis surveillance system remains to be improved to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements in Changzhou City.
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    Effectiveness and cost analysis of two chemical molluscicides in hilly schistosomiasis⁃endemic regions
    ZHOU Xing, YUAN Min, WU Xia, LI Zong⁃Guang, LI Jian⁃Ren, LÜ Shang⁃Biao
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 527-.  
    Abstract154)      PDF (1057KB)(66)       Save
    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and cost of 50% and 80% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (NESWP) and 26% metaldehyde and niclosamide suspension concentrate (MNSC) in hilly schistosomiasis⁃endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the selection of chemical molluscicides in hilly regions. Methods In September 2020, a wasteland in Guanshanqiao Village, Yanrui Township, Yushan County of Jiangxi Province was selected as the experimental region, which was sectioned into five blocks and defined as four experimental groups (A1, A2, B, C) and a blank control group (D). 80% NESWP were given at doses of 1 g/m2 and 1.5 g/m2 in groups A1 and A2 using the spraying method, 50% NESWP was given at a dose of 2 g/m2 in Group B using the spraying method, and 26% MNSC was at a dose of 4 g/m2 in Group C using the spraying method, while no chemical treatment was given in Group D. Snail survey was performed using a systematic sampling method before chemical treatment and 1, 3, 7 d and 15 d post⁃treatment to examine the molluscicidal effect, and all molluscicidal costs were estimated to calculate the cost of chemical treatment per 1 m2 and the cost of the reduction in the mean density of living snails per 1%. Results The highest mortality of snails was 78.95% and the lowest density of living snails was 0.238 8 snails/0.1 m2 in the experimental groups within 7 d of chemical treatment, and the highest mortality of snails was 94.74% and the lowest density of living snails was 0.058 0 snails/0.1 m2 7 d post⁃treatment. There were no significant differences in the snail mortality among the A1, A2, B and C groups 1 ([χ2] = 2.250, P > 0.05), 3 ([χ2] = 1.779, P > 0.05) or 15 d post⁃treatment ([χ2] = 2.286, P > 0.05), while a significant difference was detected in the snail mortality among the four groups 7 d post⁃treatment ([χ2] = 7.990, P = 0.046). In addition, there were no significant differences in the snail mortality between A1 and A2 groups 1 ([χ2] = 0.724, P > 0.05), 3 ([χ2] = 0.584, P > 0.05), 7 ([χ2] = 0.400, P > 0.05) or 15 d post⁃treatment ([χ2] = 0.251, P > 0.05). The costs of chemical treatment per 1 m2 were 0.58, 0.60, 0.64 Yuan and 0.73 Yuan in groups A1, A2, B and C, and the costs of the mean density of living snail per 1% reduction were 19.29, 20.44, 21.68 Yuan and 23.53 Yuan in groups A1, A2, B and C, respectively. Conclusion 80% NESWP shows a high molluscicidal efficacy and low cost in hilly schistosomiasis⁃endemic regions.
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    Progress of researches on approaches for estimating the burden of vector⁃borne diseases
    LI Qin, ZHOU Xiao⁃nong
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 95-.  
    Abstract149)      PDF (1002KB)(60)       Save
    The burden of vector⁃borne diseases refers to the loss and impact of healthy life and social economy due to disability and early death caused by vector⁃borne diseases, including economic burden and family burden. Disability⁃adjusted life year (DALY) is a comprehensive measure of the burden of disease. The economic burden of disease is classified into direct economic burden, indirect economic burden and intangible economic burden. Currently, the estimates of direct economic burdens include micro⁃cost and macro⁃cost models, and the estimates of indirecteconomic burdens include human resources and friction cost methods, while the intangible economic burden is generally estimated by willingness to pay. The currently available health economics approaches mainly include cost⁃utility analysis, cost⁃benefit analysis and cost⁃effectiveness analysis. This review summarizes the approaches for estimating the burden of malaria and other vector⁃borne diseases.
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    Analysis of components of proteins from Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid
    WANG Shu⁃Ying, YANG Xiao⁃Di, GAO Hong⁃Yu, XING Jing⁃Yu, HU Qi, HUANG Ting⁃Ting, WU Pei, ZHAO Yi⁃Ting, LIU Hao⁃Wei, LIU Wei⁃Yue, WANG Hui⁃Na, ZHOU Rui, CHU Liang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 476-.  
    Abstract141)      PDF (1232KB)(132)       Save
    Objective To analyze the components of proteins from Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid using the shotgun method, and to identify the active components with potential regulatory effects for immune dysregulation diseases. Methods The   E. granulosus cyst fluid was collected aseptically from the hepatic cysts of patients with cystic echinococcosis, and characterized by liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following digestion with trypsin. The protein data were searched using the software MaxQuant version 1.6.1.0 and the cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes of the identified proteins were analyzed using the Gene Ontology (GO) method. Results The E. granulosus cyst fluid separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS⁃PAGE) had a relative molecular mass of 25 to 70 kDa. LS⁃MS/MS analysis identified 37 proteins, including 32 known proteins and 5 unknown proteins. At least 4 proteins were preliminarily found to exhibit potential regulatory effects for immune dysregulation diseases, including antigen B, glutathione⁃S⁃transferase (GST), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). GO enrichment analysis showed that the identified proteins had 149 molecular functions and were involved in 341 biological processes. Conclusions E. granulosus cyst fluid has a variety of protein components, and four known proteins are preliminarily identified to be associated with immune dysregulation diseases.

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    Performance of loop⁃mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Oncomelania snails in schistosomiasis transmission⁃interrupted regions
    CHEN Feng, LI Ke⁃rong, LI Wen⁃bao, TIAN Shu⁃hui, LI Ping, ZHAO Yin⁃jiao, YANG Jing, YANG Hua, LUO Bing⁃rong, MA Jun⁃hua, HAO Ming⁃ming, CHEN Shao⁃rong, LIU Yu⁃hua, LUO Tian⁃peng
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (1): 81-.  
    Abstract139)      PDF (938KB)(60)       Save
    Objective To compare the effectiveness of loop⁃mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and microscopic examinations for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania hupensis in transmission⁃interrupted regions, so as to provide insights into the optimization of snail surveillance tools in these regions. Methods Four hilly schistosomiasis⁃endemic villages where transmission interruption was achieved were selected in Heqing County of Yunnan Province as the study villages, including Xinzhuang and Gule villages in hilly regions and Lianyi and Yitou villages in dam regions. Snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling combined with environmental sampling in July 2018. All captured snails were identified for S. japonicum infections using microscopy. In addition, 10 to 20 snails were randomly sampled from each snail habitat following microscopy, numbered according to environments and subjected to LAMP assay. The positive rate of settings with S. japonicum⁃infected snails was compared among villages. Results A total of 7 949 living snails were captured from 83 snail habitats in 4 villages, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. There were 22 mixed samples containing 1 786 snails subjected to LAMP assay, and positive LAMP assay was found in 3 mixed samples from 3 snail habitats in 2 dam villages. The positive rates of settings with S. japonicum⁃infected snails were comparable between Lianyi Village (one setting) and Yitou Village (2 settings) (5.89% vs. 14.29%, P = 0.344). However, the overall positive rate of settings with S. japonicum⁃infected snails was significantly higher in dam villages (9.67%, 3/31) than in hilly villages (0) (P = 0.048). Conclusions LAMP assay is more sensitive to detect S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis than conventional microcopy method, which may serve as a supplementary method for detection of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis in high⁃risk snail habitats in hilly transmission⁃interrupted regions.
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    Studies on resistance of Schistosoma to praziquantel XⅧ Sensitivity to praziquantel in filial generations of praziquantel⁃resistant and ⁃sensitive Schistosoma japonicum mixed infections
    QU Guo⁃Li, LIANG You⁃Sheng, DAI Jian⁃Rong, SHI Feng, XING Yun⁃Tian, SHEN Xue⁃Hui, GUO Na
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 505-.  
    Abstract138)      PDF (1078KB)(86)       Save
    Objective To investigate the sensitivity of adult worms of filial generations from praziquantel⁃resistant and ⁃sensitive Schistosoma japonicum mixed infections to praziquantel. Methods Mice were infected with the cercariae of an; experimentally generated praziquantel⁃resistant S. japonicum isolate [median effective dose (ED50) = 277.4 mg/kg] and a laboratory⁃maintained praziquantel⁃sensitive S. japonicum isolate (ED50 = 99.6 mg/kg) at a mixture ratio of 1∶1 and 2∶1, which was maintained in the laboratory via the mouse⁃snail cycle for 8 generations. Then, mice were infected with the cercariae of the 8th filial⁃generation parasite, and grouped 35 days post⁃infection. Mice in the 5 treatment groups were given praziquantel treatment by gavage at a single oral dose of 37.5, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, while animals in the control group was administered orally with 2.5% cremophor EL. All mice were sacrificed 14 days post⁃treatment and adult worms were collected by perfusion of the portal vein. The worm burden reductions and praziquantel ED50 values were calculated. The praziquantel⁃resistant S. japonicum isolate generated from experimental induction with 12 rounds of praziquantel treatment with sub⁃curative doses was maintained in the laboratory via the mouse⁃snail cycle, and mice were infected with the cercariae of the 8th filial⁃generation parasite. The praziquantel ED50 value against the 8th filial⁃generation adults was measured. Results After mice were infected with the mixture of cercariae of PZQ⁃resistant and ⁃sensitive S. japonicum isolates at a ratio of 1∶1, the praziquantel ED50 was 135.2 mg/kg against the adults of the 8th filial⁃generation parasite. After mice were infected with the mixture of cercariae of PZQ⁃resistant and ⁃sensitive S. japonicum isolates at a ratio of 2∶1, the praziquantel ED50 was 129.2 mg/kg against the adults of the 8th filial⁃generation parasite. In addition, the praziquantel ED50 was 208.4 mg/kg against the adults of the 8th filial⁃generation S. japonicum without the selection pressure of praziquantel. Conclusions Compared with the experimentally induced praziquantel⁃resistant S. japonicum isolate, the adult worms of the filial⁃generation S. japonicum show a reduced sensitivity to praziquantel in the same host following infection with the mixture of cercariae of praziquantel⁃resistant and ⁃sensitive S. japonicum isolates. The adult worms of the filial generation of the praziquantel⁃resistant S. japonicum isolate without the selection pressure of praziquantel may still maintain the resistance to praziquantel.
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    Progress of researches on symbionts in the management of mosquito⁃borne infectious diseases
    LU Jia⁃Chen, SHEN Fei⁃Hu, Lei Yao, Xu Qin⁃Wen, Yang Bo, CHENG Yang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 544-.  
    Abstract138)      PDF (975KB)(107)       Save
    Mosquitoes are the main vectors of many infectious diseases, including malaria and yellow fever, which seriously threaten human health across the world. In addition to the use of chemical insecticides, genetic control is a new attempt to currently available interventions used for mosquito vector control. In terms of ecological safety, however, symbiotic control as a novel approach has been proposed for mosquito control. Since there are multiple symbiotic microflora inhabiting in a variety of tissues of mosquitoes, including the digestive tract, they may affect the transmission of mosquito⁃borne infectious diseases through affecting the lifespan, reproductive competence, and vector competence of the host. In this review, the interactions between symbionts in mosquitoes were summarized, and the research progress of mosquito⁃associated symbionts in the management of mosquito⁃borne infectious diseases was reviewed.
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    Advances in the research of comorbidity of Blastocystis hominis infections and other diseases
    CHEN Hui⁃Hui, LIU Qin, DENG Yan, ZHANG Hong⁃Wei, TIAN Li⁃Guang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 535-.  
    Abstract137)      PDF (1033KB)(68)       Save
    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite. Most individuals with B. hominis infections have no apparent clinical symptoms; however, a few patients, notably those with co⁃infections or impaired immune system function may present abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and even death. This paper reviews the co⁃infections of B. hominis and other pathogens and comorbidity of B. hominis infections and other diseases, so as to provide insights into the management of B. hominis infections.
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    Opportunities and challenges of schistosomiasis control during the construction of the Chengdu⁃Chongqing economic circle
    HUANG Yan, YU Xiao⁃Ping, LIU Yang, XU Liang, MENG Xian⁃Hong, WU Zi⁃Song
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 523-.  
    Abstract137)      PDF (967KB)(44)       Save
    Chengdu⁃Chongqing economic circle is centered on Chengdu City and Chongqing Municipality, with aims to build the "fourth growth pole" of China's economy. During this circle, elimination of schistosomiasis had been achieved in 82.5% of the endemic counties (districts) of Sichuan Province, and schistosomiasis is not historically endemic in Chongqing Municipality; however, there is still a risk of schistosmiasis transmission in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality because the natural and social factors affecting schistosomiasis transmission have not been completely eliminated in these areas. Based on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality, we analyzed the opportunities and challenges of schistosomiasis control during the construction of Chengdu⁃Chongqing economic circle, and proposed the corresponding suggestions, so as to provide insights into the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in the context of the Chengdu⁃Chongqing economic circle construction.
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    Effect of Echinococcus multilocularis infections on mitochondrial functions of macrophages
    DENG Jun, HUANG Deng⁃Liang, ZHANG Yao⁃Gang, LI Jian⁃Hua, HOU Jing, JIANG Yuan, TIAN Mei⁃Yuan, SUN Li, ZHANG Tao, ZHANG Xuan, DONG Yun, FAN Hai⁃Ning, MA Yan⁃Yan
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 470-.  
    Abstract136)      PDF (2837KB)(78)       Save
    Objective To investigate the changes of mitochondrial metabolic functions of macrophages following Echinococcus multilocularis infections, so as to provide insights into the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis. Methods Two groups were assigned according to different treatment methods. In the culture group, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage RAW264.7 cells were cultured with 2 000 E. multilocularis at a ratio of 500∶1, while RAW264.7 cells in the control group were given no treatment. Then, both the culture and control groups were further divided into the 24 h and 72 h subgroups. Mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker® Deep Red FM and the mean fluorescence intensity of macrophage mitochondria was measured with the Cytation 5 Cell Imaging Multi⁃Mode Reader. The mitochondrial DNA copy number was quantified using the quantitative real⁃time PCR (qPCR) assay, and the mitochondrial energy metabolism was monitored using the Seahorse XF assay. In addition, the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected using flow cytometry. Results The mean fluorescence intensities of macrophage mitochondria were significantly lower in the 24 h (15 341 ± 2 532 vs. 17 823 ± 3 429; t = 6.379, P < 0.01) and 72 h (18 102 ± 3 505 vs. 21 511 ± 5 144; t = 17.680, P < 0.01) culture subgroups than in the corresponding control subgroups, and lower mitochondrial DNA copy numbers were measured in the 72 h culture subgroup than in the 72 h control group [ (3.23 × 109 ± 1.78 × 107) vs. (4.39 × 109 ± 3.70 × 107); t = 8.85, P < 0.001]. The oxygen consumption rates were significantly greater in the 24 h [ (241.70 ± 73.13) pmol/min vs. (69.05 ± 52.30) pmol/min; t = 7.89, P < 0.01] and 48 h culture groups [ (249.50 ± 42.06) pmol/min vs. (60.28 ± 40.66) pmol/min; t = 8.64, P < 0.01] than in the corresponding control groups, and a higher extracellular acidification rate was seen in the 48 h culture group than in the 48 h control group [ (111.6 ± 17.49) mpH/min vs. (35.05 ± 7.569) mpH/min; t = 16.90, P < 0.01]. In addition, flow cytometry detected higher mean fluorescence intensity of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (58 264 ± 10 087 vs. 4 307 ± 97; t = 12.930, P < 0.01) and lower mitochondrial membrane potential (9.833% ± 2.285% vs. 2.667% ± 0.208%; t = 6.645, P < 0.01) in the 72 h culture group than in the control group. Conclusions E. multilocularis infection may impair mitochondrial functions and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation of macrophages, resulting in increased macrophage glycolysis. It is speculated that the alteration of macrophage metabolic states may contribute to the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of alveolar echinococcosis.
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    Analysis of laboratory re⁃examination results in Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory from 2014 to 2020
    ZOU Yan, LI Li, YU Tao, GE Li, HUO Fang, LIU Yang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 496-.  
    Abstract136)      PDF (1036KB)(79)       Save
    Objective To re⁃examine the diagnosis results of reported malaria cases in Sichuan Province from 2014 to 2020, so as to assess the malaria diagnostic capability of Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory. Methods The blood and blood smear samples from reported malaria cases were collected by Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory from 2014 to 2020, and subjected to re⁃examinations using microscopy and nested PCR assay. The re⁃examination results were compared. Results A total of 1 710 samples from reported malaria cases were re⁃examined by Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory from 2014 to 2020, and 1 634 samples were identified positive, with a positive coincidence rate of 95.56% (1 634/1 710) and a 92.29% (1 508/1 634) total coincidence rate of the Plasmodium species. The coincidence rates with P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 99.48% (961/966), 97.07% (430/443), 83.05% (98/118) and 67.86% (19/28), respectively, and the coincidence rate was 91.81%(1 513/1 648) between microscopic and nested⁃PCR results. Conclusions The capability of microscopists remains weak at grassroot medical institutions in Sichuan Province. Further training is required among microscopists to improve the malaria surveillance capability in Sichuan Province during the post⁃elimination stage.
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    Schistosomiasis control in the evolution of China’s international discourse power
    ZHOU Li⁃Ying, ZHANG Jian⁃Feng, LI Wei, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 518-.  
    Abstract132)      PDF (988KB)(75)       Save
    As a successful example of global public health, Chinese schistosomiasis control technology and experiences have been included in global public health governance. Chinese schistosomiasis control program progresses with China’s international discourse power. During the period from the initial stage of the founding of the People’s Republic of China to China’s Reform and opening⁃up, the national schistosomiasis control program of China achieved great successes through mobilizing multi⁃sectorial resources under the policy of Independence and Self⁃reliance. Following China’s Reform and opening⁃up, all advantageous opportunities were captured to solve problems pertaining to schistosomiasis control in the context of complex international situations. As a consequence, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved across China in 2015. Since the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has contributed the discourse system with distinct Chinese characteristics to the world, and has actively participated in health cooperation projects between China and other “Belt and Road” countries, which has contributed China’s wisdom to global schistosomiasis control program and conveyed China’s voice to the world.
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    Epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020
    GAO Li⁃hua, SHI Jia⁃jia, ZHANG Yue⁃quan, LÜ Ming⁃jie, ZHAO Xue⁃lei, LIU Ying, WANG Xiao, YUAN Zhong⁃liang
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (6): 606-.  
    Abstract131)      PDF (960KB)(53)       Save
    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of reported imported malaria cases in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide insights into the management of imported malaria in the city. Methods All data pertaining to cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020 were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Report System and the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control in China, including individual demographic data, and malaria onset, initial diagnosis and definitive diagnosis data. All data were descriptively analyzed. The duration from malaria onset to initial diagnosis, from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis and from onset to definitive diagnosis was compared among cases. In addition, the diagnoses of imported malaria cases in which definitive diagnosis was made were compared with the reexaminations by Zhengzhou Municipal Malaria Diagnosis Reference Laboratory. Results A total of 302 cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria were reported in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, and all were imported cases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria as the predominant type (230 cases, 76.2%). There were 293 malaria cases imported from Africa (293 cases, 97.0%), which mainly included Nigeria (48 cases, 15.9%), Angola (40 cases, 13.2%), and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (29 cases, 9.6%). There was no obvious seasonality found in the date of malaria onset and time of reporting malaria. The ratio of male to female malaria cases was 49.3∶1, and there were 103 cases (34.1%) with the current residency address in Zhengzhou City, 193 cases (63.9%) with the current residency address in other cities of Henan Province and 6 cases (2.0%) in other provinces of China. There were 271 cases (89.7%) seeking initial diagnosis in medical institutions, and the diagnostic accuracy of malaria was 56.6% (171/302) at initial diagnosis institutions. A total of 122 cases (40.4%) sought medical care on the day of malaria onset, and 252 cases (86.4%) within 3 days; however, only 22 cases (7.3%) were definitively diagnosed on the day of onset, and 162 cases (53.6%) diagnosed within 3 days. There were no significant differences between malaria cases seeking initial diagnosis at medical institutions and disease control and prevention institutions in terms of the duration from malaria onset to initial diagnosis (Z = −1.663, P > 0.05), from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis (Z = −0.413, P > 0.05) or from malaria onset to definitive diagnosis (Z = −0.838, P > 0.05). The median duration (interquartile range) from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis of malaria was 3.00 (2.00), 3.00 (6.00), 2.00 (4.00) d and 1.00 (1.00) d among cases seeking medical care at township⁃level and lower, county⁃, city⁃ and province⁃level medical institutions, and the median duration from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis of malaria was significantly longer among cases seeking medical care at township⁃level and lower medical institutions than at city⁃ (Z = −3.286, P < 0.008 33) and province⁃level medical institutions (Z = −9.119, P < 0.008 33), while the median duration from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis [1.00 (3.00) d vs. 2.00 (4.00) d; Z = −4.099, P < 0.016] and from malaria onset to definitive diagnosis [3.00 (4.00) d vs. 4.00 (5.00) d; Z = −2.868, P < 0.016] among malaria cases with the current residency address in Zhengzhou City was both shorter than in other cities of Henan Province. The diagnostic accuracy was 89.1% (269/302) among malaria cases in which definitive diagnosis was made, and the accuracy of malaria reexaminations was 94.0% (284/302) in Zhengzhou Municipal Malaria Diagnosis Reference Laboratory. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria was predominant among reported imported malaria cases in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, and these imported malaria cases were predominantly diagnosed at medical institutions; however, the diagnostic capability of malaria is poor in township⁃level and lower medical institutions. Strengthening the collaboration between medical institutions and disease control and prevention institutions and improving the diagnostic capability building at medical institutions are recommended to consolidate malaria elimination achivements.
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    Contribution to global implementation of WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis by learning successful experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program in China
    WANG Xin⁃yao, ZHANG Jian⁃feng, GUO Jia⁃gang, LÜ Shan, JI Min⁃jun, WU Zhong⁃dao, ZHOU Yi⁃biao, JIANG Qing⁃wu, ZHOU Jie, LIU Jian⁃bing, LIN Dan⁃dan, WANG Tian⁃ping, DONG Yi, LIU Yang, LI Shi⁃zhu, YANG Kun
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2022, 34 (3): 230-.  
    Abstract131)      PDF (7023KB)(73)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously hinders socioeconomic developments and threatens public health security. To achieve the global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis on February, 2022, with aims to provide evidence⁃based recommendations for schistosomiasis morbidity control, elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and ultimate interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in disease⁃endemic countries. Following concerted efforts for decades, great achievements have been obtained for schistosomiasis control in China where the disease was historically highly prevalent, and the country is moving towards schistosomiasis elimination. This article reviews the successful experiences from the national schistosmiasis control program in China, and summarizes their contributions to the formulation and implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. With the progress of the “Belt and Road” initiative, the world is looking forward to more China’s solutions on schistosomiasis control.
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    Effects of urban construction on Oncomelania snails control in Wuhan City
    JIN Xian⁃Ling, LUO Hua⁃Tang, YUAN Yi
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 531-.  
    Abstract127)      PDF (1036KB)(54)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of urban construction projects on Oncomelania snails control in Wuhan City, so as to provide insights into the development of an integrated control strategy for urban schistosomiasis. Methods The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis, schistosomiasis control data, the construction of the Yangtze River Bridge, marshland management and park constructions were collected from Wuhan City from 1990 to 2020. The changes of areas of snail habitats and high⁃risk settings were compared before and after implementation of these urban construction projects to evaluate the effectiveness of urban construction projects on Oncomelania snails control. Results The number of schistosomiasis cases decreased by 97.35%, and the number of cattle with schistosomiasis decreased by 100% in Wuhan City from 1990 to 2020, with a 41.99% reduction in areas of snail habitats, including 94.97% and 34.40% reductions in snail habitats inside and outside the embankment decreased. During the period from 1990 through 2020, a total of 10 Yangtze River bridges were built in Wuhan City, and areas of snail habitats around the bridges reduced from 11 699.05 hm2 before the bridge building to 8 726.14 hm2 after the building (a 25.41% reduction), while the areas of high⁃risk settings reduced from 411.69 hm2 before the bridge building to 276.78 hm2 after the building (a 32.77% reduction). Following treatment of three marshlands in Hankou, Hanyang and Wuchang, the areas of snail habitats reduced from 225.80 hm2 before the management to 199.47 hm2 after the management (a 11.66% reduction), and the areas of high⁃risk settings reduced from 23.14 hm2 before the treatment to 17.73 hm2 after the building (a 23.38% reduction). Following the building of 5 parks in snail⁃infested settings, the areas of snail habitats reduced from 319.61 hm2 before the construction to 280.80 hm2 after the construction (a 12.14% reduction), and the areas of high⁃risk settings reduced from 35.00 hm2 before the construction to 27.73 hm2 after the construction (a 20.77% reduction). Conclusion Simultaneous implementation of urban construction projects and schistosomiasis control measures is effective to shrink snail⁃infested setting and high⁃risk settings and control the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in endemic foci in Wuhan City.
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    Establishment of a fluorescent recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification assay for nucleic acid detection of Paraginiumus skrjabini and preliminary evaluation of its detection efficiency
    DENG Yan, LIU Yan⁃Hong, CHEN Wei⁃Qi, ZHANG Ya⁃Lan, JIANG Tian⁃Tian, LI Su⁃Hua, AI Lin, CAI Mao⁃Rong, YING Qing⁃Jie, LIU Ying, ZHANG Hong⁃Wei
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 464-.  
    Abstract127)      PDF (1305KB)(63)       Save
    Objective To establish a nucleic acid assay for detection of Paragonimus skrjabini based on the recombinase⁃aided isothermal amplification (RAA) technique, and to preliminarily evaluate its detection efficiency. Methods The metacercariae of P. skrjabini, P. westermani and Euparagonimus cenocopiosus were isolated from crabs, and genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization. The cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene sequence of P. skrjabini was selected as the target gene fragment, and the primers and probes were designed, screened and synthesized for RAA assay. The genomic DNA of P. skrjabini metacercariae from Jiyuan City and Yiyang County of Luoyang City, Henan Province were used as templates for verification of the fluorescent RAA assay. The fluorescent RAA assay was performed to detect different concentrations of plasmids containing target gene fragment and P. skrjabini metacercariae genomic DNA to determine the sensitivity. Fluorescent RAA assay was performed with recombinant plasmids containing P. skrjabini cox1 gene sequences at different concentrations and P. skrjabini genomic DNA as templates to evaluate its sensitivity, and the genomic DNA of P. westermani, E. cenocopiosus, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum was detected with fluorescent RAA assay to evaluate its specificity. Results P. skrjabini, P. westermani and E. cenocopiosus metacercariae were isolated from crabs, respectively. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis confirmed their homology with the genes sequences of standard Paragonimus strains in GenBank. A fluorescent RAA assay was successfully established for nucleic acid detection of P. skrjabini, and the genomic DNA of P. skrjabini metacercariae from Jiyuan City and Yiyang County of Luoyang City, Henan Province was amplified using the fluorescent RAA assay within 5 min, while the negative control was not amplified. If the recombinant plasmid containing P. skrjabini cox1 gene sequences was used as templates, the fluorescent RAA assay showed the lowest detection limit of 10 copies/µL, and positive amplification was observed within 5 min. If genomic DNA was used as templates, the fluorescent RAA assay showed the lowest detection limit of 10 pg/µL, and all positive amplifications were found within 5 to 10 min. In addition, the fluorescent RAA assay was tested negative for P. westermani, E. cenocopiosus, C. sinensis and S. japonicum. Conclusions A rapid, sensitive and specific fluorescent RAA assay is successfully established for nucleic acid detection of P. skrjabini, which has potential values in rapid field detection and species identification in freshwater crabs in areas endemic for P. skrjabini.
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    Prevalence of human soil⁃borne nematode infections in Yunnan Province: a cross⁃sectional study in 2015
    WU Fang⁃Wei, WANG Li⁃Bo, LI Ben⁃Fu, YAN Xin⁃Liu, ZI Jin⁃Rong, PENG Jia, CAI Xuan, BAO Xue⁃Ying, YANG Ya⁃Ming
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 513-.  
    Abstract126)      PDF (1003KB)(53)       Save
    Objective To investigate the current prevalence of human soil⁃borne nematode infections in Yunnan province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the soil⁃borne nematodiasis control strategy in the province. Methods In 2015, a total of 20 survey sites were sampled in 10 counties (cities) of Yunnan Province using the stratified cluster random sampling method. Stool samples were collected from all local permanent residents at ages of one year and older in each survey site, and the soil⁃borne nematode eggs were identified using the modified Kato⁃Katz technique and the egg number was counted. In addition, the hookworm species was identified using the filter⁃paperculture method, and Enterobius vermicularis eggs were detected using the cellophane tape method in children at ages of 3 to 6 years. Results A total of 5 067 residents received stool examinations, and 950 residents were detected with soil⁃borne nematode infections, with an overall prevalence rate of 18.75%. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura and hookworm was 7.52%, 8.47% and 9.02%, respectively. Among 446 children detected using the cellophane tape method, 5 children were detected with E. vermicularis infections. Among the 160 residents with hookworm infections, there were 139 residents with Necator americanus infections (86.88%), 16 with A. duodenale infections (10.00%) and 5 with mixed infections (3.12%). Mild A. lumbricoides (67.98%, 259/381), T. trichura (88.58%, 380/429) and hookworm infections (94.53%, 432/457) were predominant. Among the four ecological zones, the highest prevalence of human soil⁃borne nematode infections was found in the East Tibet⁃South Sichuan Ecological Zone (31.79%), and among the 10 survey counties (cities), the greatest prevalence was seen in Gongshan Derung and Nu Autonomous County (50.13%), while the lowest prevalence was found in Ninglang Yi Autonomous County (0.40%). The prevalence of human soil⁃borne nematode infections was 5.67% (43/759), 26.67% (610/2 287) and 14.70% (297/2 021) in high⁃, moderate⁃ and low⁃economic⁃level regions, respectively. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of human soil⁃borne nematode infections in terms of ecological regions, survey counties (cities) or economic development levels (χ2 = 342.20, 814.60 and 201.34, all P < 0.05). There was no significantdifference in the prevalence of human soil⁃borne nematode infections between male (18.21%, 441/2 422) and female residents (19.24%, 509/2 645) (χ2 = 0.89, P > 0.05), and soil⁃borne nematode infections were detected in residents at all age groups, with the greatest prevalence found in residents at ages of 1 to 9 years (25.88%). In addition, the highest prevalence of soil⁃borne nematode infections was seen in residents with the Dulong Ethnic Minority (82.09%), in preschool children (25.06%) and in illiterate residents (24.80%), and there was no age⁃, ethnicity⁃, occupation⁃ or education level⁃specific prevalence of soil⁃borne nematode infections detected (χ2 = 46.50, 1 016.96, 36.33 and 52.43, all values P < 0.05). Conclusions Theprevalence of human soil⁃borne nematode infections remains high in Yunnan Province. The management of soil⁃borne nematodiasis requires to be reinforced among low⁃age children, farmers, old people and residents with low educations levels or ethnic groups.
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    Susceptibility of Anopheles sinensis to insecticides in Puyang City, Henan Province
    HU Ya⁃Bo, HE Zhi⁃Quan, LIU Ying, QIAN Dan, YANG Cheng⁃Yun, LU De⁃Ling, ZHANG Qun⁃Qun, ZHANG Hong⁃Wei
    Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control    2021, 33 (5): 501-.  
    Abstract123)      PDF (976KB)(68)       Save
    Objective To investigate the susceptibility of Anopheles sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda⁃cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province, so as to provide the scientific basis for local malaria vector control. Methods An. sinensis was captured from Puyang County, Puyang City of Henan Province in September 2018 and July 2020, and the susceptibility of field captured An. sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda⁃cyhalothrin was tested using the filter⁃paper bioassay recommended by WHO. The insecticide resistance level was assessed based on the WHO criteria. Results In 2018 and 2010, the half knock⁃down times (KT50) of malathion were 91.08 min and 40.95 min for An. sinensis, with knock⁃down rates of 37.50% and 60.87% 60 min post⁃exposure to malathion and 24⁃hour mortality rates of 90.91% and 100%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were moderately resistant (M) and susceptible (S). The KT50 of deltamethrin were 415.56 min and 341.19 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock⁃down rates of 22.92% and 16.98% 60 min post⁃exposure to malathion and 24⁃hour mortality rates of 22.92% and 16.98%, and the insecticide resistance levels were all resistant (R). The KT50 of lambda⁃cyhalothrin were 164.22 min and 236.22 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock⁃down rates of 30.39% and 38.30% 60 min post⁃exposure to malathion and 24 h mortality rates of 19.60% and 21.28%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were all R. Conclusion An. sinensis is relatively susceptible to malathion but has developed high⁃level resistance to deltamethrin and lambda⁃cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province.
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