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    Analysis of relationship between natural death of Oncomelania hupensis snails and water level in Eastern Dongting Lake district
    GAO Jian-Chuan, ZHOU Yi-Biao, LI Lin-Han, WU Jin-Yi, ZHENG Sheng-Bang, SONG Xiu-Xia, HE Zhong, CAI Bin, YOU Jia-Bian, JIANG Qing-Wu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (3): 302-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015023
    Abstract153)      PDF (2598KB)(115607)       Save
    Objective Objective To study the reasons of natural death of Oncomelania hupensis snails by comparing the differences of the indicator days covered with water(DCW)in snail marshland and non?snail marshland around the build of Three Gorges Dam in Eastern Dongting Lake areas. Methods Methods Two marshlands were selected,one was a non?snail marshland(Qianliang Lake) and another was a snail marshland(Junshan Park) . The measuring points were set through the mechanical sampling. The snails and elevation of the points were surveyed,and the data of the water levels from the hydrological station were collected,and then DCWs were calculated. Results Results From 1995 to 2013,DCWs of the marshland of natural death of snails were all more than that of the snail marshland(P < 0.01) . In Qianliang Lake marshland,the difference between DCW before natural death and DCW from natural death until the dam was not significant (P = 0.23),while DCWs of the two stages both were more than that after the dam(P1 = 0.045,P2 = 0.002) . Before the build of the dam,DCW of the Qianliang Lake marshland of natural death of snails was more than that after the build of the dam(P = 0.013),and there was the same situation in Junshan Park marshland(P = 0.005) . The relationship between snail density and DCW was not significant in Junshan Park marshland(rs = 0.008, P = 0.914),and the reference range of DCW of all the measuring points was 76-251 days. Conclusion Conclusion In the eastern Dongting Lake district,the build of Three Gorges Dam and DCW may be not the direct factors affecting the natural death of snails and the latter may change the distribution of snails.
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    Evaluation on effect of treatment and assistance to advanced patients in Hunan Province from 2004 2004 to to 2013
    LI Sheng-Ming, ZHAO Zheng-Yuan, PENG Zai-Zhi, WANG Zhang-Hua, LI Yuan, GUO Feng-Ying, REN Guang-Hui
    Chin J Schisto Control    2014, 26 (4): 362-.  
    Abstract195)      PDF (1642KB)(113618)       Save
    Objective Objective To comprehensively evaluate the effect of the program of treatment and assistance to advanced schis? tosomiasis patients in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2013. Methods Methods The fund investment of the program,the profits of hospi? tals and the improvement of the patients’health were investigated by data collection and questionnaire survey. The evaluation index system of treatment and assistance to advanced schistosomiasis in Hunan Province was constructed by the Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process,and the program was assessed comprehensively. Results Results The evaluation index system includ? ing 6 primary indices and 33 secondary indices was established. Among all the primary indices,the score of the treatment and assistance(22.25)was the highest,and that of the satisfaction assessment(8.15)was the lowest,and the score of the compre? hensive assessment was 87.06. The average cure rate of the patients was 13.08% from 2004 to 2013. More than 60% of the pa? tients’disease condition got better,and nearly 70% of the patients’psychological condition improved,and more than 70% of patients’self?help ability and social contact improved,as well as family happiness increased. In addition,the annual average cost for caretakers decreased by 2000 Yuan,and the profits of all the fixed?point hospitals for treatment and assistance in? creased. Conclusion Conclusion The effectiveness and efficiency of the treatment and assistance to advanced schistosomiasis patients in Hunan Province is obvious,and the government should continuously invest in the program.
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    Retrospective investigation of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Hunan Province
    HAN Yang-Qing, HU Ben-Jiao, ZHOU Ying-Cai, WANG Xin-Yao, HUANG Zhi-Wei, LIU Ke-Jian, WANG Yue-Ming, MENG Shi-Hua, LI Guang-Ping, REN Guang-Hui
    Chin J Schisto Control    2014, 26 (5): 491-.  
    Abstract191)      PDF (2799KB)(113285)       Save
    Objective Objective To understand the dynamic rules of schistosomiasis endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled or transmission interrupted,so as to provide the evidence for improving schis? tosomiasis control. Methods Methods Wuling District,Xihu District and Linli County were selected and investigated retrospectively to collect the schistosomiasis epidemiological information 10 years before they reached the criteria of transmission controlled and the subsequent years until 2008. A database of retrospective investigation was established for analyzing the trends and rules of changes of the Oncomelania hupensis snail status and infection status of cattle and human. Results Results In Wuling District,the en? demic situation was declining,and no schistosome infection persons,animals and snails were found after 1974. There was no re? bound until 2008. In Xihu District,the endemic situation reached the criteria of transmission controlled in 1997,and the endem? ic situation was stable. The human infection rate was positively correlated with the area of infection snails(r=0.584,P<0.05) . In Linli County,there were no snails,no infected persons and cattle twice,but 2 endemic rebounds,and there were positive corre? lations between the densities of living snails and the infection rates of human and animal during the endemic rebound period. Conclusion Conclusion The snail status is an important indicator of schistosomiasis endemic rebound. Therefore,the snail control is one of the most important schistosomiasis control measures.
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    The evidences for formulation of schistosomiasis control and elimination criteria: results from a large scale of retrospective investigations
    ZHOU Xiao-Nong, WANG Tian-Ping, LIN Dan-Dan, WEN Li-Yong, ZHONG Bo, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2014, 26 (5): 479-.  
    Abstract237)      PDF (1634KB)(112659)       Save
    In this study,we summarized the results from the retrospective investigation on endemic situation of schistosomia? sis that was implemented in nine provinces(autonomous region),China in 2009,demonstrated the role of these retrospective in? vestigations in accelerating the progress of schistosomiasis control in China,and clarified the great significance of the investiga? tion for summarizing the experiences for the control of schistosomiasis,and analyzing the changing patterns and affecting factors of endemic status of schistosomiasis in China. In addition,these retrospective investigations provide reliable evidence for revis? ing the Criteria of Schistosomiasis Control and Elimination,and for the more accurate and scientific assessment of the effec? tiveness of schistosomiasis control in China.
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    Effect of ditching for drain on control of Oncomelania hupensis snail in beaches of Dongting Lake
    WEI Wang-Yuan, BU Kai-Ming, WEI Kai-Lin, LUO Zhi-Hong, REN Guang-Hui, CHEN Xiang-Lin, YI Jian-Min, LIU Yu, XIANG Yang, TANG Ke-Wen, YAN Jian-Hui, XIA Meng, DING Liang, LU Xian-Jiang, NIE Dong-Song, LI Yuan
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (3): 241-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2014133
    Abstract229)      PDF (2664KB)(111854)       Save
    Objective Objective To evaluate the effect of ditching for drain on the control of the breed of Oncomelania hupensis snails in beaches of Dongting Lake. Methods Methods From November,2009 to November,2012,an O. hupensis snail infested beach of the Yueyang jail and an O. hupensis snail infested beach of Junshan District were selected as research fields in the eastern Dongting Lake area,and the former,as the intervention field,was performed with the ditching for drain by excavators and the latter,as the control field,was not. Results Results Before the project implemented,the average soil moisture contents on the beaches in dry seasons of the two fields were both about 35.56%. After the project implemented,in the intervention field,the average soil mois? ture content was 26.53% which was significantly lower than that(35.56%)in the control field(F = 6.53,P < 0.05) . The under? ground water levels in different heights in the intervention field were lower than those in the control field( χ2 = 33.33,P < 0.05) . Before the project implemented,the natural death rates of the snails were 0.98% and 0.89% in the two research fields re? spectively(P > 0.05),and after the project implemented(in 2012),no adult and young snails were found in the interventional field,but in the control field,the average densities of living snails and young snails were 29.37 snails/0.1 m2 and 213±108.45 snails/0.1 m2 respectively. Conclusion Conclusion The intervention of ditching for drain can decrease the soil moisture contents quickly and change the ecological condition, therefore, can control the breed of O. hupensis snails in the beaches of Dongting Lake.
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    Effectiveness of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy in marshlands of Qixia District, Nanjing City
    ZHANG Ke, LIU Ning, HOU Kai, HOU Ning, GONG Yun-Hua, ZHANG Qiu-Ping, YE Jia-Ming, WANG Biao, SUN Ji-Jiang
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (4): 428-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015042
    Abstract168)      PDF (1540KB)(111286)       Save

    Objective Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy in marshlands of Qixia Dis? trict from 2004 to 2013. Methods Methods The endemic situation and integrated control data of schistosomiasis in Qixia District from 2004 to 2013 were collected,and the morbidity and Oncomelania hupensis snail status before and after the implementation of in? tegrated schistosomiasis control strategy were compared. Results Results Following 10?year integrated schistosomiasis control,the hu? man schistosome infection rate gradually decreased in Qixia District,and no infection was detected since 2007. A gradual reduc? tion was observed in the infection rate of domestic animals,and all bovine was eliminated from the regions along the Yangtze Riv? er since 2006. In addition,the snail area and the density of living snails in 2013 reduced by 42.25% and 82.56% as compared to those in 2004,and no infected snails were found since 2009. In 2010,the district achieved schistosomiasis transmission control. Conclusion Conclusion The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy is effective to accelerate schistosomiasis control process and achieve the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission control rapidly.

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    Impact of implementation of Three Gorges Project on schistosomiasis endemic situation in Hubei Province
    CHEN Yan-Yan, CAI Shun-Xiang, XIAO Ying, CHAN Xiao-Wei, ZHANG Juan, LIU Jian-Bing
    Chin J Schisto Control    2014, 26 (5): 498-.  
    Abstract232)      PDF (1843KB)(110476)       Save
    Objective Objective To understand the change of hydrological regime in the Yangtze River and schistosomiasis endemic situation after the implementation of Three Gorges Project in Hubei Province. Methods Methods The data of hydrological regime of the Yangtze River,schistosomiasis epidemic situation,and Oncomelania hupensis snail status were collected and analyzed in Hu? bei Province from 2002 to 2012. Results Results After the implementation of the Three Gorges Project in 2003,the water level of the Yangtze River slightly rose from January to March,the average water level in May and August both reduced compared with that in 2002,and the time of water withdrawal was moved up. The endemic situation of schistosomiasis showed a decline tendency in areas along the Yangtze River in Hubei Province. The positive rate of serological tests in the residents and the Schistosoma ja? ponicum infection rate in bovine decreased by 2.97% and 92.64% respectively. The numbers of human and bovine infected with S. japonicum decreased by 48.35% and 94.48%,respectively. Conclusion Conclusion After the implementation of the Three Gorges Proj? ect,t the schistosomiasis endemic situation shows a decline tendency in the areas along the Yangtze River in Hubei Province,but the long?term monitoring still need to be carried out.
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    Surveillance of schistosomiasis epidemic situation after its transmission interrupted in Lufeng County, Yunnan Province
    HUA Ming-Gui, JIN Hua-Zhong, LIU Jian-Hua, DUAN Hong-Mei, XU Xin-Ming
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (4): 416-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015020
    Abstract196)      PDF (1551KB)(108592)       Save
    Objective Objective To investigate the schistosomiasis epidemic situation changes after its transmission interrupted in Lufeng County in 1986,so as to provide the evidence for formulating the interventions for schistosomiasis elimination. Meth Meth? ? ods ods The surveillance of Oncomelania hupensis snail was performed by the systematic sampling,environmental sampling and special environmental comprehensive survey methods. The surveillance of human population was carried out by the serological screening method,and the positives were re ? examined with the stool hatching method. The surveillance of livestock was per? formed by the plastic cup of pipe jacking hatching method. Results Results The living snails were detected in Lufeng County from 1987 to 2007 except in 1988 and 1994. The two import buffalo infected with schistosomes were detected in 2001 and no local infected livestock were found. Since 2004,the comprehensive measures,including the social control strategy and survival snail elimina? tion,were carried out,and no snails were detected and no schistosome infected persons or livestock were found for 7 consecu? tive years since 2008. Conclusions Conclusions The achievement of schistosomiasis transmission interrupted has been consolidated in Lufeng County,but most of the historical snail environments have not been modified and there are still snail breeding conditions. Therefore,we should continue to carry out the snail surveillance.
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    Research of preferences and security management of tourists in Poyang Lake based on schistosomiasis prevention
    FENG Shu-Hua
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (2): 192-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2014223
    Abstract245)      PDF (2255KB)(107266)       Save
    Objective Objective To discuss the prevention of schistosomiasis in tourism of lake region. Methods Methods The seasonal distri? bution of tourism activities and spatial distribution of scenic spots,as well as the coupling between space and temporal of Onco? melania snail distribution and the transmission time of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake region were analyzed. The travel prefer? ence of schistosomiasis susceptible population was surveyed by questionnaires and interviews. Results Results There were couplings of space and temporal between tourism activities in Poyang Lake region and transmission time of schistosomiasis as well as space distribution of snails,respectively. The most popular tourism items were Shuishangrenjia(overwater household)and fishing folk culture with property of participation and experience. Conclusion Conclusion The suggestion is to establish health records of tourists,car? ry out health education of schistosomiasis, and enhance the management of tourism and activities of tourists.
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    Analysis of endemic changes of schistosomiasis in China from 2002 to 2010
    WANG Qiang, XU Jing, ZHANG Li-Juan, ZHENG Hao, RUAN Yao, HAO Yu-Wan, LI Shi-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (3): 229-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015080
    Abstract234)      PDF (3188KB)(106790)       Save
    Objective Objective To provide the reference for schistosomiasis control through analyzing the changes of endemic status of schistosomiasis in China in recent years. Methods Methods The annual data of schistosomiasis prevention and control from 2002 to 2012 were collected, and the descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the changes of schistosomiasis endemic status. Re Re? ? sults sults Sichuan, Yunan and Jiangxi provinces reached the criteria of transmission controlled from 2002 to 2010 while Hubei, Hu? nan, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces reached the criteria of infection controlled in 2008. The number of counties where the trans? mission of schistosomiasis was controlled decreased from 110 in 2002 to 80 in 2010. The numbers of estimated schistosomiasis cases and reported acute cases fell from 810.4 thousands and 913 in 2002 to 325.8 thousands and 43 in 2010, respectively, and they were reduced by 59.79% and 95.40% respectively. The number of infected bovine went down from 23 199 in 2002 to 7 173 in 2010, with a fall of 69.03%. However, the Oncomelania hupensis snails breeding areas kept in 3.7 to 3.8 billion m2 and among which, 125 million m2 areas were newly discovered in non?endemic areas during the nine years. In 2010, 90% of schistosomiasis cases, acute cases, infected bovine, and snail breeding areas were concentrated in 5 provinces, especially in the Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake areas and the regions along the Yangtze River. Conclusions Conclusions The epidemic of schistosomiasis decreased sig? nificantly from 2002 to 2010. The lake regions are the key and tough areas for schistosomiasis prevention and control. To consoli? date the achievements, the surveillance and case management need to be strengthened as the extension of snail breeding areas and acute cases reported from other places becomes common.
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    Eradication of Schistosomiasis: a New Target and a New Task for the National Schistosomiasis Control Porgramme in the People's Republic of China
    LEI Zheng-Long, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (1): 1-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015036
    Abstract201)      PDF (2362KB)(103208)       Save
    The achievements for the national schistosomiasis control programme in the People’s Republic of China over the last 6 decades were reviewed, with an emphasis on the status and challenges to accomplish the tasks of “Workplan for the Mid? and Long?term of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme from 2004 to 2015”. Four features of current national schistosomiasis control programme were identified in the new stage. First, the high prevalence areas have been shrunk, but few regions are still at the risks of schitosomiasis rebounding. Second, large areas with low prevalence of schistosomiasis will remain for a long time, so that the disease surveillance will be a long?term task. Third, more notable places will be in the high risk areas where more activities of human and livestock occurred, so that it is essential to implement the integrated control measures in those high risk areas. Fourth, the technologies using in the schistosomiasis eradication programme are delayed as expected, and more needs to accelerate the R&D programmes. It was recommended that sustained implementation of integrated control strategy with more emphasis on control of infectious sources has to be strengthened through enhanced regulation performance in addition to the aforementioned notifications, in order to eradicate schistosomiasis in a response to the newly formulated target of “making the ‘God of Plague’ to be sweep away from the history, and retuning the clear land/water and happy/healthy life to the people”.
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    Investigation of theoretical knowledge on schistosomiasis prevention and control among professionals in county level in Hunan and Hubei provinces
    ZHANG Li-Juan, ZHU Rong, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (3): 246-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015055
    Abstract220)      PDF (1997KB)(102806)       Save
    Objective Objective To understand the knowledge level on schistosomiasis prevention and treatment among professionals of schistosomiasis endemic counties in Hunan and Hubei provinces,so as to provide the basis for the ability construction of schistosomiasis control institution. Methods Methods The theoretical test was applied to investigate the mastering situation on schistoso? miasis prevention and control among professionals of 12 selected schistosomiasis endemic counties in Hunan and Hubei provinc? es,and the results were analyzed statistically. Results Results Ninety?six professionals were surveyed. The average score was 66.94± 11.53,in the range of 34?91,and the pass rate was 75.00%. The scoring rates of the knowledge points of the test and treatment of schistosomiasis,snail survey and killing as well as basic knowledge and laws and regulations about schistosome were 68.69%,70.54% and 73.19%,respectively. On the knowledge points of the test and treatment of schistosomiasis and basic knowledge and laws and regulations about schistosome,the differences among different education backgrounds were significant (F = 3.337,4.793,both P < 0.05),and the scores were higher in professionals with higher diploma. In the scores,there were no statistical differences between or among different genders,age groups,professional titles or specialties(all P > 0.05) . Con Con? ? clusion clusion The overall knowledge level on schistosomiasis prevention and treatment of the professionals from 12 schistosomiasis endemic counties in Hunan and Hubei provinces is low. Therefore, the learning of relative knowledge should be strengthened.
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    Academic influence of institutes in field of schistosomiasis control and research in China
    YAO Jia-Wen, GIA Tie-Wu, GUAN Ya-Yi, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2014, 26 (3): 238-.  
    Abstract237)      PDF (1313KB)(99571)       Save
    Objective To assess the academic influence of schistosomiasis control and research institutions in China. Meth? ods The papers(including original articles and reviews)pertaining to schistosomiasis in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)of Web of Science(WOS)during the period from 2002 to 2012 were searched. The number of published papers,h index and citation frequencies of the papers of Chinese institutes and authors were analyzed by a bibliometric method,and the academic influences of the institutes and authors were assessed according to the number of published papers and h index. In addition,the scientific knowledge network map was plotted by using the CiteSpace II software to analyze the inter?institution academic collabora? tion network. Results From 2002 to 2012,totally 610 papers pertaining to schistosomiasis were published by Chinese scholars, accounted for 16.7% of the published papers in global,and the quantity increased year by year. The number of published papers and h index of the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases(NIPD),China Center for Disease Control and Prevention(China CDC) were 114 and 27,respectively,both of which were ranked at the first position among all the Chinese institutes,and in the academ? ic collaboration network,the NIPD played a central and dominate part. Xiao?Nong Zhou with the h index of 17 became the out? standing academic leader in the research field of schistosomiasis control. Conclusions Both number of published papers in SCIE and h index of the Chinese institutes for schistosomiasis control are far inferior to the leading institutions in the world. It suggests that when strengthening the research and control of schistosomiasis,we should pay an attention to the output and sharing of the control experience and achievements.
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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2013
    LEI Zheng-Long, ZHENG Hao, ZHANG Li-Juan, ZHU Rong, XU Zhi-Min, XU Jing, FU Qing, WANG Qiang, LI Shi-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2014, 26 (6): 591-.  
    Abstract225)      PDF (4538KB)(51808)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2013. By the end of 2013,there are 184 943 schistosomiasis japonica cases. Meanwhile,nine acute cases were reported,and 4 cases reduced compared with that of 2012. A total of 29 796 advanced cases were reported;while 911 cases were determined as advanced cases and 1 700 cases were dead in 2013. Nationally,there were around 365 467.99 hm2 Oncomelania snail infested areas in total and 9.25 hm2 of them habituated infected snails in 2013. There were 287.28 hm2 of snail infested areas found in non ?endemic areas historically. Moreover,962 065 cattle were estimated to be raised in endemic regions and 633 cattle were deter? mined as positive by stool examinations. The data showed that the endemicity of schistosomiasis in China decreased further. How? ever,challenges exist to reach the aims of the medium and long term national program. Further control and effective surveillance need to be strengthened as the endemicity of schistosomiasis is unstable in the areas after schistosomiasis transmission under con? trol or interruption.
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    Establishment of index system of key factors on elimination of schistosomiasis
    LIU Yang, ZHANG Yi, CHEN Lin, WAN Jia-Jia, XU Jia, QIU Dong-Chuan, ZHONG Bo
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (1): 5-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2014178
    Abstract174)      PDF (1867KB)(3604)       Save
    Objective Objective To establish an index system of the key factors of elimination of schistosomiasis. Methods Methods A ques? tionnaire was designed based on the reference review,and 24 scientists working in the field of schistosomiasis control or re? search or management were investigated by using the Delphi method. The importance of each index reflecting the endemicity of schistosomiasis was scored by each scientist. The assessing system for key factors of eliminating schistosomiasis was established, and the normalized weight and combined weight were calculated. Results Results The assessing system included three indexes in the first grade,seven indexes in the second grade and thirteen indexes in the third grade. Among the indexes in the first grade,the normalized weights of endemicity,natural environment and social environment were 0.371 1,0.339 5,and 0.289 4,respective? ly. Among the indexes in the second grade,the economy showed the highest combined weight of 0.289 4 while the agriculture and sanitation both showed the lowest score of 0.112 7. Among the indexes in the third grade,the infection rate of animals showed the highest combined weight of 0.124 6 while the agriculture and plant structure both showed the lowest score of 0.053 0. Conclusion Conclusion The indexes of the assessing system provide the scientific evidence for surveillance work when elimination of schis? tosomiasis.
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    Contrastive analysis of environmental factors between Oncomelania hupensis snail marshland and snail natural death marshland in Eastern Dongting Lake schistosomiasis endemic areas
    ZHENG Sheng-Bang, LI Lin-Han, ZHOU Yi-Biao, WU Jin-Yi, SONG Xiu-Xia, HE Zhong, CAI Bin, YOU Jia-Bian, JIANG Qing-Wu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2014, 26 (2): 121-.  
    Abstract198)      PDF (1365KB)(2561)       Save
    Objective To study the reasons of natural death of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshland by comparing the differences of environmental factors between snail marshland and non?snail marshland in East Dongting Lake schistosomiasis en? demic areas. Methods Two adjoining marshlands were selected,one was a snail marshland and another was a non?snail marsh? land. The measuring points were set by grid of“20m×20m” . The soil moisture,elevation,soil pH and temperature of the points were measured,and the snails of the points were surveyed. Results The elevation,soil pH and temperature of the snail natural death marshland were all lower than those of the snail marshland (P < 0.01) . The soil moisture,elevation,soil pH and temperature of different snail densities in the snail marshland were different (P < 0.05) . The soil moisture of the non?snail group was higher than that of other four groups(P < 0.01) and the soil moisture of the group with 0-11 snails per frame was lower than that of other four groups(P < 0.01) . The elevation of the group with 0-11 snails per frame was lower than that of the group with 24-39 snails per frame and the group with more than 39 snails per frame(P < 0.05) . The soil pH of the group without snails was higher than that of other four groups(P < 0.01)and the soil temperature of the group with 0-11 snails per frame was lower than that of the group with 24-39 snails per frame. The differences of soil moisture and elevation of different death snail densities were not significant, while the differences of soil pH and temperature were significant. The soil pH of the non?snail died group was higher than that of the 2?died,3?died and more than 3?died groups(P < 0.05) . The soil temperature of the non?snail died group was higher than that of other four groups (P < 0.05) . Conclusion The elevation,soil pH and soil temperature within the range of the research may be the factors affecting the snail natural death and the soil moisture,elevation,soil pH and soil temperature may be the factors affect? ing the distribution of snails.
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    Effect of schistosomiasis control in Jingzhou City from 2009 to 2013
    YUAN Mei-Zhi, WANG Jia-Song, HE Liang-Cai, TIAN Ke-Qing, PENG Xiao-Wu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (4): 422-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015008
    Abstract238)      PDF (1632KB)(2451)       Save
    Objective Objective To evaluate the effect of schistosomiasis control in Jingzhou City of Hubei Province from 2009 to 2013,so as to provide the reference for the establishment of control strategy in the future. Methods Methods The annual reports on schistosomiasis control from 2009 to 2013 in nine counties(cities,districts)in Jingzhou City were collected and analyzed statis? tically. Results Results The estimated number of schistosomiasis patients in Jingzhou City dropped from 78 903 in 2009 to 28 034 in 2013,with a reduction rate of 63.37%. The schistosome infection rate of residents dropped from 2.21% in 2009 to 0.65% in 2013,which showed an exponential decline trend(y = 3.196e-0.317x ) . The number of cattle with schistosomiasis decreased from 2 132 in 2009 to 0 in 2013,and the infection rate of cattle dropped from 1.87% in 2009 to 0% in 2013. Only 2 cases with acute infection of schistosome were found in 2009,and no schistosome infected snails were found out in 2 consecutive years,2012 and 2013. Conclusions Conclusions The endemic level of schistosomiasis in Jingzhou City has decreased significantly. In order to consoli? date the achievement of control,the comprehensive strategy including infection source control,snail control with molluscicides and snail surveillance should be implemented.
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    Approaches used for assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica: a comparative study
    LI Yi-Ting, CAI Xin-Ting, ZHU Jin-Hua, SUN Le-Ping, HUA Hai-Yong, TIAN Li-Guang, FENG Ting, LI Shi-Zhu, REN Guang-Hui, JIA Tie-Wu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2019, 31 (3): 280-.  
    Abstract26)      PDF (1041KB)(1998)       Save
    Objective To compare the approaches used for the assessment of disability adjust life years (DALYs) for advanced schistosomiasis japonica, so as to provide scientific evidence for accurate assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Methods The patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica receiving treatment and assistance programs in Hunan Province in 2017 were enrolled, and the years lived with disability (YLD) for the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica was calculated using the common global burden of disease (GBD) estimation method, the modified GBD method with addition of common syndromes of advanced schistosomiasis japonica, and the quality of life assessment method. Results The YLDs of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, the mean YLDs per capita, and the percentages of YLD were 673.94, 728.77 person?years and 1 761.99 person?years; 0.181, 0.196 person?years and 0.474 person?years; and 10.61, 11.48 person?years per 100 thousand persons and 27.75 person?years per 100 thousand persons with the common GBD method, modified GBD method and the quality of life method, respectively. The YLDs of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province estimated with the modified GBD method and the quality of life method were 8.14% and 2.61 times higher than that with the common GBD method. Of the major symptoms included in the calculation, the 5 symptoms with the greatest contribution to the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica included ascites, moderate anemia, severe anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. Conclusion The quality of life method may more comprehensively assess the YLDs in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica than the common and modified GBD methods.
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    Application of spatial statistical analysis methods and related analytic softwares in research of infectious diseases
    FENG Jun, TUN Xiao-Hua, LI Dan-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2011, 23 (2): 217-220.  
    Abstract393)      PDF (944KB)(1634)       Save
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    Moving towards a new era in elimination of schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake regions
    ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2020, 32 (3): 219-.  
    Abstract38)      PDF (958KB)(1493)       Save
    Hunan Province occupies a particular position in the history of the national schistosomiasis control programme of China. The province is hyperendemic for schistosomiasis, and achieves great successes and many experiences at various stages of the national schistosomiasis control programme of China. Recently, remarkable schistosomiasis control benefits have been achieved in Hunan Province because of the strong political will, increased financial support, intensification of the integrated control strategy and sustainable implementation of the four projects, including management of livestock and humans as sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections, snail control and capability building of schistosomiasis control institutions. In addition, a series of schistosomiasis control models have been created from the schistosomiasis control programme, and the concept of control-research combination and research serving for field control has been achieved, which provides the "Hunan experience" for the natonal schistosomiasis control programme of China. Based on the government?led multisectoralcollaboration principle, further actions are required with scientific control and joint prevention and control, implementation of the integrated strategy with emphases on controlling sources of S. japonicum infections and snails, adequate financial support, improved professional capability building, and innovative medical treatment?prevention combination patterns, so as to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in Hunan Province as soon as possible.
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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2015
    ZHANG Li-Juan, XU Zhi-Min, QIAN Ying-Jun, DANG Hui, LV Shan, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2016, 28 (6): 611-617.  
    Abstract141)      PDF (2793KB)(1324)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2015,and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schis? tosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces(municipality,autonomous region)endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China,5 provinces(municipality,autonomous region),i.e.,Shanghai,Zhejiang,Fujian,Guangdong and Guangxi, had achieved transmission interruption,and 7 provinces of Sichuan,Yunnan,Jiangsu,Hubei,Anhui,Jiangxi and Hunan had achieved transmission control by the end of 2015. There were 453 endemic counties(city,district)covering 252 million peo? ple,specifically including 29 980 endemic villages of 68.61 million people at risk of infection. Among the 453 endemic counties (city,district),75.72%(343/453)and 24.28%(110/453)reached the criteria of transmission interruption and transmission control,respectively. By the end of 2015,it was estimated of 77 194 cases of schistosomiasis,which were decreased by 33.23% compared with 115 614 cases in 2014. No acute schistosomiasis cases were reported in 2015. There were 30 843 advanced schis? tosomiasis cases documented in 2015. A total of 8 736 036 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 3 606 individu? als were parasitologically diagnosed,which were decreased by 56.40% compared with 8 270 cases in 2014. An Oncomelania hu? pensis snail survey was performed in 19 965 endemic villages and the snails were found in 5 609 villages,accounting for 28.09% of total villages,with 31 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 593 572.66 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 173 462.50 hm2,including a newly detected area of 666.04 hm2. No infected snails were found in 2015. A to? tal of 879 373 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic regions. Of them,526 062 bovines received stool examina? tions,resulting in 315 infected bovines. There were 170 438 schistosomiasis cases receiving drug treatment in 2015,with 2 449 696 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy. There were 318 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving drug treatment,with 483 213 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 305.52 hm2 area was subject to snail control by using mollus? cicides,with an actual molluscicide?treated area of 69 221.57 hm2,and 4 572.06 hm2 snail habitats were treated by environmen? tal modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites,the mean Schistosoma japonicum in? fection rate was 0.05% and 0.04% in humans and bovines,respectively. No infected snails were found in all the surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a decline in the endemicity of schistosomiasis in P. R. China and the country reached the criteria of transmission control at the national level. However,the endemic situation of schistosomiasis is unstable in some regions with newly?reached transmission control,and further control and effective surveillance should be strengthened to consolidate the achievements and reduce the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China.
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    Progress and challenges of schistosomiasis elimination in China
    Chin J Schisto Control    2018, 30 (6): 605-609.  
    Abstract26)      PDF (975KB)(1228)       Save
    Schistosomiasis is an old and geographically widespread parasitic disease that severely damages human health and affects socioeconomic development in China. The implementation of the integrated strategy with emphasis on controlling the source of Schistosoma japonicum infection and the National Mid? and Long?Term Plan for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control (2004-2015) in China greatly facilitated the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Since transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in 2015, the goal of the national schistosomiasis control program has moved to transmission interruption and elimination in China. Because of the impacts of natural and social factors, and the new situation, new task and new demands following the continuous decline in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis, several challenges exist to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination nationwide. This paper analyzed the current endemic status of schistosomiasis, progress and challenges of schistosomiasis elimination, and proposed some suggestions for the national schistosomiasis elimination program in China.
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    Spatial and temporal characteristics of distribution of Oncomelania hupensis in Eryuan County from 2005 to 2012
    Chin J Schisto Control    2016, 28 (2): 120-124.  
    Abstract209)      PDF (2542KB)(1214)       Save
    Objective Objective To study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis in Eryuan County,Yun? nan Province from 2005 to 2012,so as to provide the scientific evidence for snail surveillance and control. Methods Methods Based on the geographic database of O. hupensis snail distribution from 2005 to 2012,the spatial and local autocorrelation analysis and "hot spots" analysis were applied to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of the snails. Results Results Percent of frames with O. hupensis snails in Eryuan County decreased as a whole from 2005 to 2012. The spatial clustering of global autocorrela? tion(Moran’ s I)was increasing from 2007 to 2012 and all Moran’ s I values showed statistically significance. The local spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated that the number of villages of High?High type of correlation model increased from 2 in 2005 to 7 in 2012,which mainly clustered in plateau canyon areas. The infected snails with High?High type mainly distributed in pla? teau basin region in 2007. Further "hot spot" analysis found that the living snails gathered in Xinzhuang,Liantie,Xipo and Taip? ing nearby areas. Conclusion Conclusion The snail distribution in Eryuan has global and local spatial autocorrelations. The number of vil? lages of High?High type of correlation increased. These findings provide the basis for target control of O. hupensis in the future.
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    Control strategy of schistosomiasis and key points in the 12th Five-Year Plan in China
    ZHOU Xiao-Nong, LIN Dan-Dan, WANG Tian-Ping, CHEN Hong-Gen, GUO Jia-Gang, LIANG You-Sheng, QIU Dong-Chuan, DONG Xin-Qi, LI Shi-Zhu
    Chin J Schisto Control    2011, 23 (1): 1-4.  
    Abstract966)      PDF (1004KB)(1207)       Save

    Based on the objective of long- and mid-term development program for schistosomiasis control in China, the paper presents an analysis of strategy for schistosomiasis control and its function in the 12th Five-Year Plan. Meanwhile, the strategy and key elements of schistosomiasis control for recent years are put forward for different endemic areas.

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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2019
    ZHANG Li-Juan, XU Zhi-Min, DANG Hui, LI Yin-Long, Lü Shan, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2020, 32 (6): 551-.  
    Abstract242)      PDF (993KB)(1153)       Save
    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were sero?positive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person?times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd?times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five?Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.
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    Opportunities and challenges of malaria elimination in China
    GAO Qi
    Chin J Schisto Control    2011, 23 (4): 347-349.  
    Abstract588)      PDF (2216KB)(1063)       Save

    The malaria elimination program of China launched in July 2010, and planned to eliminate malaria by 2020. Most of people were optimistic, meanwhile, some of others doubted on that. This paper introduces both the opportunities and challenges of malaria elimination in China at present, and indicates that it is advantageous timing to conduct malaria elimination program in China now, but the goal of elimination only can be reached if we could timely change the concept, seize those opportunities and deal with those challenges, as well as accelerate the technique innovation and breakthrough by scientific research.

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    Evaluation on molluscicidal effect of chlorosalicylicamide on Oncomelania hupensis in schistosomiasis endemic areas of eight provinces in China
    WEI Feng-Hua, XU Xin-Jian, YUAN Yi, XIA Jing, LI Gui-Ling, LIU Min, CHEN Ru-Juan, ZHOU Zheng-Ping, DONG Xin-Qi, FENG Xi-Guang, QIU Dong-Chuan, CHEN Lin, YI Ping, WEI Wang-Yuan, CHEN Hong-Gen, LIU Hong-Yun, WANG Tian-Ping, GUO Jian-Duo, LIANG You-Sheng, DAI Jian-Rong, WEN Li-Yong, YAN Xiao-Lan
    Chin J Schisto Control    2015, 27 (4): 335-.   DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015028
    Abstract181)      PDF (3681KB)(1026)       Save

    Objective Objective To evaluate the effects of a novel molluscicide,the salt quinoid?2′,5?dichloro?4′?nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide(LDS),with 10% wettable powder,in main schistosomiasis epidemic areas of China,including Hunan、 Ji? angxi、 Hubei、 Anhui、 Jiangsu、 Sichuan、 Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces. Methods Methods In the immersion test,6 effective concentra? tions of 10% LDS were tested respectively:0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8 and 1.0 g/m3 in the field;at the same time,50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt(WPN)with effective concentrations of 1.0 g/m3 was used as the molluscicide control, and the fresh water as the blank control,then the mortality rates of O. hupensis snails were recorded at 24 h,48 h and 72 h after the immersion. In the spraying test and powder ? spraying test,5 effective dosages of 10% LDS were tested respectively:0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 ,while 50% WPN 1.0 g/m2 was used as the molluscicide control,and the fresh water as the blank con? trol in the field for 1 d,3 d and 7 d,then the mortality rates of O. hupensis snails were recorded at 1 d,3 d and 7 d after the spraying and powder?spraying. Results Results The snail mortality rates of LDS using the immersion test for 72 h were more than 95% in the field of eight provinces(0.1 g/m3 in Sichuan,Jiangxi,Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces,0.2 g/m3 in Yunnan,Hunan and Hubei provinces,and 0.4 g/m3 in Anhui Province);the snail mortality rates of LDS using the spraying test for 7 d were more than 85%(0.2 g/m2 in Hunan,Hubei,Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces,0.4 g/m2 in Sichuan and Anhui provinces,0.6 g/m2 in Yunnan and Jiangsu provinces) . The snail mortality rates of LDS in the powder?spraying test for 7 d were more than 85%(0.6 g/ m2 in Yunnan,Sichuan,Hubei,Jiangxi,Anhui,Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces) . According to the standards of“Efficacy test methods and evaluation of molluscicide for pesticide registration(NY/T 1617?2008) ” ,LDS is a qualified molluscicide. Conclu Conclu? ? sions sions LDS has good molluscicidal effects through the immersion,spraying and powder?spraying test in the fields. It is suitable for a variety of environments to control O. hupensis snails of schistosomiasis endemic areas in China. The recommended dosages of LDS are 0.1?0.2 g/m3 by the immersion method,0.2?0.4 g/m2 by the spraying method,and 0.4?0.6 g/m2 by the powder?spray? ing method in the fields.

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    Challenges and countermeasures of schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province in the new era
    LI Sheng-Ming, DENG Wei-Cheng, CHENG Xiang-Hui, HE Hong-Bin, ZHOU Yi-Biao, ZHOU Jie, HU Ben-Jiao, LIU Han-Qiu, LU Shi-Kui, LI Yue-Sheng, ZHOU Xiao-Nong, REN Guang-Hui
    Chin J Schisto Control    2020, 32 (3): 225-.  
    Abstract36)      PDF (973KB)(1015)       Save
    This paper describes the current epidemic characteristics and endemic status of schistosomiasis, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control and proposes the emphasis and interventions for future schistosomiasis control activities in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the elimination of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province.
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    Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2017
    ZHANG Li-Juan, XU Zhi-Min, DAI Si-Min, DANG Hui, LV Shan, XU Jing, LI Shi-Zhu, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2018, 30 (5): 481-488.  
    Abstract41)      PDF (1338KB)(991)       Save
    This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 50.89% (229/450), 30.89% (139/450) and 18.22% (82/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017, a total of 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 cases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 622 454.49 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 172 501.56 hm2, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm2. No schistosome?infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm2 area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide?treated area of 73 755.37 hm2; and 5 002.92 hm2 area with snail was treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines, respectively. No schistosome?infected snails were found by microscopic examinations in all the surveillance sites, and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic acid positive were detected by loop?mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five?year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.
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    Current endemic situation and control strategy of schistosomiasis in lake and marshland regions in China
    CHEN Hong-Gen, XIE Shu-Yang, ZENG Xiao-Jun, HUANG Xi-Bao, WANG Tian-Beng, LI Yue-Sheng, LIANG You-Sheng, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    Chin J Schisto Control    2011, 23 (1): 5-9.  
    Abstract664)      PDF (940KB)(987)       Save

    This paper reviewed the current endemic features and situation of schistosomiasis in lake and marshland regions in China, and discussed the comprehensive control strategy for schistosomiasis with emphasis on infectious sources control, including its theoretical basis, the reality conditions of implementation and technical composition, and also introduced the effectiveness of the pilot trails and their large-scale applications as well as several issues in the implementation. The aim of the review is to accelerate the process of schistosomiasis control in lake and marshland regions and promote the achivement of mid- and long-term goals in national schistosomiasis control program.

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