Table of Content

    23 February 2016, Volume 28 Issue 1
    Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China
    ZHOU Xiao-nong
    2016, 28(1):  1-4.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2016001
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    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control,which has been imple? mented since 2004,accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China,and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015,which achieved the overall objective of the Mid? and Long?term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis(2004-2015)on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the po? tential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control,a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control,will pro? vide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China,and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass ?root level is a prerequisite to the imple? mentation of schistosomiasis control,precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

    Integration and demonstration of key techniques in surveillance and fore-cast of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province III Development of a machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental cleaning and automatic mollusciciding
    WANG Fu-biao, MA Yu-cai, SUN Le-ping, HONG Qing-biao, GAO Yang, ZHANG Chang-lin, DU Guang-lin, LU Da-qin, SUN Zhi-yong, WANG Wei, DAI Jian-rong, LIANG You-sheng
    2016, 28(1):  5-10.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015229
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    Objective Objective To develop a machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental cleaning and automatic mollusciciding and to evaluate its effectiveness of field application,so as to provide a novel Oncomelania hupensis snail control technique in the large?scale marshlands. Methods Methods The machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental clean? ing and automatic mollusciciding,which was suitable for use in complex marshland areas,was developed according to the mech? anization and automation principles,and was used for O. hupensis snail control in the marshland. The effect of the machine on environmental cleaning and plough was evaluated,and the distribution of living snails was observed at various soil layers following plough. The snail control effects of plough alone and plough followed by mollusciciding were compared. Results Results The ma? chine could simultaneously complete the procedures of getting vegetation down and cut vegetation into pieces,plough and snail control by spraying niclosamide. After plough,the constituent ratios of living snails were 36.31%,25.60%,22.62% and 15.48% in the soil layers at depths of 0-5,6-10,11-15 cm and 16-20 cm respectively,and 61.91% living snails were found in the 0-10 cm soil layers. Seven and fifteen days after the experiment,the mortality rates of snails were 9.38% and 8.29% in the plough alone group,and 63.04% and 80.70% in the plough + mollusciciding group respectively(c2 7 d = 42.74,c2 15 d = 155.56,both P values < 0.01) . Thirty days after the experiment,the densities of snails were 3.02 snails/0.1 m2 and 0.53 snails/ 0.1 m2 in the soil surface of the plough alone group and the plough + mollusciciding group,which decreased by 64.92% and 93.60%,respectively,and the decrease rate of snail density was approximately 30% higher in the plough + mollusciciding group than that in the plough alone group. Conclusions Conclusions The machine simultaneously integrating mechanized environmental cleaning and automatic mollusciciding achieves the integration of mechanical environmental cleaning and automatic niclosamide spraying in the complex marshland areas,which provides a novel technique of field snail control in the large?scale setting in Chi? na.

    Study on immune status of patients with schistosomiasis japonica in Poyang Lake region Ⅲ Humoral and cellular immune characteristics between Schistosoma japonicum high and low antibody responders
    LI Zhao-jun, YUAN Min, JI Min-jun, XIE Shu-ying, LV Mei-yun, LI Yi-feng, LAN Wei-ming, LIU Yue-min, HU Fei, ZENG Xiao-jun, LI Jian-ying, LIN Dan-dan
    2016, 28(1):  11-17.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015145
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    Objective Objective To explore the immune mechanism of negative results of immune tests of schistosomiasis japonica pa? tients. Methods Methods Totally 142 schistosomiasis patients(positive stool examinations)of Poyang Lake region were tested by ELI? SA method,and the ROC curve was applied to determine the high and low response of the patients. The levels of cellular immu? nity and cytokines of high and low responders were compared. Results Results Totally eight schistosomiasis patients were found as low responders. Besides SWAP? IgA(t= -1.588,P > 0.1),the levels of isotype antibodies were significantly lower in the low re? sponders compared with those in the high responders(t = -14.517 to -2.866,all P < 0.05) . In the low responders,the propor? tion of CD3+ T was increased;and the proportions of CD4+ T,CD8+ T,CD4+ CD25+ Treg,and the ratio of CD4+ /CD8+ were all de? creased,but all of them were not significant(t = -1.72 to 0.974,all P > 0.05)compared with those in the high responders. The differences of IFN?γ and IL?10 between the high and low responders were both not significant(t= -2.426 to 0.216,all P > 0.05) . Conclusions Conclusions There is a significant difference between the high and low responders only in the levels of isotype antibod? ies. One of the reasons of low response in the immune tests is the much lower antibody level after the antigen?antibody compound is completely formulated.
    Serological diagnosis methods of schistosomiasis japonica at different prevalence: a meta-analysis
    WANG Xin-yao,YANG Kun*
    2016, 28(1):  18-25,29.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015170
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    Objective Objective To comprehensively evaluate the effects of indirect hemagglutination test(IHA),enzyme?linked im? munosorbent assay(ELISA),and dipstick dye method(DDIA)in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica at different preva? lence by using Meta?analysis. Methods Methods Through the literature review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,a data? base was established,and by using Meta?disc and R software,the Meta?analysis was performed including the threshold test,het? erogeneity test,weighted by the quantitative effect of merger,SROC curve fitting,etc. Results Results A total of 60 papers were in? cluded in the final analysis. The sensitivities of IHA were 0.84,0.76 and 0.94 in heavy,medium and low endemic areas,and specificities were 0.73,0.64 and 0.73 respectively;the sensitivities of ELISA were 0.88,0.80 and 0.93 in heavy,medium and low endemic areas,and the specificities were 0.59,0.59 and 0.62 respectively;the sensitivities of DDIA were 0.93,0.81 and 0.93 in the heavy,medium and low endemic areas,and specificities were 0.66,0.69 and 0.59 respectively. The weighted sensi? tivities of IHA,ELISA and DDIA were 0.83,0.87 and 0.90 respectively;the weighted specificities were 0.69,0.60 and 0.62 re? spectively. The areas under the curve of SROC were 0.89,0.96 and 0.92 in IHA,ELISA and DDIA respectively. Conclusions Conclusions In different prevalence,the effectiveness of different methods for serological diagnosis of schistosomiasis is different. The sensi? tivity and specificity of all diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis need to further improve.
    Analysis of epidemic situation of malaria in Yunnan Province from 2011 to 2013
    WEI Chun, DU Long-fei, ZHAO Xiao-tao, SUN Xiao-dong
    2016, 28(1):  26-29.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015158
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    Objective Objective To understand the epidemic situation and characteristics of malaria in Yunnan Province,so as to pro? vide the reference for malaria elimination. Methods Methods The data of malaria reported in the information system were collected and analyzed in Yunnan Province from 2011 to 2013. Results Results From 2011 to 2013,totally 2 256 malaria cases were found in Yun? nan Province,with a morbidity of 0.162 8 per million and three of them were death cases. The local cases mainly distributed along the boundary and accounted for 29.48%,while the imported cases mainly came from Myanmar and accounted for 70.52%. The number of endemic counties with local malaria cases decreased from 37 to 10 during the three years. The number of import? ed cases reached the peak in May and the local cases in June. The patients were mainly aged from 20 to 49 years old(accounted for 70.58%),and 85.24% of the cases were peasants and laborers. Totally 86.66% of cases were laboratory confirmed cases, and 13.14% were clinically diagnosed. The proportions of cases reported by hospitals,health service centers and CDCs were 33.02%,37.06% and 29.92%,respectively. Conclusions Conclusions The prevalence of malaria in Yunnan Province decreased from 2011 to 2013. The work of malaria cases double?checked by province?level CDCs is effective. However,the awareness and accurately diagnostic capability of clinical doctors still should be strengthened.
    Epidemiological analysis of malaria prevalence in Shandong Province in 2014
    XU Yan, KONG Xiang-li, ZHAO Chang-lei, BU Xiu-qin, ZHANG Ben-guang, WANG Yong-bin
    2016, 28(1):  30-33.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015211
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    Objective Objective To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Shandong Province in 2014,so as to provide evidences for taking targeted strategies and measures for malaria elimination. Methods Methods The data of malaria epi? demic and malaria cases of Shandong Province in 2014 were collected from Information Management System for Infectious Dis? eases Report and Information Management System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention. The epidemiological character? istics of malaria situation and the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007. Results Results A total of 150 malaria cases were reported in Shandong Province in 2014,which increased by 14.50% compared with that in 2013 (131 cases) . All the cases were imported from other countries except one imported from Yunnan Province in China,and most of the imported cases were from Africa(142 cases,95.30%) . All the cases were confirmed in Shandong Provincial Reference Labo? ratory and there were 121 cases(80.67%)infected with Plasmodium falciparum,16 cases(10.67%)infected with P. vivax,9 cases(6.00%)infected with P. ovale and 4 cases(2.67%)infected with P. malariae. The cases were mainly distributed in Tai’ an(40 cases,26.67%),Yantai(17 cases,11.33%),Weihai(13 cases,8.67%),Jining(11 cases,7.33%)and Heze(11 cases,7.33%)cities. Conclusions Conclusions There have been no local malaria cases reported in Shandong Province in the continuous 3 years. However,the reported number of imported malaria cases shows an increasing trend in the province in recent years,and the species of infected Plasmodium are diverse. Imported malaria from other countries is the key of malaria control in Shandong Province at present.

    Cloning, expression and identification of gametocyte specific protein Pfgdv1 of Plasmodium falciparum
    SU Pang-pang, MENG Ling-wen, LI Jiang-yan, TAO Zhi-yong, CHEN Yong, QIAO Ji-chen, WU Xiao-xiao, JIN-Yun, WANG Hao-peng, FANG Qiang, WANG Xue-mei, XIA Hui
    2016, 28(1):  34-38.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015168
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    Objective Objective To clone a gametocyte specific protein Pfgdv1 of Plasmodium falciparum,express and identify re? combinant Pfgdv1 protein in vitro. Methods Methods PCR was performed to amplify Pfgdv1 from P. falciparum DNA which was got from the patient who was infected with P. falciparum,and the PCR product was inserted into pET28a(+)vector. pET28a?Pfg? dv1 recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into E. coli host BL21(DE3+) . IPTG was used to induce the recombi? nant Pfgdv1 protein fused with His tag,and the protein was purified by His?NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant pro? tein was identified by SDS?PAGE and Western blotting. Results Results The PCR product of Pfgdv1 gene was about 1.65 kb,meeting the expectation of predicted fragment size. The recombinant protein was about 67 kDa,which could be recognized by His?Tag monoclonal antibody. Conclusion Conclusion The Pfgdv1 gene of P. falciparum is successfully cloned,and the recombinant Pfgdv1 pro? tein is expressed, thereby providing an opportunity for further study on transmission blocking vaccine.
    Establishment and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification based on Plasmodium falciparum unique genes coding PHIST proteins
    ZHANG Yi-jing, SUN Bin, SHEN Hua-fei, WU Kai, SONG Li-jun, SHEN Shuang, LI Kai, XU Wen-yue, DAI Yang, LIN Min, LI Shan, WU Wan-jun, GUO E-ping, LI Bei, LI Jian
    2016, 28(1):  39-44,50.  DOI: :0.16250/j.32.1374.2015189
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    Objective Objective To establish a novel convenient loop ?mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP)method with the unique genes coding Plasmodium helical interspersed sub?telomeric superfamily(PHIST)for the rapid molecular diagnosis of P. falciparum. Methods Methods The unique genes coding PHIST with high expression mRNA profile during the ring form or schizont period of P. falciparum were screened and selected from the PlasmoDB database. The LAMP primers of targeted genes were de? signed by the online software(PrimerExplorer V4) . The LAMP assay was executed by the color?displaying method with SYBR Green. The dried blood spots of P. falciparum from clinical isolates were collected and the genomic DNA(gDNA)was extracted. For evaluation of sensitivity,the gDNA was diluted to four gradients(10?1 ,10?2 ,10?3 ,and 10?4 ) . For assessment of specificity, the gDNA (s)of P. vivax,P. yoelii,Taenia saginata,and Schistosoma japonicum were also extracted. Results Results Totally,61 P. falciparum unique genes coding PHIST were found. The PF3D7_1372300 with high expression value during the ring form and PF3D7_1401600 with high expression value during the schizont period were selected for LAMP assay. The lowest detectable lim? its of PF3D7_1372300 and PF3D7_1401600 were 130.5 parasite/μl and 1 305.3 parasite/μl,respectively. Specific tests showed the amplified products of P. falciparum was positive and all the others including P. vivax,P. yoelii,T. saginata,and S. japoni? cum were negative. Conclusions Conclusions The established LAMP method with PF3D7_1372300 gene is sensitive,specific,simple and useful. It can be applied to the field investigation and clinical diagnosis for falciparum malaria.

    Studies on immunogenicity and immunoprotection induced by heat shock protein 60 kDa of Schistosoma japonicum in mice
    JIN Xin, CHEN Xiao-jun, ZHU Ji-feng, XU Zhi-peng, LIU Feng, ZHOU Sha, SU Chuan
    2016, 28(1):  45-50.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015249
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    Objective Objective To evaluate the immunogenicity and immunoprotective effect of heat shock protein 60 kDa (SjHSP60) of Schistosoma japonicum in mice after immunization and challenge infection, and explore the mechanism. Methods Methods B cell/an? tibody?related databases and analysis tools were used to predict B?cell epitopes of SjHSP60. The mice were immunized with the recombinant SjHSP60 and challenged with S. japonicum cercariae. SjHSP60?specific antibodies in serum were detected by ELI? SA. The level of splenocyte proliferation was determined by 3 H?TdR incorporation. Ex vivo suppression assay was performed to in? vestigate the effects of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) induced by SjHSP60. Results Results SjHSP60 possessed multiple pre? dominant regions of B?cell epitopes. SjHSP60 induced a significant increase in both SjHSP60?specific IgG levels (P < 0.01) and splenocyte proliferation (P < 0.01) with a higher IFN?γ production (P < 0.01). However, the immunization with SjHSP60 resulted no significant reduction in adult worms (P > 0.05) and liver?accumulated eggs (P > 0.05) in S. japonicum?infected mice. Ex vivo assay showed that CD4+ CD25+ Tregs from SjHSP60?immunized mice enhanced immunosuppressive activity. Conclusion Conclusion SjH? SP60 has a dual role in host immune system, being involved in the induction of dominant humoral and cellular immune responses as well as in the enhancement of immunosuppression.
    Observation on growth status of Blastocystis hominis in three media
    YU Ying-fang, WU Xiu-ping, CHU Yan-hong, CHEN Jia-xu, TIAN Li-guang
    2016, 28(1):  51-53,65.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015163
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    Objective Objective To observe the growth situation of Blastocystis hominis in vitro and select the optimal method for culti? vation of B. hominis in different media. Methods Methods Ten positive stools with B. hominis were inoculated in three different media for cultivating,namely 1640,Jone’ s medium and vitro medium. And the stools with good growth status and high quantities of B. hominis were chosen to inoculate in the three media with equal amount after subcultivation,and the number of B. hominis was counted every 24 h for ten days,and the morphological changes and growth status were also observed. Results Results The densities of B. hominis in the 1640 and Jone’ s medium were higher than that in the vitro medium 48 h after the inoculation. The same stool sample was inoculated to the three different media and observed for ten days,and the results indicated that the growth of B. homi? nis presented regular changes in the three media,the growth peaks were on the third,sixth and ninth day post inoculation;and the density of B. hominis was the highest in the Jone’ s medium. The morphology of B. hominis was the clearest and most dynamic in the vitro medium,while various reproductive forms were observed in the Jone’ s medium. Conclusion Conclusion Jone’ s medium is suitable for the growth of B. hominis and can be the first choice for the cultivation of B. hominis in vitro,and vitro medium is the best medium for observing the growth situation of B. hominis.
    Analysis of Oncomelania hupensis status in schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Yunnan Province in 2015
    SHEN Mei-fen, FENG Xi-guang, HUANG Ning-bo, ZHANG Yun, WU Ming-shou, SONG Jing, XIONG Meng-tao, WANG Li-fang
    2016, 28(1):  54-57.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015155
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    Objective Objective To understand the Oncomelania hupensis distribution and infection status in the schistosomiasis sur? veillance sites of Yunnan Province,so as to provide the evidence for making the control and prevention measures. Methods Methods Eighteen administrative villages were selected as the surveillance sites where the schistosomiasis endemic was serious in 18 epi? demic counties,one village for one county. The snail status was investigated with the systematic sampling and environmental sampling methods,and the infection status of the snails was detected by a microscope and loop?mediated isothermal amplifica? tion(LAMP) . The surveillance database was established and descriptively analyzed. Results Results In 2015,the total surveillance ar? ea was 1 826.55 hm2 ,and the area with snails was 55.03 hm2 ,that was reduced by 57.70% as compared to that in 2013,and by 40.63% as compared to that in 2014. No new snail area was discovered,and also no schistosome infected snails were discovered. Totally 718 532 frames were surveyed,and the occurrence rate of frames with snails was 0.45% and the density of living snails was 0.013 9 snail/0.1 m2 . In the endemic controlled areas,the snail area and density of living snails were both the highest. The snails concentrated on the environments of paddy field,ditch,bottomland,small reservoir,and dry land,and the vegetations of rice,dry crop,weed and wood. The snail area,occurrence rate of frames with snails,total number of snails and number of liv? ing snails all showed a downward trend. No infected snails were found for three years. Conclusions Conclusions The Oncomelania hupensis snails have been effectively controlled in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Yunnan Province. However,the com? prehensive snail control measures still should be continually strengthened in order to consolidate the achivements.
    Development and application of communication materials for participatory health education of schistosomiasis in fishermen and boatmen of Poyang Lake region
    HANG Jing, LI Zhao-jun, QIU Ling, LI Dong, CHEN Jun-jiang, XIE Hua, LIU Yue-min, HU Fei, YUAN Min, LIN Dan-dan
    2016, 28(1):  58-61.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015148
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    Objective Objective To design and develop new types of health education materials which are suitable for fishermen and boatmen in endemic areas of marshland and lake regions,and to observe their application effects. Methods Methods A total of 292 adult fishmen and boatmen who lived in Houshan Village,Yugan County,the schistosomiasis endemic area of Poyang Lake Re? gion,were selected randomly and investigated by questionnaires to understand the status of their knowledge,attitudes,practic? es on schistosomiasis control as well as the channels for getting information on schistosomiasis control and the materials that they were willing to accept. Then the information and materials suitable for the target population were developed together by the re? searchers and the volunteers of the villagers through focus group discussions,personal interviews and the Delphi method. Re Re? ? sults sults A series of participatory health education materials of schistosomiasis control targeted to the fishmen and boatmen were developed,including 2 live posters,2 picture puzzles,2 short opusculums and one song about schistosomiasis control. The field application showed that 98.97%,84.38%,78.35% and 80.93% of the participants considered those materials had scientificity, intelligibility,interestingness and practicability,respectively. Conclusion Conclusion The participatory health education materials of schistosomiasis control is suitable for fishmen and boatmen,which can be used for reference by other endemic areas in marsh? land and lake regions.
    Impact of ecological protection construction on schistosomiasis transmission of Qionghai Lake wetland in Xichang City
    FENG Zong-liang, XU Cong-min, YIN Hong-zhi, HUA Jiao, LAI Yu-hua, ZHAO Lin, WU Zhong-ping
    2016, 28(1):  62-65.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015143
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    Objective Objective To understand the impact of Qionghai Lake wetland ecological protection construction on the preva? lence of schistosomiasis,so as to provide the evidence for formulating the strategies for schistosomiasis control and prevention. Methods Methods A retrospective survey of the construction of Qionghai Lake wetland was performed,and eleven villages around the wetland were surveyed for schistosomiasis endemic situation. The influence of the wetland project on the schistosomiasis preva? lence and Oncomelania hupensis snail status were investigated. Results Results Before the construction of Qionghai Lake wetland,the snail elimination and extended chemotherapy for residents was performed. After the project was finished,the roads and ditches were hardened. From 2009 to 2014,the schistosome infection rate of residents declined from 0.37% to 0. No schistosome infect? ed snails were found and in recent 2 years,no snails were found. No mice were infected in the sentinel tests. Conclusions Conclusions The construction of Qionghai Lake wetland effectively eliminates snails,and interrupts the transmission of schistosomiasis. Howev? er,the environment of the wetland is more suitable for snail breeding,and therefore,the surveillance still should be strength? ened.
    Analysis of imported malaria situation in Liyang City, Jiangsu Province
    HUANG Xiao-mei, HE Ming-zhen, LV Lai-fu, HUANG Li-zhong, JIANG Liang, XIE Yi-qing
    2016, 28(1):  66-68.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015125
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    Objective Objective To analyze the epidemic characteristics of imported malaria in Liyang City,so as to provide the evi? dence for formulating appropriate control strategies and measures. Methods Methods The malaria epidemic situation reports,case epi? demiological investigations and the follow?up materials of counterparts returned together with the cases were collected and ana? lyzed in Liyang City from 2007 to 2014. Results Results Totally 53 imported malaria cases were reported and they were all laboratory confirmed in Liyang City from 2007 to 2014. Forty ? nine cases(92.5%)were imported from African countries,37 cases (69.8%)were Plasmodium falciparum infection,and 37 cases(69.8%)had overseas incidence history. Forty cases(75.5%) were aged between 30 and 49 years,and 52 cases(98.1%)were male,42 cases(79.2%)were farmers. These cases were dis? tributed in all the 10 towns and there were no obvious seasonal variation for onset time. The median time from onset to seeing a doctor was 3 d,and the median time from seeing a doctor to being diagnosed was 0 d. The first visit health facilities by the pa? tients were various,and the diagnostic health facilities were all the medical institutions at the county level or above,and the standardized treatment rate was 100%. Conclusion Conclusion During the last 5 consecutive years,there have been no local infected ma? laria cases in Liyang City,and the remarkable results have been achieved in malaria elimination. However,there are still many imported malaria cases,and the infected species are diverse. Therefore,the imported malaria is still the key of malaria preven? tion and control.
    Effect of malaria control in Shayang County from 1995 to 2014
    ZHENG Yu-bi, WAN Jun
    2016, 28(1):  69-71,74.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015117
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    Objective Objective To evaluate the effect of malaria control in Shayang County from 1995 to 2014,so as to provide the evidence for the strategy revision of the elimination of malaria prevention and control. Methods Methods The data of malaria surveil? lance were collected and analyzed in Shayang County from 1995 to 2014. Results Results During the 20 years,582 malaria patients(9 imported patients)were reported. The average annual incidence rate was 0.53/ten thousand. Through the comprehensive preven? tion and control measures,the incidence of malaria decreased from 2.30/ten thousand in 1997 to 0.02/ten thousand in 2010,and the decreasing rate was 99.13%. The proportion of malaria cases in the total infectious diseases cases also decreased from 21.23% in 1997 to 0.07% in 2010,and the decreasing rate was 99.67%. There were no local malaria patients from 2010 to 2014. However,the imported malaria patients were increased year by year during the recent years. Conclusions Conclusions This county has reached the national malaria control and elimination standards,and the malaria control work has been transferred from the con? trol period to the elimination phase. We should implement the prevention and control measures and strictly control imported ma? laria,so as to consolidate the malaria control results.
    Analysis of malaria endemic situation in Jingmen City from 2005 to 2014
    ZHANG Fa-gui
    2016, 28(1):  72-74.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015106
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    Objective Objective To analyze the malaria endemic situation in Jingmen City from 2005 to 2014,so as to provide the evi? dence for revising the measures of malaria elimination. Methods Methods The malaria endemic data of Jingmen City from 2005 to 2014 were collected and analyzed. Results Results Totally 516 malaria cases were reported during the 10 years in Jingmen City,and the av? erage annual malaria incidence was 0.17/10 000,which was declining year by year. The local infection of malaria cases were 484(accounted for 93.80%)with obvious aggregation in June,July and August,which were also relatively aggregated in farm? ers(accounted for 60.08%) . The ratio of male to female was 1.93∶1. No local cases of malaria infection were reported from 2012 to 2014. The imported malaria cases were 32(accounting for 6.20%),showing a rising trend in recent years. Conclusion Conclusion The incidence of malaria is low and has a downward trend year by year from 2004 to 2015 in Jingmen City. However,the imported malaria cases are increasing in recent years,and the surveillance and management of them should be paid more attention to.
    Development and application of Jingcen DY-1 spraying tanker for Oncomelania hupensis snail control
    WANG Jia-song, HE Liang-cai, RONG Xian-bing, YUAN Mei-zhi, WANG-min, WANG Ke-jun, ZHOU Ya-dong, TIAN Ke-qing, ZHANG Xiao-feng
    2016, 28(1):  75-78,91.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015175
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    Objective Objective To develop a Jingcen DY?1 type spraying tanker for Oncomelania hupensis snail control and evaluate its effect of field application as well as the cost. Methods Methods The currently available tractor was used as a vector,and the mechan? ical and electrical equipments and containers were integrated with shafts,pipelines and electric lines to produce a spraying tank? er for snail control,with the functions of carrying people and molluscicides,generating electric power and getting water,mixing stocking solutions,adjusting molluscicide solutions evenly,and spraying drugs. The volume of the molluscicide solution,flow rate of water injection,and the flow rate,range and advance speed of the spray gun were tested,and the solution concentrations of molluscicide in the tanker and at the muzzle of the spray gun at different time were detected. Meanwhile,the molluscicidal ef? fect and cost of the spraying tanker were analyzed by the field test. Results Results The volume of the liquid storage pot of the Jingcen DY?1 type spraying tanker was 1 800 L,the flow rate of water injection was 400 L/min,the flow rate and the spray range of the standard spray gun were 110-200 L/min and 19.70-23.50 m,respectively,the efficiency of drug spraying of the spraying tanker was 6 000 m2 /h,and the ratio of spray width(m)to march speed(m/min)was 1 ∶200. When 5 min post mother liquid recirculat? ing,the average concentration of the molluscicide at the upper?,middle? and lower?layers of the liquid storage pot was (1 030.39 ± 43.00)mg/L,with a variation coefficient of 4.17%. The average concentration of the molluscicide in the spraying process(spraying for 2,4,6,8,9 min)was(953.00 ± 68.87) mg/L,with a variation coefficient of 7.22%. The concentration of the residual drug in the liquid storage pot post spraying was 1 000.43 mg/L,which reached the effect concentration for snail con? trol. After spraying for 7 days in the field,the average density of living snails reduced by 88.20% as compared to that before spraying,and the adjusted mortality of snails was 87.65%. The unit cost of Jingcen DY?1 spraying tanker was 0.086 7 Yuan/m2 ,which reduced by 58.20% as compared to that of the conventional spraying tanker. Conclusions Conclusions Jingcen DY?1 type spraying tanker for snail control which integrates various equipments together can effectively control the concentration and dose of the mol? luscicide,and the machine is labor?saving,efficient,economic and well adapted,and is worthy to be widely applied.
    Study on acute inhalation toxicity of Luowei, a plant molluscacide
    YI Ping, PENG Cheng, LI Shuang
    2016, 28(1):  79-80.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015162
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    Objective Objective To study the acute inhalation toxicity of 50% Luowei,a plant molluscacide,in rats. Methods Methods Twenty adult Wistar rats,half male and half female,were given of 5000 mg/m3 of 50% Luowei through a dynamic inhalation de? vice and the death and recovery of the rats were observed within 14 days,and LC50 was drawn. Results Results After exposure,the ac? tivities of the rats decreased and a few individual animals had scratching symptom,but the symptom disappeared after the expo? sure. No animals died during the whole observation period. Therefore,the acute inhalation LC50 was greater than 5000 mg/m3 for rats,and Luowei belonged to low toxicity level. Conclusions Conclusions 50% Luowei will not cause animal death if it is inhaled into ani? mal body. However,people still need to wear protective equipment in production and use.
    Morphological observation on hypopus of Caloglyphus berlesei by optical mi? croscope
    ZHAN Xiao-dong, LI Chao-pin, WU Hua, GUO Wei, WANG Shao-shen
    2016, 28(1):  81-83.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015133
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    Objective Objective To understand the structure characteristics of hypopus of Caloglyphus berlesei. Methods Methods The hy? popus of C. berlesei was collected from the feed of Chinese Polyphaga,and was made into the conventional glass specimens. The structure characteristics of hypopus of C. berlesei were observed by an optical microscope. Results Results The hypopus of C. ber? lesei had 4 pairs of legs,and the foot claws and tarsus were well?developed. The structural features were shown,such as the se? tae of tibia and setae of genu. Genital plates were obviously ossified. Conclusion Conclusion The research on hypopus of Caloglyphus ber? lesei provides the reference for its further scientific classification and research on the life cycle.
    GIS platform for real-time monitoring and early warning of forestry schistosomiasis-control project: a case study in Renshou County, Sichuan Province
    CAO Meng, SUN Qi-xiang, GUO Zhi-hua
    2016, 28(1):  84-87.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015184
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    Objective Objective To real?timely monitor the environment in the forestry schistosomiasis control project(CFSCP)area and to early warn the status of Oncomelania hupensis snails in the schistosomiasis endemic area. Methods Methods Based on ArcGIS Engine 10.1 software,the Geographic Information System(GIS)platform of the forestry schistosomiasis project of real?time mon? itoring,early warning and emergency management in Renshou County,Sichuan Province,was designed and established. Re Re? ? sults sults The functions of the platform mainly included real?time monitoring of the environment in CFSCP area,and early warning of the crisis status of O. hupensis snails,as well as editing the map of snail distribution,query,spatial analysis and other GIS functions. Conclusion Conclusion This platform could provide the scientific support to the forestry administrative department of the CF? SCP area.
    Investigation on source and dissemination way of knowledge on schistosomiasis prevention and control in population in Jingjiang City after transmission-interrupted
    WANG Ji-sheng, CHEN Jian-feng, LIU Ya-hong, SONG Liang-liang
    2016, 28(1):  88-91.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015126
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    Objective Objective To understand the source of knowledge on schistosomiasis prevention and control and the acceptable degree on different propagation patterns of population in Jingjiang City after schistosomiasis transmission? interrupted,so as to provide the evidence for the production of suitable materials for health education. Methods Methods The permanent residents,floating population as well as the primary school students in Grade 5 and 6 in riverside regions in Jingjiang City were selected as the in? vestigation objects,the information propagation condition and the knowledge source,and the expected propagation patterns were investigated by questionnaires. Results Results The popularizing rates on the television,computer and mobile phone of the villag? ers were 99.81%,84.16% and 87.78%,respectively. Both the two investigated schools had the independent TV network,broad? cast and multimedia,and all the computer classroom could connected to Internet. The main sources on schistosomiasis control of permanent residents and floating population were folders and the exhibition board(62.0% and 40.5% respectively),the substan? tial material(42.0% and 33.5% respectively)and TV(40.5% and 36.0% respectively),while those of the students were video CD(100%),substantial material(99.5%)and folders and the exhibition boards(84.2%) . The propagation ways with high ac? ceptable degrees among the residents and floating population were substantial material,folders and the exhibition boards and short messages by mobile phone,while those among the students were video CD,substantial material,folders and the exhibition boards. Conclusion Conclusion The material on health education should be targeted to the demands of the different populations and their condition of information propagation,in addition,the Internet material should be developed and the communicational channels should be broaden.
    IHA detection results of outpatients in schistosomiasis clinic, 2005-2014
    LUO Wei, XIAO Ying, ZHOU Xue-wen, WANG Jing, GAO Ying-ping, CHEN Juan, MEI Liang-Yin, LUO Zhi-min
    2016, 28(1):  92-93,96.  DOI: :0.16250/j.32.1374.2015100
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    Objective Objective To understand the changes of positive rates of IHA detections of outpatients in schistosomiasis clinic. Results Results The data of IHA detections of outpatients in schistosomiasis clinic in Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention were collected and analyzed statistically from 2005 to 2014. Results Results A total of 7 113 outpatients were detected by IHA test,and 547 of them were positives with a positive rate of 7.69%. The positive rate of IHA test was on an upward slope be? fore 2008,and the rate reached 14.85% in 2008,which was significantly higher than that in 2005(5.81%) (χ2 = 47.40,P< 0.01),then it was on a declined stage after 2008,and the positive rate decreased to 3.76 in 2014,which was significantly lower than that in 2008(χ2 = 12.29,P<0.01) . The positive rate of outpatients in the 10~<30 years age group was higher than those in other age groups(all P < 0.012 5),and the male positives were more than the female ones. Conclusions Conclusions The schisto? somiasis endemic situation has been significantly decreased in Hubei Province. The male and people in 10~<30 age group are the high risk groups,so the targeted health education should be strengthened.
    Analysis of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Yizhou City from 2011 to 2014
    WEI Mei-juan, CHEN Sheng-jun, WU Si-yang
    2016, 28(1):  94-96.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015130
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    Objective Objective To evaluate the effect of schistosomiasis control in Yizhou City,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Re? gion,from 2011 to 2014,so as to provide the evidence for formulating the further prevention and control strategy. Methods Methods The schistosomiasis surveillance data were collected and analyzed in Yizhou City from 2011 to 2014. Results Results From 2011 to 2014,770.38 hm2 was surveyed for the Oncomelania hupensis snails,and two snail infested sites were found,while no infected snails were found. Totally 3 524 residents were tested by ELISA for Schistosoma japonicum infection,and 38 cases were posi? tive. The positive rate of 2013 was significantly higher than those of other three years(χ2 = 15.08,P < 0.05) . Totally 432 rats and 28 dogs were dissected and 1 697 cattle were examined by the stool test,but no positive cases were found. Conclusions Conclusions The indicators of schistosomiasis surveillance are basically stable in Yizhou City.
    Epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria cases in Neijiang City, 2013
    LIU Chun, ZHOU Yuan-Hua, YU Shi-Lin, ZHANG Xiao-Bin
    2016, 28(1):  97-98,107.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015099
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    Objective Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria cases in Neijiang City in 2013,so as to provide the references for malaria elimination in the city. Methods Methods The epidemiological data of malaria cases were collected from the Parasitic Diseases Information Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Preven? tion,and the data were analyzed with the descriptive epidemiological method. Results Results Totally 19 cases of imported malaria cases were reported in Neijiang City in 2013,which was increased by 375% comparing to that in 2012(4 cases),and all the cases were confirmed by the laboratory. Among these cases,14 were(73.68%)falciparum malaria cases,5(26.32%)were vivax malaria cases;13 cases(68.42%)were from African countries,and the other 6(31.58%)were from Southeast Asia. These cases were distributed throughout each quater,which had no significant seasonality. All the cases were male aged from 20-49 years,and the majority of them(16 cases,84.21%)were farmers and workers. Conclusions Conclusions The prevention and con? trol situation of imported malaria is severe in Neijiang City. The capacity construction of malaria diagnosis and treatment of basic medical institutions as well as the health education and monitoring and management to floating population should be strength? ened.
    Advances in researches on β-carbonic anhydrases as anti-parasitic drug targets
    ZHANG Cong-hui, ZHU Huai-min
    2016, 28(1):  99-102.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015224
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    β?carbonic anhydrases(β?CAs)are ubiquitous metalloenzymes which active site contains a zinc ion(Zn2+ ),and they could catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons efficiently and are involved in many biological pro? cesses,such as respiration,pH and CO2 homeostasis,biosynthetic reactions,virulence regulation and so on,and may play a critical role in the life activity of many organisms which contain these enzymes. β?CAs are widely distributed in fungi,bacteria, algae,plants and a small number of protozoan and metazoan except vertebrates. Therefore,as potential drug targets for design? ing and developing antibacterial and anti?parasitic drugs,β?CAs promise a broad application prospect. This paper focuses on the distribution, physiological function and the progress of researches on β?CAs in parasites and their vectors.
    Advances in researches of molluscicidal microorganisms against Oncomelania hupensis
    CHENG Wan-ting, ZHOU Yi-biao, PAN Xiang, SONG Xiu-xia, JIANG Qing-wu
    2016, 28(1):  103-107.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015225
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    The elimination of Oncomelania hupensis snails is important to schistosomiasis control. Recently,the application of molluscicidal organisms is considered as a safe and efficient method for snail elimination. In order to provide scientific evi? dences for effective control of O. hupensis and schistosomiasis,this paper summarizes the researches of molluscicidal microor? ganisms against O. hupensis.
    Progress of researches on lysozyme and its expression in Oncomelania hupensis
    ZHU Xiu-an, HUANG Han-tao, DU Kang, WANG An-yun, ZHAO Jin-song3
    2016, 28(1):  108-110.  DOI: 10.16250/j.32.1374.2015114
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    Lysozyme generally exists in animals,plants and microorganisms,and it is used as a natural anti?infection materi? al and one of the important non?specific immune factors in organisms. This paper reviews the progress of researches on its classifi? cation,gene structure and function,and expression regulation in Oncomelania hupensis,and on the factors affecting its activi? ties in recent years,in order to further discuss its distribution in O. hupensis.