Table of Content

    11 April 2012, Volume 24 Issue 2
    Novel strategies and technologies to achieve the transmission control of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province
    LIANG You-Sheng, HUANG Yi-Xin, HONG Qing-Biao, YANG Kun, SUN Le-Ping, DAI Jian-Rong, YANG Guo-Jing, YU Chuan-Xin, TIAN Zeng-Xi, GE Jun, WU Hong-Hui, GAO Qi
    2012, 24(2):  119-122. 
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    According to the requirements of the Mid? and Long?term Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis in Chi? na and based on the actual situation of schistosomiasis control in Jiangsu Province,this paper demonstrates the new technologies achieved by the scientific innovation and the novel control strategies including integrated control in key regions and control of key populations and surveillance and forecast of key water regions since 2004,with the emphasis on the control and elimination of in? fected Oncomelania snails. Such strategies and technologies implemented the result in continuous decrease in the endemic situa? tion of schistosomiasis in the province, and the whole province achieved the goal of schistosomiasis transmission control in late 2010.

    Endemic features and control strategies of schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake area|Hunan Province|P. R. China
    YI Ping, PENG Zai-Zhi, LI Xiao-Song, LUO Zhi-Hong, CAI Kai-Ping, LI Yi-Yi, REN Guang-Hui
    2012, 24(2):  123-126. 
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    This paper describes the epidemic status and current endemic features of schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake area and analyzes the achievements and weakness of various control measures. It also summarizes the characteristics of epidemic situa? tion in the Dongting Lake region,which indicates the long?term and the arduous work in the future for the control of schistosomia? sis. In strategy,comprehensive measures should be implemented and routine prevention control work should be remained combing with the control of transmission sources.

    Function analysis of Sj34.9 gene based on RNAi and microarray
    LIU Ping-Ping, SHI Yan-Li, YANG Yun-Xia, LIU Jin-Ming, LIN Jiao-Jiao, JIN Ya-Mei
    2012, 24(2):  127-131. 
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    Objective To analyze the function of Sj34.9 gene,so as to provide the reference for future studies. Methods The Sj34.9 gene was knocked down in Schistosoma japonicum by RNA interference(RNAi),and the microarray was used to ana? lyze the genes’ expression of S. japonicum after Sj34.9 knocked down. Results A total of 378 genes expressed differently includ? ing 202 up? regulated genes and 176 down? regulated genes. The pathway analysis indicated that the genes expressed differently were mainly related to organelles,metabolism and signal transduction. The gene ontology category analysis showed that most of these genes might be involved in binding,membrane fomulation and cellular process. Conclusion The gene Sj34.9 might play important roles in the process of growth, development, reproduction and metabolism of S. japonicum.

    Identification of early diagnostic molecules in soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum by MASS
    WANG Jie, SONG Li-Jun, HE Wei, YIN Xu-Ren, QIAN Chun-Yan, ZHANG Wei, XU Yong-Liang, CAO Guo-Qun, KE Xue-Dan, YU Chuan-Xin
    2012, 24(2):  132-136. 
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    Objective To identify the molecules of soluble egg antigen(SEA)for early diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection by two?dimensional electrophoresis(2?DE),immunoblotting and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC?MS/MS) . Methods The 2?DE of SEA was executed through first direction isoelectric focusing(IEF)in immobilized pH gra? dient gel 3?10(IPG3?10)and second direction SDS?PAGE. The protein dots of SEA on the SDS?PAGE gel were transferred to ni? trocellulose membrane. These nitrocellulose membranes were responded to the sera of healthy,sera of mice at 1 week,2 weeks and 6 weeks post?infection respectively,then the membrane color was developed with the second antibody of HRP labeled goat anti ?mouse IgG conjugate and substrate DAB. The protein dots recognized by sera of mice in the early stage of schistosome infection were identified by LC?MS/MS. Results After matching and analyzing the Western blot patterns of SEA responding to acute infec? tion sera(1 week and 2 weeks post?infection),chronic infection sera(6 weeks post?infection)and healthy sera by PDQuest 1.0 software,two protein dots were found to be recognized by sera of mice at 1 week,2 weeks and 6 weeks post?infection,and three protein dots were only recognized by the sera of mice at 6 weeks post?infection,no protein dot was recognized by healthy mouse se? ra. The data of LC?MS/MS showed that the two protein molecules recognized by the sera of mice with schistosome infection in the early stage were heat shock protein 70(HSP70)and 78 kDa glucose ? regulated protein(Grp78/Bip)respectively. Conclusion The results of this study preliminarily indicate that HSP70 and Grp78 in SEA have early diagnostic value for S. japonicum infection.

    Effects of Schistosoma japonicum heat?shock protein 40 on macrophage activation
    LI Sha-Sha, XU Xiang-Ting, LIU Wei, XU Zhi-Peng, ZHANG Wei-Wei, LI Yong, DONG Xiao-Xiao, YANG Xiao-Wei, LIU Feng, WANG Yue-Zhu, WANG Sheng-Yue, SU Chuan
    2012, 24(2):  137-141. 
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    Objective To clone and express heat?shock protein 40 gene of Schistosoma japonicum(SjHSP40)and analyze its effect on macrophage activation. Methods The fragment of gene encoding SjHSP40 was amplified by PCR. The gene was sub? cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX?6P?1. The recombinant plasmid pGEX?6P?1?SjHSP40 was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3)and induced with IPTG. The recombinant protein was purified with Glutathione?Sepharose 4B resin and analyzed by SDS?PAGE and Western?blot. The fusion protein of GST?SjHSP40 was loaded to the macrophage cell?line RAW264.7 for 48 h. Following that,the surface molecules of the macrophages were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results DNA sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmid,pGEX?6P?1?SjHSP40,was successfully constructed. The fusion protein of GST?SjHSP40 was induced, purified and specifically recognized by anti?GST antibody. Compared to GST and medium control groups,this fusion protein signifi? cantly induced the expression of co?stimulatory molecules(CD40,CD80,and CD86)and MHC?II on the surface of the macro? phages. Conclusions SjHSP40 significantly up?regulates the expression of co?stimulatory molecules and MHC?II on the surface of the macrophages. These data indicate that SjHSP40 may initiate macrophage activation.

    Study on influence of Three Gorges Project construction on Oncomelania growth condition in Chongqing Section
    XUAN Yong, WANG Xin-Ling, QU Xiao-Hui, CHEN Zhi-Jun, GAO Yang-Hua, YANG Xue-Mei, ZHANG Yi, PAN Hong-Xian
    2012, 24(2):  142-145. 
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    Objective To understand the effects of the change of climate,vegetation,flooding led by the construction of Three Gorges Project to the growth of Oncomelania snail. Methods The spatial analysis function of ArcGIS combined with meteo? rological data,1: 50 000 and the 1: 10 000 digital elevation model were employed to analyzed the climate,flooding and other con? ditions of the reservoir area,and the field survey was used to investigated the vegetation in this area. Results The flood time,cli? mate precipitation,sunshine duration,vegetation types and coverage of Three Gorges reservior area can meet the growth needs of Oncomelania snail. However,the characteristic of water impounding winter and disembogueing in summer were not agreed with the life circle of Oncomelania snail. Conclusions The environment of flooding in winter and drought in summer in the Three Gorges reservior areas is not suitable for the growth of Oncomelania snail. If the transfusion of snais from other endemic areas can be prevented, the area can be avoid to become snail area.

    Endemic situation and control strategies on schistosomiasis in Armed Police Forces in marshland and lake regions
    LIU Xiao-Li, LUO Jun-Qing, LI Gang, JIAN Ming, LIU Tao, WANG Li-Man, TANG Zhi-Qiang, ZHANG Xi-Lin
    2012, 24(2):  146-149. 
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    Objective To investigate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Armed Police Forces in marshland and lake regions so as to provide the evidence for policy?making of the disease control. Methods The different types of duty were selected by the stratified cluster random sampling method in endemic areas of marshland and lake regions,and the snail survey was conducted, and the infectious status and epidemic factors of officers and soldiers who served more than 2 years were investigated. Results The geographical features included the embankment type,island type and islet type,and the serological positive rates were 1.88%,4.73% and 3.89% in the 3 types of endemic areas respectively and he total positive rate was 3.10%,that was lower than the national population level in 2009. The infection risk factors included fighting flood,and the contact with infested water in daily life and production. Conclusions We should strengthen the surveillance and control of schistosomiasis in this particular group of officers and soldiers, especially in their implementation of fighting flood and other tasks.

    Discussion of indoor quality control method of MPAIA antibody test of Schistosoma japonicum
    LUO Wei, LIU Jian-Bing, SU Zheng-Ming, LUO Zhi-Min, DAI Ling-Feng, WEI Feng-Hua
    2012, 24(2):  150-154. 
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    Objective To explore the scientific and effective indoor quality control method to ensure the results of Magnetic Particle Antibody Immunoassay (MPAIA) antibody test of Schistosoma japonicum reliable. Methods The MPAIA antibody test in? door quality control work was performed with the combination of the crubbs method,Z?scores figure and Westgard multi?rules qual? ity control method. Results The crubbs test entered the quality control condition state from the third times,after 20 times,the test switched to Z?scores conventional quality control,and the Westgard multi?rules quality control method could help analyze the type of errors. From the third to fortieth test,186 samples were completed and the tests of 9 samples among 2 batches needed to be re?done because of the failure of quality control. The test results of other 177 samples were acceptable. Conclusion The combina? tion of the crubbs method,Z?scores figure and Westgard multi?rules quality control method can effectively accomplish the indoor quality control of MPAIA antibody test of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Effect of praziquantel transdermal delivery on infection of Schistosoma japonicum of mice
    LI Xiao-Hong, ZHANG Da-Zhi, YANG Yi, XU Yu-Mei, LIU Yi, SHI Yao-Jun, ZHU Chuan-Gang
    2012, 24(2):  155-159. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of transdermal agent of PZQ on infection of Schistosoma japonicum in different developmental stages and the early period of re?infection. Methods All Kunming mice in the experiment groups were infected with 40 ± 2 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The mice which were infected once and re?infected were treated by abdominal trans? dermal agent of praziquantel. Control groups were set for all of the experiment groups. All of the mice were dissected 42 d after the infection, and the worm reduction rate, egg reduction rate and miracidium hatching reduction rate were calculated. In addition, the dynamic changes of IgG antibody in sera of the mice were detected by ELISA in different time of primary infection and re?infection. Results The worm reduction rates of 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d after the infection were 48.9%, 0%, 28.8%, 84.3% and 70.2%, respec? tively, and those of 1 d and 14 d after re?infection were 85.6% and 90.8%, respectively. After the primary infection, the specific IgG level gradually increased with the prolongation of time, and the ratio of P/N of specific anti?ESA of IgG was significantly raised after re?infection. Conclusion The transdermal agent of praziquantel is effective to Schistosoma japonicum at developmental stag? es, and the effect to schistosomula at early period of re?infection is more significant.

    Application of multi?temporal China?Brazil Earth Recourses Satellite?02 data on surveillance of dynamic changes of water body of rivers and Oncomelania snail habitats in Anxiang County
    YAO Bao-Dong, WANG Zeng-Liang, ZHANG Zhi-Jie, TIAN An-Ping, ZHU Chao-Ping, HU Ben-Jiao, GAO Feng-Hua, WANG Qi-Zhi, YI Ping, JIANG Qing-Wu
    2012, 24(2):  160-163. 
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    Objective To study the dynamic changes of the water body of rivers and Oncomelania snail habitats by using multi?temporal China?Brazil Earth Recourses Satellite?02 images taken in Anxiang County so as to establish the correct procedure for selecting images. Methods CBERS ? 02 images were collected on 20th December 2003,10th February 2004,10th April 2004,19th June 2004,10th August 2004 and 27th October 2004. Then the water body information from the study areas based on NDWI was extracted and the areas of water body were calculated to determine the images. Results The dynamic changes of the water body conformed to the rules of“water in summer and land in winter” . Because of the rise of water,the water area in July was the biggest and the water area began to decline from August. The water area in April was the smallest. Then the wet season and the dry season should be June and April. Conclusion The multi?temporal CBERS?02 images could be used to surveillance the dy? namic changes of the water area and helpful in choosing the right images of the wet season and dry season.

    Retrospective investigation and analysis of endemic situation of schistosomiasis in hilly regions of Sichuan Province
    ZHANG Yi, ZHANG Xu-Dong, TANG Hong-Ying, YE Yu-Ling, CHEN Quan-Fu, LI Zhi-Ming, ZHONG Bo
    2012, 24(2):  164-167. 
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    Objective To explore the rules of the changes of schistosomiasis infection and Oncomelania snails in areas where schistosomiasis transmission was controlled or interrupted or rebounded after interruption. Methods Qingbaijiang District, Longquanyi District and Xide County were selected and investigated retrospectively to collect schistosomiasis epidemiological infor? mation 10 years before they reached the criterion of transmission control and the subsequent years until 2008. The database of retro? spective investigation was established for analyzing the trends and rules of changes of snail status and human infection status. Re? sults In Qingbaijiang District,there was a positive correlation between density of living snails and snail area(r = 0.74, P < 0.01),and the infection rate of population was declining. In Longquanyi District,the snail area presented a declining trend. In Xide County,the human infection rate was positively correlated with snail area(R = 0.53, P < 0.01)and the density of living snails(r = 0.42, P < 0.05)respectively. Conclusions The rebound of snail situation is always prior to the emerging of human in? fection,and it prompts that the rebound of snail situation can be considered one of the important indicators of early warning of the rebound of human infection situation in those places where schistosomiasis transmission was controlled or interrupted. Implement? ing comprehensive control of the snail habitat,as well as eliminating the potential infectious source is an important measure to con? solidate the achievement of schistosomiasis control.

    Survey on co? infection with HIV and intestinal parasites in high prevalence areas of HIV/AIDS| China
    TIAN Li-Guang, CHENG Guo-Jin, CHEN Jia-Xu, CAI Yu-Chun, GUO Jian, TONG Xiao-Mei, LIU Qin, ZHOU Xiao-Nong
    2012, 24(2):  168-172. 
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    Objective To understand the co?infection status of HIV and intestinal parasites in a HIV/AIDS highly endemic ar? ea in China. Methods A cross?sectional survey was carried out in two villages in Fuyang City,Anhui Province,and the infection status of HIV and intestinal parasites were investigated by blood and fecal examinations. Results A total 769 individuals were en? rolled in the investigation,and 720 of whom were participated in stool examinations for intestinal parasite infections. The infection rates of parasites were as follows:0.56% for Ascaris lumbricoides,4.03% for Hookworm,0.28% for Trichuris trichiura,0.42% for Clonorchis sinensis,21.39% for Blastocystis hominis,3.89% for Giardia lamblia,1.67% for Entamoeba spp.,4.44% for Cryptospo? ridium spp.. The overall infection rate of intestinal worms and protozoan were 4.72% and 24.31%,respectively. The prevalence rate of anemia was 34.68%. The prevalence rate of HIV was 8.10%. The co? infection rate of HIV and intestinal helminthes was 2.17%,and that of HIV and intestinal protozoan was 28.26%,of which the co?infection rate of Blastocystis hominis and HIV were 19.57% . There was a significant difference between the infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. in the HIV ? positive group (13.04%)and HIV?negative group(4.70%) (P <0.05) . Conclusions The infection rate of intestinal protozoan is higher than that of intestinal helminthes in local residents. The HIV?positive population is more susceptible to the infection of Cryptosporidium spp.

    Study on construction and immune protective effect of recombinant nucleic acid vaccine of Toxoplasma gondii
    WEI Qing-Kuan
    2012, 24(2):  173-177. 
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    Objective To construct the polyvalent recombinant nucleic acid vaccine of Toxoplasma gondii and measure its protective immune effect. Methods The gene of heat shock protein(HSP70)was amplified by PCR and inserted into the recom? binant plasmid of pcDNA3?ROP2?p30 to construct recombinant polyvalent nucleic vaccine(pcDNA3?ROP2?p30?Hsp70) . BALB/c mice were immunized with the constructed recombinant nucleic vaccine. CD4+ and CD8+ in the splenic lymphocytes and the lym? phocytes in anticoagulant whole blood,the immune indices such as antibodies(IgG,IgM and IgA)and IFN?γ,TNF,IL?2,IL?4, IL?12 in serum and splenic lymphocytes culture medium were detected,along with the challenge experiment. The protective im? mune responses that caused by the vaccine was measured by detecting the changes of immune indices of mice and the challenge ex? periment. Results 916 bp fragment of HSP70 gene was amplified by PCR. The recombinant polyvalent nucleic vaccine pcDNA3? ROP2?p30?HSP70 that included the whole open reading frame sequence of HSP gene was successfully constructed. The immuniza? tion results also showed this polyvalent nucleic vaccine could induce strong cellular and humoral responses by the detection of high? er antibody titer in the experimental mice group,the increasing proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells with significant deviations among the groups(FCD4+ =45.00,FCD8+ =15.01, all P<0.01)and the apparent up?regulated levels of several cytokines IFN?γ,IL?2 and IL?12 in serum and cultural supernatant of spleen cells,with more striking effect in serum. As a result of the challenge experi? ment,the immunized mice showed a longer survival time. Conclusion The recombinant nucleic acid vaccine pcDNA3?ROP2?p30 ?HSP70 possesses a strong immunogenicity and is able to induce an immune protection.

    Expression|purification and antigenicity of P35 gene of Toxoplasma gondii
    YI Jun-Bo, WANG Xiao-Hong, MAI Zhi-Gang, ZHANG Gang, LI Ling-Yun, LIN Feng
    2012, 24(2):  178-182. 
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    Objective P35 is an important surface protein for Toxoplasma gondii. To obtain the highly pure and specific anti? genicity protein,the gene P35 was cloned and its product was expressed in E. coli Rosetta. The expressed protein was purified and its immunogenecity was studied. Methods A pair of primers was designed according to cDNA sequence of P35,and then the P35 gene amplified by PCR was cloned into the vector pGEM?T and proved by DNA sequencing. The P35 gene was subcloned into pro? karyotic expression vector pET?KDO,its expression was induced by IPTG,and the target protein was obtained by affinity chroma? tography. Results The P35 gene was successfully amplified from genome DNA of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain and a fusion pro? tein was expressed in E. coli. The molecular weight of the expressed protein was about Mr 42 000. Western blotting indicated that the antigenicity of the protein was specific. Conclusions The plasmid pET?KDO?p35 is constructed and the high efficient expres? sion of P35 fusion protein has been achieved in E. coli. The fusion protein shows a specific antigenicity,the P35 fusion protein has a potential value in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    Survey on Oncomelania snail distribution in sluices in Dongting Lake region
    WANG Yu-Jie, YI Ping, LUO Zhi-Hong, PENG Zai-Zhi, LI Yi-Yi, HE Hong-Bin, REN Guang-Hui
    2012, 24(2):  183-185. 
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    Objective To investigate the distribution,classification and reformation of all sluices located in the Dongting Lake region,and found out the relationship between irrigation and Oncomelania snail diffusion. Methods The information of sluices and their reformation were collected from the local Department of Water Resources and the information of snail conditions collected from the Department of Schistosomiasis Control. The latitude and longitude of each sluice were pinpointed and record with GPSmap76. All the data were analyzed statistically. Results There were a total of 589 sluices in the Dongting Lake region in? cluding 190 Kejinluo sluices(snails might enter through the sluice,69 were reformed)and 49 Jinluo sluices(snails could enter through the sluice,8 were reformed) . The occurrence rate of snails was higher in water sluice than in drain sluice,and there was a significant difference between them(P < 0.05);the occurrence rate of snails in the sluice was higher when there were snails out? side the sluice than when there was no snails outside the sluice,and there was a significant difference between them (P < 0.05) . Conclusions The main source of snails in the sluice is from the outside of the sluice and irrigation is the main way that snails spread into sluice. The sluices should be reformed effectively,and the snails inside and outside sluice should also be destroyed ef? fectively in order to consolidate the effect of snail control inside the embankment.

    Phylogenetic analysis of COⅠ gene of Oncomelania snails from project of afforestation for schistosomiasis control in marshland endemic regions
    XU Yu-Mei, ZHANG Shi-Qing, ZHU Chuan-Gang
    2012, 24(2):  186-188. 
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    Objective To investigate the genetic difference of cytochrome oxidaseⅠ(COⅠ)of Oncomelania snails from the project of afforestation for schistosomiasis control in marshland regions,so as to explore the effects of different ecological environ? ments. Methods The snails were collected from 3 different areas,Anqing,Tongling,Wuwei,i.e. the upstream,midstream and downstream regions along the Yangtz River in Anhui Province. Genomic DNA was extracted from the snails,and COⅠ gene frag? ments were amplified by PCR,then purified and sequenced. The sequences were edited by using Blast. The COⅠ genes of O. h. minima and Biomphalaria glabrata were used as the reference of exogenous gene. The genetic distances of the various regions were calculated by the Kimura method and phylogenetic trees were constructed with UPGMA and the NJ method of MEGA(3.1)soft? ware. Results The amplified COⅠ gene of the snail was a fragment about 700 bp including 2 primers in length. There were little genetic diversity among the different areas,the identities were higher than or equal to 98%. The genetic distances indicated that the distance between the projects of afforestation and woodland in Anqing was 0.003,while Tongling was 0.019,Wuwei was 0.007. The distances among the three projects of afforestation were 0.003-0.012. The two phylogenetic trees were constructed by the methods of UPGMA and NJ respectively,which took on very similar topo?structure in which isolates of Biomphalaria glabrata located in one clade and all the others in the other one. In the other one clade,O. H .minima located in one clade. There was little genetic diversity among Anqing,Tongling,Wuwei clusters. The afforestations of Anqing and Wuwei clustered into one group, while the woodlands of Anqing and Wuwei appeared as another group. Conclusion There is a little genetic diversity of the snail cytochrome oxidaseⅠ(COⅠ)in different ecological environments among the upstream,midstream and downstream regions along the Yangtz River in Anhui Province.

    Dynamic expressions of IL?17 and IL?23 in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum
    SU Bin-Tao, XU Hong, GUAN Fei, CHEN Lin, ZHOU Yan, LEI Jia-Hui, LIU Wen-Qi
    2012, 24(2):  189-192. 
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    Objective To investigate the dynamic expressions of IL?17 and IL?23 in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infec? tion. Method A murine model of the infection of S. japonicum was established. The suspension of spleen cells incubated with Co? nA was collected at 0,1,2,4,6,8 and 10 weeks post?infection. Sandwich ELISA and RT?PCR were used to measure the expres? sions of IL?17A and IL?23p19 on protein and mRNA level. Results The dynamic changes of IL?17A and IL?23p19 showed a posi? tive correlation. The level of IL?17A increased and reached the peak at 1 week after the infection,reduced at 4 weeks after the in? fection,and was even lower at 8 weeks post?infection. The level of IL?17 mRNA increased at 1 week post?infection,and then de? creased gradually at 2 weeks post?infection. Being consistent with the dynamic expression of IL?17A,the IL?23p19 expression in? creased at 1 week post?infection,went up to the peak at 2 weeks post?infection,and gradually reduced into the normal level at 4 weeks. However,the expression of IL?23p19 mRNA fluctuated in the normal range,increased at 4 weeks post ? infection,and reached the peak at 6 weeks post?infection. Conclusions IL?17 and IL?23 are of co?expression in the mice after schistosome in? fection. There is a significant increase in the early stage of the infection. IL?17 and IL?23 may play important roles during the im? mune process in the very early stage of Schistosoma infection.

    Surveillance and forecast for schistosome infectivity of Yangtze River and Hanbeihe River during flooding in Hubei Province
    TU Zu-Wu, CAI Shun-Xiang, HUANG Xi-Bao, SU Zheng-Ming, GAO Hua, CHEN Yan-Yan, CAO Mu-Min, MAO Guan-Xiang, XIA Ping-Feng
    2012, 24(2):  193-195. 
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    Objective To investigate the schistosome infectivity of the water body of the Yangtze River and Hanbeihe River during flooding in Hubei Province. Methods The Oncomelania snail status was investigated in 17 sites of the Yangtze River and Hanbei River,and the infectivity of schistosome in sentinel mice was also determined. Results In the Yangtze River and Hanbei River,the average densities of living snails were 0.35 snails/0.1 m2 and 0.67 snails/0.1 m2 respectively,and the average infection rates of snails were 0.33% and 0.05%,respectively. The sentinel mouse surveillances were carried out twice in 10 sites of the Yangtze River. During the first surveillance the infection rate was 5.5% with 4 positive environment sites,and that was 5.5% with 7 positive environment sites in the second surveillance. The sentinel mouse surveillance was carried out once in 7 sites of the Han? beihe River,and the infection rate was 11.9% with 4 positive environment sites. Conclusions By monitoring schistosome infec? tion of the water body,we can understand the threat of environment and provide warning information to prevent from the outbreak and spread of acute schistosomiasis. We can also indirectly get many messages about the quality of snail investigation and the ef? fect of mollusciciding.

    Regional difference of schistosomiasis knowledge and behavior of population in Mianzhu City
    GU Yong, LI Da-Ming, JIANG Jian, HE Chun, TANG Chuan-Xin, LIU Ke-Gang
    2012, 24(2):  196-199. 
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    Objective To understand the status of schistosomiasis knowledge and behavior and analyze the regional differ? ence of population in Mianzhu City. Methods Nine towns were divided into 3 groups,and each group had 3 towns. In Group Ⅰ, there were 5 or more than 5 advanced schistosomiasis patients each town;in Group Ⅱ,there were 1?4 advanced patients each town;in Group Ⅲ,there was no advanced patient. A total of 2 743 residents were investigated with questionnaire in all the 9 towns. Results The overall awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge was 88.12%,and the awareness rates of schisto? somiasis control knowledge were 94.55%,88.21% and 81.10% in Group Ⅰ,Group Ⅱ and Group Ⅲ respectively. The total forma? tion rate of correct behavior was 68.10%,and the formation rates of correct behavior were 73.18%,67.05% and 63.65% in Group Ⅰ,Group Ⅱ and Group Ⅲ respectively. The awareness rates of schistosome transmission were 95.99%,89.48% and 79.67%; the awareness rates of Oncomelania snails were 87.67%,82.54% and 73.92%;the awareness rates of schistosomiasis harm were 95.68%,93.99% and 80.88%;the rates of residents who thought that schistosomiasis patients did not affect others were 9.97%, 12.83% and 15.58%;the rates of residents who did not know the information of the snails should report to which department were 7.91%,11.33%,15.69%;the rates of residents who often had wild bowels were 6.17%,8.79% and 11.38%;the rates of resi? dents who often washed their hands and feet in ditches and ponds were 58.68%,58.27%,61.22%;the rates of residents who would not accept the schistosomiasis checks were 5.86%,5.66%,11.49% in Group Ⅰ,Group Ⅱ and Group Ⅲ respectively. Conclusion As a whole,the population of Mianzhu City has positive behaviors to schistosomiasis control. We should still en? hance the schistosomiasis control education and interventions according to the characteristics of the different townships.

    CT manifestation of abdomen and its pathology of patients with chronic schistosomiasis
    CHEN Xing, ZHANG Wei, WANG Pei-Jun
    2012, 24(2):  200-202. 
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    Objective To understand the abdominal CT manifestation and its pathology of patients with chronic schistosomia? sis. Methods The plain + enhanced CT scanning was performed in 42 patients with chronic schistosomiasis,and their tissues of biopsy and surgical resection were examined pathologically. Results Among the 42 patients,schistosomiasis cirrhosis of liver was found in 36 cases,left lobe enlarged was found in 21 cases,and calcification was found in 32 cases. Portal vein and its tribu? taries calcification were found in 14 patients,and one of them was accompanied with transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma,12 patients with stones in gallbladder,and 5 patients with ascites. Among the 19 patients with splenomegaly,7 patients were accom? panied with calcification. Intestinal wall thickening with linear and tram?like calcification was seen in 21 cases. Descending colon, sigmoidcolon,and rectum calcifications were found in 8 cases,and rectosigmoid calcification was found in 9 cases,rectum calcifi? cation was seen in 2 cases,and 2 patients were accompanied with colon carcinoma. The pathological examination showed fibrosis and calcified ova in liver,large intestine and gallbladder of the patients,but there were no ova in spleen. Conclusion Abdomi? nal CT manifestation of patients with chronic schistosomiasis presents the damage of multiple organs in abdomen,and various cal? cifications are the main image characteristics.

    Advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance in Xinjian County, 2005-2009
    MAO Yuan-Hua, HU Wei-Chen, TU Ji, CHEN Fan-Jing, WAN Ren-Feng, NING An, ZHANG Bin, CHEN Zhe, LI Ming, ZHANG Bo-Ying, ZOU Jin-Xiu, DENG Qin
    2012, 24(2):  203-204. 
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    Objective To understand the status of chemotherapy and assistance for advanced schistosomiasis patients in Xinji? an County, 2005-2009. Methods The data of chemotherapy and assistance for patients with advanced schistosomiasis in Xinjian County from 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed statistically by using The Information Management System for Advanced Schistosomiasis Chemotherapy and Assistance in Jiangxi Province. Results Among 636 cases, the sex ratio of male to female was 1.19 ∶ 1, and the average age was 61.52±11.2 years old. Ascites was the main symptoms of patients (93.71%), and the percentage of splenectomized ones was 32.38% among them. The IHA-positive rate, HBsAg-positive rate and repeat treatment rate were 31.6%, 24.37% and 44.50%, respectively. The clinical cure rate, recovery rate and death rate were 43.53%, 55.94% and 5.97%, respec? tively. Conclusion The advanced schistosomiasis chemotherapy and assistance improves the symptoms and life quality of these patients.

    Correlation between liver sonographic findings and clinical manifestations of clonorchiasis
    LIANG Ping
    2012, 24(2):  205-207. 
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    Objective To study the correlation between sonographic findings of the intrahepatic bile duct and liver and clini? cal symptoms and signs of clonorchiasis. Methods The data of sonographic findings of intrahepatic bile duct and liver and clini? cal symptoms and signs of 98 patients with clonorchiasis were collected and analyzed. Results There were 40 cases in light de? gree of the Ⅱ,Ⅲintrahepatic bile duct dilatation,27 cases in middle degree,and 31 cases in heavy degree. There were 4 cases of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and liver patchy or nodular lesions of slightly stronger echo. The mild expansion of intrahepatic bile duct was found in the patients with no obvious clinical signs and symptoms. The middle and heavy degrees of expansion were found in the patients with obvious clinical signs and symptoms. There were significantly difference between them(χ2 = 43.57,P < 0.05) . The incidence of middle and heavy degrees of expansion in patients with cholecystitis,pancreatitis,liver cirrhosis and he? patocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma was much higher than that in patients with intrahepatic bile duct stones(χ2 = 4.873,P<0.05) . Conclusion Bile duct dilatation is closely correlated with the clinical symptoms and signs. This connection helps the diagnosis of clonorchiasis.

    Investigation on rat?shaped animals and insect vectors on their body surface at Ningde Harbor
    LIU Xiao-Ting, LIU Bao-Ying, WU Ji-Yang
    2012, 24(2):  208-211. 
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    Objective To understand the composition,seasonal variation,as well as carrying insect vectors (including tick, flea,mite) of rat?shaped animals in Ningde Harbor area,so as to provide the evidence for prevention and control of rodent?borne diseases. Methods From July 2009 to June 2010,2 dockyards were investigated according to the monitoring methods of The In? dustry Standard Inspection and Quarantine of China. Results A total of 171 rat?shaped animals (4 species,2 genera,2 fami? lies,and 2 orders) were captured,among which Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species. The overall rat density was 3.58%. The indexes of flea,mite and tick were 0.01,0.33,and 0.05,respectively. Conclusions The rat density at Ningde Harbor has not reached the national standard (< 1%),which suggests that the measures of rat monitoring at dockyards in Ningde Harbor should be enforced.

    Development of performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment
    ZHOU Xiao-Rong, HUANG Shui-Sheng, GONG Xin-Guo, CEN Li-Ping, ZHANG Cong, ZHU Hong, YANG Jun-Jing, CHEN Li
    2012, 24(2):  212-213. 
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    Objective To construct a performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment,and analyze and evaluate the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment over the years. Methods By ap? plying the database management technique and C++ programming technique,we inputted the information of the advanced schisto? somiasis cases into the system,and comprehensively evaluated the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment through the cost?effect analysis,cost?effectiveness analysis,and cost?benefit analysis. Results We made a set of software formu? la about cost?effect analysis,cost?effectiveness analysis,and cost?benefit analysis. This system had many features such as clear building,easy to operate,friendly surface,convenient information input and information search. It could benefit the performance evaluation of the province’ s advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work. Conclusion This system can satisfy the current needs of advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work and can be easy to be widely used.

    Surveillance on schistosomiasis of boat fishermen along Yangtze River in Nantong City from 2006 to 2010
    DING Gui-Sheng
    2012, 24(2):  214-216. 
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    Objective To discover the imported infection sources of schistosomiasis as early as possible. Methods Boat fishermen were screened with DDIA and the positive ones were tested by the hatching method or Kato?Katz technique. Results From 2006 to 2010,2 951 boat fishermen along the Yangtze River in Nantong City were tested with DDIA for schistosomiasis and 17 positive cases were found,while 1 case was positive in the feces examination. The person was confirmed as acute schistosomia? sis by both clinical laboratory and epidemiology survey,and the patient was cured after the treatment in hospital. Conclusion The surveillance on schistosomiasis of boat fishermen along the Yangtze River could consolidate the achievement of schistosomia? sis control in transmission interrupted area.

    Antibody against schistosome and schistosome infection and reinfection
    LI Yi-Feng, XIE Shu-Ying, LIN Dan-Dan
    2012, 24(2):  217-221. 
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    Antibody against schistosome is related closely to the infection and reinfection of schistosome. This paper reviews the dynamic changes of schistosome?specific antibody under different infection situations,the effect and regulation of antibody to the reinfection, and the applicable value of antibody in diagnosis and effect evaluation of chemotherapy

    Progress of research on clinical manifestations and diagnosis of human pen stomiasis
    ZHANG Ling-Ling, CHEN Jia-Xu
    2012, 24(2):  222-227. 
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    Human pentastomiasis is an unusual parasitic zoonosis caused by wormlike pentastomids. Of the many pentastome species,10 are known to infect humans in the world,and among them,Armillifer armillatus and Linguatula serrata are the main pathogenic species which can account for most human infections. According to the location in human body and clinical symptoms of the main pathogenic species,human pentastomiasis can be divided into two parasitic types clinically,the visceral type and naso? pharyngeal type. The methods for diagnosing pentastomiasis is based on the morphology,histopathological and imageology exami? nations combined with clinical manifestations and epidemiology,but the relational serological and molecular tests are rarely report? ed. In this article,we aim to provide a basic review of human pentastomiasis on the pathogen,clinical manifestations,endemic ar? eas and primary diagnostic methods.

    A review of researches on Angiostrongylus cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis cantonensis: analysis of related literatures
    DENG Jian, ZOU Jie-Xin, ZHOU Xian-Min, WU Zhong-Dao
    2012, 24(2):  228-231. 
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    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a lung worm of rat(definitive host) . Human,an abnormal host,can acquire the in? fection by ingesting food containing the infective larvae of this worm(third?stage larvae) . Although the larvae cannot develop into adult worm in human body,it moves to human brain and eyes,causing eosinophilic meningitis(EM),meningoencephalitis, or oc? ular angiostrongyliasis(OA) . Here we review papers related to Angiostrongylus cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis cantonensis which were published in recent ten years,and identify the main institutes and principal investigators(PI)who are researching An? giostrongylus cantonensis. We also outline the advances in research on pathogen biology,pathogenesis,diagnostic techniques,epi? demiology and prevention,as well as drug developed against Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Microsatellite markers and their application in genetic diversity research of Plasmodium spp.
    LI Jun-Wei, ZHOU Shui-Sen, HUANG Fang
    2012, 24(2):  232-234. 
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    Microsatellites,namely simple sequence repeats(SSR),are simple tandemly repeated sequences with repeat units of 1-6 bp in length. As genetic markers,microsatellites are abundant and distributed throughout the eukaryotic genomes. Their advantages include high polymorphism and abundance,co ?dominance,selective neutrality and high reliability. In recent years,microsatellite markers are often used to study the biologically genetic diversity. In this paper,we briefly review the applica? tion of microsatellite technique in the study of Plasmodium spp. genetic diversity.

    Recommendation of a new clinical classification of advanced schistosomiasis
    DENG Wei-Cheng, LIU Jia-Xin, PAN Ke, KONG Guo-Qing, HE Yong-Kang, LI Yue-Sheng
    2012, 24(2):  235-236. 
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    Objective To recommend a new clinical classification of advanced schistosomiasis for improving the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effect of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The medical records of 11 092 cases of advanced schistosomiasis from the Xiang?Yue Hospital from January 1990 to January 2010 and the medical aid centre for advance schistoso? miasis in Hunan Province from January 2004 to January 2010 were collected and classified with the current and new clinical classi? fication methods and the results were statistically analyzed and compared. Results Based on the current classification method, there were huge splenomegaly(5 710 cases),ascites(2 993 cases),colon proliferative(834 cases),and dwarf(54 cases) . How? ever,1 501 cases were excluded from the current classification. Based on the new classification method,there were 8 types:huge splenomegaly(2 870 cases),ascites(1 885 cases),colon proliferative(425 cases),dwarf(38 cases),universal(1 281 cases), bleeding(1 857 cases),hepatic coma(553 cases),and miscellaneous(1 759 cases) . Totally 424 cases were classified into chronic schistosomiasis. Conclusion The new classification method can present a more comprehensive picture for clinical fea? tures,severe complications and prognosis of advanced schistosomiasis,and is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced schistosomiasis.

    Effect of comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in Yangxin County|Hubei Province
    WANG Yi-Qian, LIANG Xun-Yin, YUAN Xiu-Bai, LIANG Xun-Fa, HU Qian-Qing, KE Chang-Gui
    2012, 24(2):  237-238. 
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    Since 2005,the project of comprehensive control of schistosomiasis has been implemented in Yangxin County. In 2010,the infection rates of residents and domestic animals were both below 2%,comparing to 2004,the rates decreased by 92.42% and 92.91%,respectively,and the area of susceptible zone and the infection rate of Oncomelania snails decreased by 86.25% and 84.93%,respectively. The county achieved the objective of endemic control in 2008.

    Investigation on current situation of advanced schistosomiasis in Tongcheng City, Anhui Province
    JIANG Long-Zhi, XU Hui, WEI Qiang
    2012, 24(2):  239. 
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    This paper describes the investigation on the current situation and characteristics of advanced schistosomiasis in Tongcheng City, Anhui Province. There were 205 cases of advanced schistosomiasis with the estimated prevalence of 0.027% in the city. Most of advance schistosomiasis patients (67.32%) distributed in schistosomiasis transmission interrupted areas, 97.07% of them were over 50 years old, 95.61% of them were illiteracy and persons with low education level (primary school education), and 92.20% of them received anti?schistosomiasis treatment.

    Surveillance of schistosomiasis in national surveillance site of Linxiang City| 2005-2010
    AI Zhi-Yong
    2012, 24(2):  240-241. 
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    The schistosomiasis surveillance in a national surveillance site,Shuangzhou Village of Linxiang City from 2005 to 2010 showed that both the infection rates of residents and cattle decreased year by year,but the density of living Oncomelania snails in 2010 was higher than that in 2009,and the infection rate of cattle was still maintained at 3%-5%. It suggested that be? sides the current measures including molluscicide and infectious resource control,the environment modification also should be considered.

    Observation on negative changes of indirect hemagglutination assay in chronic schistosomiasis patients
    GAO Hong
    2012, 24(2):  242-242. 
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    A total of 135 chronic schistosomiasis patients were investigated with indirect hemagglutination assay(IHA)kit for schistosomiasis issued by the national authority,and the titer ≥1︰10 was deemed as positive. The IHA positive patients were in? vestigated with Kato?Katz technique and the hatching method,and the water contact survey was performed every year and the re?in? fection patients were excluded. In the fourth year,93.65%o of the patients became IHA negative. In conclusion,the schistosome antibody levels of the population by IHA test can be one of important indexes to judge whether the epidemic situation relapses in the process of continuous schistosomiasis surveillance

    Seroepidemiological survey of chickens infected with Toxoplasma gondii in Wuxi City
    DING Guan-E, XU Ming-Bao, ZHOU Yong-Hua, FAN Feng, CUI Hong-Ping
    2012, 24(2):  243. 
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    Objective To understand the status of scattered chickens infected with Toxoplasma gondii in Wuxi City. Meth? ods We investigated the positive rate of Toxoplasma antigen and antibody of 309 cases of scattered chickens in Wuxi,and it was compared with the positive rate of Toxoplasma antigen and antibody of 150 cases of intensive farming chickens. Results In the 309 cases of scattered chickens,there were 29 cases of antigen positive,and the positive rate was 9.39%;there were 53 cases of antibody positive,and the positive rate was 17.15%;there were 13 cases of antigen and antibody double positive,and the double? positive rate was 4.21%.;In the scattered chickens,the overall positive rate was 22.33%,and in the intensive farming chickens, the overall positive rate was 2.67%,and there was a significant difference between them( χ2 = 29.19,P <0.01) . Conclusion There is a high T. gondii infection in scattered chickens in Wuxi,so the medical,veterinary and food hygiene workers should pay more attention to it.

    Effect of snail control of niclosamide by soil mixing and spraying methods in high dam of terrace
    YANG Hui, ZUO Ji-Mao, YANG Meng-Xian, BI Wan-Zeng
    2012, 24(2):  244. 
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    The snail control efffect of niclosamide by soil mixing and spraying method were compared, and the results showed that the effects of the two methods were similar. Though there was difficulties in getting soil and mixing durg with soil, and the cost was high, the effect of soil mixing method in some special environment such as stone ditches and terraces.