Objective To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis in key areas of Jiangsu Province. Methods The basic data and the data of implementation of comprehensive control measures were collected from the key areas of Jiangsu Province, including 30 townships, 87 marshlands and 78 anchor points. A field survey was carried out to investigate the Oncomelania snail status by using the systematic sampling method and schistosomiasis morbidity in humans and animals in the 12 key counties (districts). The changes of snail status and morbidity of humans and animals were statistically analyzed in key counties (districts) where comprehensive control measures was implemented, and the effects of schistosomiasis control before and after the implementation of the comprehensive control were compared. Results From 2008 to 2010, a total of 84 100 harmless latrines were constructed, 339 600 persons were examined, 2.6938 million people received health education, 112 000 protective creams and 798 000 publicity materials were allocated, 9 085 domestic animals were reared in pens, 11 800 domestic animals were exam? ined, 130 high?risk cattle were eliminated in 30 key townships of 12 countries (districts), Jiangsu Province. A total of 19 640.78 hm2 were controlled with molluscicides, 798 warning tablets were placed, 116.07 hm2 of farmlands were ploughed up and planted, 306.80 hm2 were dug for fish culture, and 506.74 hm2 were planted with trees for snail control in 87 high?risk marshlands. A total of 118.83 million Yuan were invested into the water resources development projects, 39.82 km?long rivers were dredged, 70.04 km ? long bank were concreted, 30 culvert gates were re?constructed, and 22 snail sedimentation tanks were built. In the 78 anchor points, 95 harmless public toilets were built, 3 192 stool container were allocated, 28 700 boatmen were examined, 71 600 protective creams and 53 200 publicity materials were allocated, and 46 600 persons received health education. Following the implementation of comprehensive control, the settings with infected snails, infected snail areas, infection rates of snails reduced from 75, 802.73 hm2 and 0.10% before the comprehensive control in 2007 to all 0 in 2010, with reduction rates of all 100%. The infection rates of schistosome in both humans and domestic animals appeared declining trends in 12 counties (districts) from 2005 to 2010, and the human infection rates were 0.16%, 0.04%, 0.02%, 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.01%, respectively, while being 0.11%, 0.05%, 0, 0, 0 and 0, respectively in domestic animals. During the period of comprehensive control, totally 45 transmission?controlled town? ships and 183 villages were newly added. In 2010, all of the 12 counties (districts) reached the criteria of schistosomiasis transmis? sion control. Conclusions The comprehensive control with emphasis on the key areas where infected snails are found, is an effective measure to further facilitate schistosomiasis control and rapidly control the transmission of schistosomiasis.