Distribution and suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration

LI Zhong⁃Qiu1, LI Lan⁃Hua2, YIN Hui⁃Jun3, WEI Zi⁃Xin1, GUO Yun⁃Hai1, MA Ben2, ZHANG Yi1*

1. 1 National Institute of Parasitic Diseases， Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research)， NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology，WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases，National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases，School of Global Health，Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research，Shanghai 200025，China； 2 School of Public Health and Management，Weifang Medical University，China； 3 Rizhao Community Health Service Center，Donggang District，Rizhao City，Shandong Province，China
• Online:2021-08-30 Published:2021-08-30

长三角城市群蜱媒分布及适生区分析

1. 1 中国疾病预防控制中心寄生虫病预防控制所（国家热带病研究中心）、国家卫生健康委员会寄生虫病原与媒介生物学重点实验室、WHO热带病合作中心、国家级热带病国际联合研究中心、上海交通大学医学院⁃国家热带病研究中心全球健康学院（上海 200025）；2 潍坊医学院公共卫生与管理学院；3 山东省日照市东港区日照街道社区卫生服务中心
• 作者简介:李中秋，男，硕士，研究实习员。研究方向：医学媒介生物预防控制
• 基金资助:
上海市第五轮公共卫生体系建设三年行动计划重点学科项目(GWV⁃10.1⁃XK13)；国家科技基础资源调查专项（2017FY101203）；国 家科技部常规性援助项目（KY201904013）；上海市青年科技英才扬帆计划（21YF1452200）

Abstract: Objective　To investigate the current distribution of ticks and predict the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2017, so as to provide insights into tick control and management of tick⁃borne diseases in these areas. Methods　All publications pertaining to tick and pathogen distribution in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration were retrieved, and the geographical location of tick distribution was extracted. The effects of 19 climatic factors on the distribution of ticks were examined using the jackknife method, including the mean temperature of the wettest quarter, precipitation of the coldest quarter, mean temperature of the driest quarter, maximum temperature of the warmest month, precipitation of the driest month, minimal temperature of the coldest month, annual precipitation, mean daily temperature range, precipitation seasonality, annual temperature range, temperature seasonality, annual mean temperature, mean temperature of the warmest quarter, precipitation of the wettest quarter, isothermality, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest quarter and precipitation of the warmest quarter. The distribution of ticks was analyzed in 2020 using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, and the potential suitable habitats of ticks were predicted in 2070 using the MaxEnt model based on climatic data. Results　A total of 380 Chinese and English literatures were retrieved, and 148 tick distribution sites were extracted, with 135 sites included in the subsequent analysis. There were 7 genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor, Boophilus, Hyalomma and Amblyomma) and 27 species of ticks detected in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The climatic factors affecting the distribution of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration mainly included the mean temperature of the wettest quarter and the precipitation of the coldest quarter, with 26.1% and 23.6% contributions to tick distributions. The high⁃, medium⁃ and low⁃suitable habitats of ticks were 20 337.08, 40 017.38 km2 and 74 931.43 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2020, respectively. The climate changes led to south expansion of the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, and the total areas of suitable habitats of ticks was predicted to increase by 18 100 km2. In addition, the high⁃, medium⁃ and low⁃suitable habitats of ticks were predicted to increase to 24 317.84, 45 283.02 km2 and 83 766.38 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, respectively. Conclusions　Multiple tick species are widespread in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, and the future climate changes may lead to expansion of tick distribution in these areas.

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