Study on biological characteristics: reproduction and viability of Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni
- WANG Yi-An, LIANG You-Sheng, QU Guo-Li, SHI Feng, XING Yun-Tian, DAI Jian-Rong
Related Articles |
Objective To compare the difference of fertility of Biomphalaria glabrata snails between self?fertilization and cross?fertilization and to observe the circadian rhythm of laying eggs, the effect of light on laying eggs and the tolerance of the snail to water and food deficiency, so as to provide the evidence for control and elimination of B. glabrata snails in the field. Methods Under laboratory conditions, a single B. glabrata egg for self?fertilization was separated and hatched individually, and young snails were raised in different plastic boxes individually. The eggs for cross?fertilization were hatched and the young snails were fed in the same plastic box. The ability of spawn, the development of the eggs, and the number of snails growing from young to adult snails were compared between the self?fertilization and cross?fertilization. The snails were in the water under four environments, all day illumination, all day without illumination, daytime lighting and night without illumination, and daytime without illumination but night lighting. The eggs were collected and counted daily. The circadian rhythm of spawn and the effect of illumination on spawn were observed. The adult snails were divided into 6 groups and exposed to the environments with relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100%, respectively. The survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the different environments after different time were observed. The adult snails were placed at 25 ℃ in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were observed. Results In the 25 ℃ water, the average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (8.77 ± 16.92) eggs/snail in the self?fertilization snail. The average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (149.71 ± 142.28) eggs/snail in the cross?fertilization snails. There was a significant difference between the self?fertilization snail and cross?fertilization snail (t = 0.999 999，P < 0.01). The hatching rate and reproductive maturation rate of the self?fertilization snails and cross?fertilization snails were 50.1% and 78.9%, and 19.3% and 3.8%, respectively, There was a significant difference (the hatching rate: χ2 = 18.18，P < 0.01, the reproductive maturation rate: χ2 = 11.83，P < 0.01）. In the natural environment of daytime with illumination and nighttime with darkness, the amount of laying 20 eggs of B. glabrata snail was (944.07 ± 392.53) eggs/day during a whole day, among them the amount of laying eggs during daytime account for 10.1% and the amount of laying eggs during nighttime account for 89.9%, and the laying egg was given priority to with the night. The above results suggested that the dark environment was conducive to B. glabrata snails to lay eggs. The above results suggested that light can promote the increase of spawning of B. glabrata. When B. glabrata was exposed to the environments with the relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100% at 25 ℃, respectively, and the longest survival times of snails were 7, 70, 150 d and 100 d, respectively. In the 25 ℃ water, the snails could survive for 50 days without food. The adult snails were placed at 25 ℃ in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 70%, 30%, 0, 0, 0 and 0, respectively. Conclusions B. glabrata can achieve the reproductive process by cross?fertilization or self?fertilization. There is a significant difference in reproductive ability between the cross?fertilization snail and self?fertilization snail, cross?fertilization is stronger than self?fertilization, but the rate of reproduction in the self?fertilization is higher than that in the cross?fertilization. It is indicated that B. glabrata that survive after the dry season plays an important role in the maintenance of local snail populations and transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni.