Table of Content

    06 January 2013, Volume 19 Issue 4
    Recombinant expression Schistosoma japonicum and immunogenicity identification of antigen epitopes inducing T-cell response
    Li Jian, Yin Xu-ren, Yu Chuan-xin, Xu Yong-Iiang, Hua Wan-quan, He Wei, Liang Yo
    2007, 19(4):  241-246. 
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     Objective  To synthesize and fusion express the predicted T-cell epitopes of Schistoso-
    ma japonicum., and analyze their immunogenicities. Methods   The plus and minus oligo-nucleic acid
    strands of epitopes P7, P17, P18 were synthesized following their DNA sequence, respectively.
    The Nco I restriction enzyme sites were added to the 5' end of epitope gene and the Xho I restriction
    enzyme sites were added to the 3' end of epitope gene. The plus and minus strand of each epitope
    gene was annealed to form double strand DNA fragments. Then the double strand DNA fragments
    encoding epitope peptide were cloned into the site between Nco I and Xho I of plasmid pET32c(+)
    to construct recombinant plasmid which was transformed into E.coli DH5a. The recombinant plas-
    mid containing P7, P17, P18 genes respectively was identified by PCR, restriction digestion and
    DNA sequencing, and then transformed into E.coli BL21 (DE3) for expressing the fusion protein.
    The fusion protein of peptide-thioredoxin(Trx) was expressed by inducing with IPTG and analyzed
    with SDS-PAGE. The fusion proteins were purified with N12+ column affinity chromatography.
    Meanwhile, the peptides P7, P17, P18 were synthesized artificially following their amino acid se-

    quence. By using the purified epitope peptide fusion proteins and synthesized epitope peptides, the
    splenic cells of C57BL/6J mice immunized with ultraviolet-attenuated cercaria of Schistosoma japon-
    icum were stimulated respectively. The stimulation activity of fusion proteins and synthesized pep-
    tides were assayed by detecting the incorporation rate of 3H-thymidine. Results  The double strand
    DNA fragments of epitopes P7, P17, P18 were successfully cloned to form recombinant plasmids,
    all of which could express a 20 kDa fusion protein. Both the fusion protein and synthesized epitope
    peptides of P7 and P17 were able to stimulate the lymphocyte cells to proliferation effectively. Con-
    clusion  The peptide P7 and peptide P17 are testified as T-cell epitopes of Schistosoma jaPon,icum.

    Glucose tolerance test of advanced schistosomiasis patients
    GUO Hou-xiang, YANG Jin-hong, ZHAI Sha-hu
    2007, 19(4):  246-246. 
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    Cloning and expression of gene encoding myophilin-like protein of Schistosoma japonicum and study on the antigenicity of recombinant protein
    Tong Qun-bo, Liu Shu-xian.,Li Xiao-hong, Xu Yu-xin, Shen Yu-juan, Cao Jian-ping
    2007, 19(4):  247-251. 
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     Objective  To clone and express the gene encoding Schistosoma japonicum myophilin-
    like protein (SjcMLP) and to study the antigenicity of the recombinant protein. Methods  The
    SjcMLP gene was amplified by PCR. The PCR product was cloned into T vector, and then sub-
    cloned into expression vector pQE30. The recombinant plasmid of pQE30-SjcMLP was transformed
    into E. coli M15, and induced with IPTG for expression.  The bacteriallysis was conducted by ultra-
    sonication and the supernatant was analysed by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant protein (reSjcMLP)
    was purified with the Ni-NTA resin, and analysed with SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The titers of
    sera from C57BL/6 mice immunized subcutaneously with reSjcMLP were detected by ELISA. Re-
    suIts  The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that the molecular weight of expressed
    fusion protein was around 24. 8 kDa and was recognized by the sera from the mice infected with
    Schistosoma japonicum. The purified protein of reSjcMLP was coated for ELISA test and the IgG
    titers in the sera from the mice immunized with reSjcMLP were as high as l : 12 800 reacted with.
    However, no significant difference was found in worm reduction rates between the immunized mice
    and control mice. Conclusions  The fused recombinant protein of reSjcMLP is successfully ex-

    Construction of a T7 phage display cDNA library from lung of Microtus |fortis
    2007, 19(4):  252-256. 
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      Objective  To construct a T7 phage display cDNA library from the lung of Microtus
    fortis for further screening the schistosomiasis-resistence-related genes of Microtus fortis. Methods
      mRNA was isolated from total RNA extracted from the lungs of Microtus fortis by TRIzol
    reagent, and was used to synthesize double strain cDNA by the reverse transcription. Then the
    double strain cDNA was given with EcoR I  and Hind I[ adhering ends by ligation with the direc-
    tional EcoR I /Hind II linkers and digestion with EcoR i  and Hind  m.  The double strain cDNA
    fragments longer than 300 bp in length were fractionated by the Mini Column, and ligated into the
    T7 Select l0-3b vector with EcoR I and Hind m adhering ends. After packaging in vitro, the re-
    combinant T7 Select l0-3b was transformed into BLT5403 to construct a T7 phage display cDNA li-
    brary.  Results   The library constructed here contained l. 5 Xl06 clones and the titer of the amplied
    library was l. 1X101z pfu/ml.  The PCR identification results of 100 clones picked at random showed
    that 91% clones were recombinant and 90% of recombinant clones contained cDNA fragments
    longer than 300 bp in length. Conclusion  A T7 phage display cDNA library from the lung of M/-
    crotus fortis is successfully constructed.

    Epidemiological investigation on new schistosomiasis endemic area in Ouchi River
    2007, 19(4):  256-256. 
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    Surveillance on schistosomiasis in China in 2006
    Zhu Rong, Dang Hui, Guo Jia-gang
    2007, 19(4):  257-262. 
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     Objective  To understand the endemic situation of schistosomiasis among 80 national
    surveillance sites for schistosomiasis in 2006,so as to provide scientific evidence for making out
    schistosomiasis prevention and control measures. Methods  According to the national surveillance
    protocol, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in residents and livestock, and the status of On-
    comelania snails and other factors were investigated in the 80 national surveillance sites for schisto-
    somiasis, and all the data were collected and analysed. Results   Among the 80 national surveillance
    sites,the average positive rate of residents with sera examination was 13. 60% and the average posi-
    tive rate with stool examination was l. 59%. The average positive rate of floating population with
    sera examination was 5.79%. There were 143 advanced patients among the national surveillance
    sites, and 12 acute patients were reported in 2006, but no breaking-out epidemic reported. The pro-
    portion of domestic animals stable breeding were about 4. 74% of 5 365 examined animals in 2006,
    and the others were not. The infection rate of domestic animals was 5. 93% that declined by 34. 49%
    compared with that in 2005 and especially for the infection rate of cattle and sheep. A total of
    7 429. 63 hmz of areas were surveyed. The areas of snail habitats, infected snail habitats and the
    new snail habitats were 4 994. 01,621. 75 hm2 and 21. 75 hm2,respectively.  The density of living
    snails and infection rate of snails were 0. 544 8/0. 1 m2 and 0. 37%,  which increased compared with
    infection rate of 0. 26% in 2005.  Conclusion   The endemic situation of residents, cattle and snail
    habitats declined in 2006 compared with those in 2005 in the national surveillance sites.

    Analysis of endemic situation of surveillance sites of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province, |2006 |i |Status of residents and livestock infection
    Hong Qing-biao, Huang Yi-xin, Sun Le-ping, Zhang Jian- feng, Liang You-sheng,etc
    2007, 19(4):  263-267. 
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     Objective  To understand the current endemic status of schistosomiasis of residents
    and livestock in Jiangsu Province, in order to provide a scientific basis for decision-making of pre-
    vention and control. Methods  According to the national and provincial surveillance protocol, 82
    representative endemic villages were selected as surveillance sites and the infection of Schistosoma
    japonicum in residents and livestock were investigated. Results  The positive rates of serological
    and stool examination for local permanent residents were l. 63% and 0. 035%, respectively.  The
    positive rates of serological and stool examination for floating population were 2. 42% and 0. 988% ,
    respectively. It was estimated that the infection rates of S. japo挖icum in residents, cattle and goats
    were 0. 007 4%, 0. 80% and l. 90%, respectively.  Conclusions   The endemic status of schistoso-
    miasis in Jiangsu Province is low and stable, the infection rate of floating population is much higher
    than that of local permanent residents, the livestock with dispersal breeding is seldom, and the
    whole infection rate is low, but it is still high in some special areas. Therefore, the floating popula-
    tion and livestock are import epidemic factors in some local areas of Jiangsu Province.

    Anaesthesia selection of advanced schistosomiasis patients with surgical therapy
    Cao Xiao-lin, Jiang Hui-wen, Zhang Bao-long
    2007, 19(4):  267-288. 
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    Cerebral schistosomiasis|CT|MRI|Cerebral spine fluid (CSF)|Immunoassay|Diagnosis
    Wu Ming-can, Chen Shi-jie, Luo Guo~cai, Liu Jian-xiong, Yu Hui, Li Mao-kun, etc
    2007, 19(4):  268-273. 
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      Objective  To explore the clinical characteristics and diagnostic methods of cerebral
    schistosomiasis. Methods   The data of CT, MRI and the cerebral spine fluid (CSF) immunoassay
    in 42 patients with cerebral schistosomiasis were analyzed retrospectively. Results  Forty cerebral
    schistosomiasis patients were diagnosed by the iconography and immunoassay, 1 by the postopera-
    tive pathological examination and l by diagnostic treatment with praziquantel. Conclusions   CT and
    MRI are of great value to determination of the position and nature of the cerebral schistosomiasis.
    The sensitivity and accuracy of MRI are better for indicating the main pathological changes of the
    disease than those of CT. The CSF immunoassay plays an important role in the differential diagno-
    sis of cerebral schistosomiasis.

    Systemic skin anaphylaxis induced by praziquantel chemotherapy: one case report
    2007, 19(4):  273-273. 
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    Growth difference of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles sinensis and An. anthropophagus during the periods of clinic attack and diapause of vivax malaria patients
    2007, 19(4):  274-277. 
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     Objective   To compare the growth of Plasm,odium vivax in A规opheles sinensis(An., s)
    and Anopheles anthropop矗agus (An. a) during the periods of malaria clinic attack and diapause.
    Methods  The blood samples of patients during the clinic attack and diapause of vivax malaria pa-
    tients in the vivax epidemic area in China were collected, feeding the mosquitoes of An. s and An. a
    by using the artificial membrane feeding system /咒 vivo in the lab, and the mosquitoes were dissect-
    ed during the day 7-9th and 14th after the infection and the oocysts and sporozoites in the stomach
    and gland of the mosquitoes were counted, respectively. Results  The oocyst positive rate in An.s
    fed by Plasmodium vivar during the fever stage was lower than that in non-fever stage, the sporo-
    zoite positive rate in An. a fed by Plasmodium vivax during the fever stage was lower than that in
    non-fever stage. The positive mosquito rate with oocyst and sporozoite infected by Plasmodiu,m v/-
    var in the fever stage to An. s and An., a were lower than those in non-fever stage.  The infective
     sporozoite intensity of An.s fed by Plasmodium vivar in the fever stage was lower than that in non-
     fever stage, but the reverse result was found to An. a. Conclusion   There is a significant difference
    between the periods of malaria clinic attack and diapause of the oocyst and sporozoite infection to An. s and An,. a.

    Risk factors |of schistosomiasis |transmission |after |Three Gorges construction |ⅢThe monitoring project of schistosomiasis in Three Gorges Reservoir areas
    Wu Cheng-guo,Xu Xing-jian,Wang Ru-bo,Xiao Bang-zhong, Wei Feng-hua,etc
    2007, 19(4):  278-280. 
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      Objective  To study the risk factors of schistosomiasis transmission in the Three
        Gorges Reservoir areas (TGRA) and provide the technique project for dynamic monitoring schisto-
        somiasis in TGRA. Methods  The analogue experiment of Oncomelania snail survival was done in
        TGRA. The potential risk factors of schistosomiasis were investigated and the potential risk factors
        included the Oncomelania snail imported into TGRA and the imported infection sources of schistoso-
        miasis in the floating population and livestock. The potential infected factors of schistosomiasis
        transmission were investigated with the change of social-economy development after the dam con-
        struction. At last, the emphases of schistosomiasis monitoring were found out. Results   On.comela-
        nia snails could survive and breed in the appropriate environment of TGRA. The infection sources
        of schistosomlasis were mainly the floating population from endemic areas. With the plants and live
        stock imported, the snails and infection sources of livestock might be imported to TGRA. The so-
        cial-economy development might increase the risk of schistosomiasis imported. The TGRA hasoeen
        a potential prevalence area of schistosomiasis. Conclusion  The emphases of monitoring schistoso-
        miasis in TGRA should be the infection sources of schistosomiasis such as floating population, im-
        ported livestock and the risk factors of importing Oncomelania snails.

    Study on method of determination of appropriate sample size of Oncom,elania hupensis 'in marshland and lake regions
    Ni Ying, Cui Dao-yong| Zhang 2hi-jie, Peng Wen-xiang
    2007, 19(4):  281-284. 
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     Objective  To explore a possible method for determining the appropriate sample size
    of Oncomelania hupensis in the marshland and lake regions. Methods   Four bottomlands were se-
    lected randomly along the Qiupu River in Guichi District, Anhui Province.  Oncomelania snails were
    surveyed carefully in these bottomlands and brought back to the laboratory to judge whether they
    were alive or not with mild water. All the data of Oncomelania hupen,sis were doubly input into the
    EpiData software and checked for the errors. Repeated sampling was performed in the four databas-
    es according to different sample sizes by using SAS software and the corresponding snail density was
    also calculated. According to the values of sample size and corresponding snail density, sample size-
    snail density absolutely changing curve and relatively changing curve were drawn to determine the
    appropriate sample size of snail survey. Results   The appropriate sample sizes of snail survey were
    40,200,100 and 200 frames in Gutan bottomland, Caizi bottomland, Qiupu bottomland and Ouyang
    bottomland, respectively. Conclusion  Sample size-snail density absolutely changing curve and rel-
    atively changing curve could provide some instructions for choosing the appropriate sample size dur-
    ing the process of snail survey in the marshland and lake regions.

    Analysis of acute schistosomiasis:a report of 88 cases
    Rong Xian-bing, Yuan Mei-zhi, Dong Juan| Peng Xiao-wu, Fu Zheng-yin
    2007, 19(4):  284-295. 
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    Molluscicidal experiment of endophytes from Pseudolarix kaempferi Gord
    Guo Shang-bin, He Jia, Cheng Xi, Zhong Nan
    2007, 19(4):  285-288. 
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     Objective  To screen 18 endophytes from Pseudolarir kaempferi Gord for molluscici-
    dal effect and identify them by morphology. Methods   Molluscicidal tests were performed according
    to the immersion test suggested by WHO and the strain screened was identified by the slide culture.
    Results   The mortality rates of snails immersed by JJ18 broth salified (pH = 7) were 26.7%,
    76. 7% and l00. 0% for 24,48 h and 72 h, respectively, and 53. 3% and 86. 7% in 5% and 10%
    concentrations of JJ18 broth, respectively. The active components were extracellular moiety of the
    broth which had no acute toxicity to fish, and JJ18 strain belonged to Aspergillus. Conclusion  Ex-
    tracellular moiety of endophyte JJ18 from Pseudolarir kaempferi Gord is a new resource of mollusci-

    Sensitivity analysis of the yearly extreme low temperature to predict the distribution of On.comelania hupensis
    Cui Dao-yong,Zhang zhi-jie, Ni Ying', Pen.g Wen.-xiang, Zhuang Jian-lin, etc
    2007, 19(4):  289-292. 
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     Objective   To explore the sensitive temperature index in order to predict the distribu-
    tion of Oncomelania hupensis. Methods   Sixty-one weather stations, distributed in Shanghai, Jiang-
    su. Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Hebei, Henan: Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi,
    Sichuan provinces (municipality) , were selected as research stations.  North latitude 34 was set as
    the boundary of Oncomelan,ia hupensis's distribution. The differences of yearly extreme low temper-
    ature and mean temperature in a year between snail areas and no snail areas were tested respectively
    by using t test to show their respective significance on the prediction of Oncomelania hupensis's dis-
    tribution. Finally, unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine which tempera-
    ture index had the better effect to predict the distribution of Oncomelan,ia hupensis. Results  Both
    the yearly extreme low temperature and mean temperature in a year had significant effect on the dis-
     tribution of Oncomelania hupensis under the t test (t= - 6. 49,  P<0.01; t= - 3. 93,  P<0. 01).
     The differences of the yearly extreme low temperature and mean temperature in a year between snail
     areas and no snail areas were 6. 72 'C and 3. 02 'C respectivcly, and the degree of their differences
     was about 2. 23 times.  The impact of yearly extreme low temperature was more important than that
    of mean temperature in a year because mean temperature in a year became no longer statistically sig-
    nificant if they were tested simultaneously by using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Con-
    clusion  Yearly extreme low temperature may be more sensitive on predicting the distribution of  Oncomelania hupensis than mean temperature in a year.

    Analysis of schistosomiasis epidemic in Taizhou City in 2006
    Guo Jia-hong, Zhou Hong-wei|Chen Jian-feng
    2007, 19(4):  292-292. 
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    Grading of schistosomiasis patients' hepatic lesions by ultrasonography and analysis of portal vein and splenic vein haemodynamics
    Yi Song-tao, Huang Wei-heng, Peng Yi-xin, Guo Jin.-zhi
    2007, 19(4):  293-295. 
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     Objective  To study the relationship between the grading of schistosomiasis japonica
    hepatic lesions by B-ultrasonography and the portal vein and splenic vein haemodynamics. Methods
      The grades of 125 schistosomiasis patients' hepatic lesions were determined by Doppler ultra-
    sonography according to the method recommended by WHO/TDR. The portal vein and splenic vein
    inner diameters and blood flow velocity were examined and the portal vein and splenic vein volumes
    of blood flow were calculated in the patients above mentioned and 51 normal persons. Results   The
    inner diameters, blood flow velocity and volumes of blood flow of p.ortal vein and splenic vein in the
    patients were significantly different from those in the normal persons, and also there were signifi-
    cant differences among the patients with different degrees of fibrosis. Conclusions  The changes of
    schistosomiasis patients' portal vein haemodynamics is connect with the liver parenchyma character-
    istics. The step up of the ratio of blood flow volume of splenic vein with the portal vein is break-
    down with the aggravate of the hepatic lesion.

    Development and application of positioning Oncomelania snail Information Management System based on GIS
    Liu Gang, Huang Qiong-yao, Peng Fei, Liu Nian-meng, Sun Hui, Liu Ming, Yang Lin
    2007, 19(4):  296-298. 
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     Objective  To develop and apply the Oncomelania snaillnformation Management Sys-
    tem based on GIS.  Methods   With calculating the path by some GPS points and snail information
    database, the visualized snail information profiles were drawn automatically. Results  The Posi-
    tioning Oncomelania snail Information Management System has been developed and running in
    Changsha, and it made snail information standardized, visualized and digital, not only supplied
    many precise queries, but also formed a link of snailinformation based on years. Conclusions   The
    positioning Oncomelania snail Information Management System based on GIS raises the efficiency of
    information management and the veracity of information, it makes the snail information more inte-
    grated and systemic, which provides the basis for developing the On.comelania snail Information
    Management System of Hunan Province.

    Epidemiological survey of chronic lymphatic filariasis after itsm elimination in Shanghai City
    Zhang Xiao-ping, Zhu Min,Cai Li, Wang Long-ying, Wang Zhen-yu, Jin Yan- jun
    2007, 19(4):  299-303. 
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     Objective  To understand the status of chronic lymphatic filariasis cases after its e-
    limination in Shanghai City. Methods  All the chronic filarial cases historically registered were in-
    cluded in this survey and some persons with significant signs were also included. The data of clinical
    examination and results of serotests and microfilaria examination were recorded and analysed, and
    the database was set up. Results   A total of 826 chronic filariasis patients were surveyed, who dis-
    tributed in 102 townships of 9 districts, Shanghai City.  About 87. 17% of the patients were over 70
    years old, and 96. 73% of them had the disease over 30 years. The main three chronic signs were
    lymphedema/elephantiasis, chyluria,  and hydrocele, accounting for 96. 73% ,  2. 06% and l. 21% ,
    respectively.  The cases with Ⅰ-Ⅳstage of limb lymphedema/elephantiasis were for 94. 63%,
    ones with  V ,  VI stage of elephantiasis for 5. 37%, and 16. 71% of them were presented with acute
    onset of lymphadenitis. In terms of healthy status, 91.77% of the patients were healthy, and
    2. 18% of them were unable to care for themselves. The positive rate for filarial specific IgG4 anti-
    body was 15. 01%, and no any microfilaria was found in the blood samples among the antibody posi-
    tive cases.  Conclusions   The status of elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Shanghai is maintained.
    More attention should be put in the chronic filariasis patients because of their older age and onsets
    of the disease.

    Application of ultrasonograph in diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis
    Ni Ai-ying, Wang Shao-rong
    2007, 19(4):  303-303. 
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    Surveillance on schistosomiasis in Jing'an Village, Susong County, 2005-2006
    Sun Ben-rong, Feng Xing-sheng, Xiang Xi-peng, Yang Xiao-lin|Zhang Guo-hua
    2007, 19(4):  304-305. 
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    Effect of comprehensive measures for schistosomiasis control in marshland and lake regions
    Zhang Shun-jin|Wang Zu-feng, Zhao Chang-yan, Meng Ying
    2007, 19(4):  306-307. 
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    Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-borne nematodiasis control in Wuyi Village, Hanshou County
    Xie Chao-mei, Zhou Ying-cai, Yao Xiao-ming, Jiang Feng-zhi, Yang Yu-lin, etc
    2007, 19(4):  308-310. 
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    Surveillance on schistosomiasis in Zhuxi Village, Xingzi County, 2000-2004
    Tao Bo, Zhai Min-ling, Liu Jian-ping, Yin Zuo-hao, Wan Gen-jin
    2007, 19(4):  309-310. 
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    Influence of niclosamide on phenol oxidase activity in Oncomelania snails
    Yang Jin-sun, Zhou Shu-lin, Tang Xiao-niu, Chen Wen-kui
    2007, 19(4):  311-312. 
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    Epidemiological survey on clonorchiasis and its control in Xinyi City
    Zhang Zhi-cai, Suo Ge-hua, Li Hui-mei, Lv Pei-an, Wang Xiao-juan, Zhu Shao-jun
    2007, 19(4):  313-314. 
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    Epidemic situation of urban schistosomiasis and measures for prevention and control in China
    Cao Zhi-guo|Wang Tian-ping
    2007, 19(4):  315-320. 
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    Progress of research on nucleic acid vaccine against schistosomiasis japonica
    Zhou Xia, Zhuge Hong-xiang
    2007, 19(4):  317-320. 
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