Table of Content

    14 December 2012, Volume 24 Issue 6
    Schistosomiasis situation in People’s Republic of China in 2011
    ZHENG Hao|ZHANG Li-juan|ZHU Rong|XU Jing|LI Shi-zhu|GUO Jia-gang|ZHOU Xiao-nong
    2012, 24(6):  621-626. 
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    This report overviewed the national endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2011. By the end of 2011,a total of 286 836 cases of schistosomiasis japonica were estimated with a decrease rate of 11.97% compared with the number in 2010. A total of 3 acute cases were reported,decreased by 93.02% compared to the number in 2010. A total of 22 519 advanced cases were treated in 2010,increased by 10.34% compared to that in 2010. About 372 664.10 hm2 of areas infested with Oncomelania snail were found in 2011,and about 1 163.87 hm2 newly detected areas were reported. There were 1 410 936 cattle raised in schistosomiasis transmission regions in 2011. The infection rate of cattle was 0.68% in 2011,with a reduction rate of 34.62% comparing to that in 2010(1.04%)

    Analysis of surveillance of schistosomiasis in China in 2011
    ZHANG Li-juan|ZHU Rong|DANG Hui|XU Jing|LI Shi-zhu|GUO Jia-gang*
    2012, 24(6):  627-631. 
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    Objective To understand the endemic situation of schistosomiasis among 81 national surveillance sites in China
    in 2011. Methods The data of the Oncomelania snail status,schistosomiasis in residents and domestic animals,and other rele?
    vant factors were collected and analyzed for the epidemic characteristics and changes in different areas in the 81 national surveil?
    lance sites in 2011. Results Among the 81 national surveillance sites,the average positive rate of residents with serum examina?
    tions and the average infection rate of the residents were 7.78% and 0.54%,respectively,and the infection rate of domestic ani?
    mals was 0.97% in 2011,which all decreased compared with the rates of 2010. The area of infected snail habitats was 98.30 hm2.
    The mean densities of living snails and infected snails were 0.222 6 snails/0.1 m2 and 0.000 3 snails/0.1 m2,respectively. The in?
    fection rate of snails was 0.14%. The number of domestic animals opened on areas with snails was 12 422,which increased by
    46.99% compared with that in 2010. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis improves in 2011 compared with that
    in 2010. However,the improvement is not great. Therefore,the management of domestic animals as the major infectious source
    should be further strengthened.

    Study on immune status of patients with schistosomiasis japonica in Poyang
    Lake region Ⅱ Characterization of cellular immune in schistosomiasis patients
    YUAN Min1|XIE Shu-ying1|ZHOU Xiao-juan2|HU Fei1|LIU Yue-min1|LIN Dandan ect
    2012, 24(6):  632-635. 
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    Objective To observe the characterization of cellular immune of schistosomiasis japonica patients in low endemic
    area of Poyang Lake region. Methods The schistosomiasis patients who were positive by stool detections were selected as study
    subjects,and the individuals who were negative by stool detections in three consecutive years were selected as negative controls.
    The CD4+T cell,CD8+T cell and CD4+CD25+Treg in venous blood of the study subjects were detected by using flow cytometry. In
    vitro,cytokine(IFN?γ and IL?10)production of PBMC in response to soluble egg antigen(SEA)and soluble worm antigen prepa?
    ration(SWA)were measured by ELISA. Results The levels of CD4+CD25+Treg in individuals who were positive by stool detec?
    tions(5.99±1.60)% were higher than those of the negative(5.04±1.64)%,and the difference was significant(t = 3.261,P <
    0.01). One year after the treatment,the levels of IFN?γ were significantly higher(Stimulated by SEA before and after the treat?
    ment,the mean levels were 121.97 and 2 564.03 pg/ml,respectively;stimulated by SWA before and after treatment,the mean
    levels were 102.89 and 646.26 pg/ml,respectively)and IL?10 were significant lower in patients who were positive by stool detec?
    tions(Stimulated by SEA before and after treatment,the mean level were 294.75 and 122.43 pg / ml,respectively;stimulated by
    SWAP before and after treatment,the mean cytokine levels were 110.10 and 31.85 pg/ml,respectively). Conclusion The in?
    crease of induced CD4+CD25+Treg is one of causes that down?regulate cellular immune of human body after infection with Schistoso?
    ma japonicum.

    Studies on spray of niclosamide ethanolamine salt ⅡObservation on prevention of
    Schistosoma japonicum infection in bovine
    DAI Jian-rong1|XING Yun-tian1|LI Hong-jun1|WANG Wei1|TAO Yong-hui1|NING An2|GAO
    2012, 24(6):  636-639. 
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    Objective To investigate the spray of niclosamide ethanolamine salt on prevention of bovine schistosomiasis in
    the field so as to provide a technical support for the improvement of schistosomiasis control strategy. Methods A total of 160 buf?
    falo were selected as experimental objects marked by ear?mark numbers. All the buffalo were administered with praziquantel and
    then randomly divided into 3 groups,which were sprayed with niclosamide ethanolamine salt(500 ml per head)every 15 d
    (Group A),every 30 d(Group B)and an agent without niclosamide ethanolamine salt every 15 d(Group C as the control),re?
    spectively. The buffalo’s droppings were collected to examine the eggs of schistosome every 30 days during the trial. Results
    Ninety days after the spraying,the prevalence rates of schistosomiasis were 4.00%,4.08%,and 24.49% in the Group A,Group
    B,and Group C,respectively. Compared with the control group(Group C),the decline prevalence rates of schistosomiasis were
    83.67% and 83.34% in the Group A and Group B,respectively. Conclusions The buffalo spraying with 1% niclosamide ethanol?
    amine salt can reduce schistosomiasis prevalence in bovine,that is this intervention has an obvious protective effect.

    A case of Sparganum mansoni infection induced by eating live frogs
    Chen Jie
    2012, 24(6):  639-644. 
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    A case of Sparganum mansoni infection induced by having live frogs in other city was reported in Nantong City,Ji?
    angsu Province. The patient was treated with praziquantel and the effect was satisfactory.

    Preliminary study on applying high resolution CBERS images to identify On?
    comelania snail habitats in lake and marshland regions
    WANG Zeng-liang1|GAO Jie1|TAO bo2|JIANG Qiu-lin2|ZHAI Min-ling2|ZHANG Zhi-jie1*|
    2012, 24(6):  640-644. 
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    Objective To explore the preliminary application of high resolution CBERS?02B images in detecting the Oncome?
    lania snail habitats in lake and marshland regions. Methods The images with high resolutions were first fused from CBERS?02B
    HR and CCD images,and then the potential snail habitats in Xingzi County of Jiangxi Province were extracted from high resolution
    CBERS images and CCD images,respectively. A total of 2 000 validation points were randomly selected for comparing the differ?
    ence of distribution of these points inside and outside of the extracted two snail habitats with the McNemar chi?square test. Re?
    sults The areas of the two snail habitats extracted from high resolution and CCD images were 98.23 km2 and 94.89 km2,respec?
    tively. The numbers of validation points in the two snail habitats were 255 and 248,respectively,and no significant difference was
    found( χ2 =177 9.52,P = 0.23). Conclusion At large?scale studies,the ranges and areas of the two snail habitats extracted
    from high resolution and CCD images are not significantly different.

    Study on potential risks of schistosomiasis transmission in Grand Canal west
    water diversion route of eastern route project of South?to?North Water Diver?
    sion Project
    HUANG Yi-xin1|LI Tian-chun2|HANG De-rong1|SUN Dao-kuan3|Zheng Bo4|ZHANG Jian-fen
    2012, 24(6):  645-649. 
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    Objective To understand the potential risks of Oncomelania hupensis diffusion and schistosomiasis transmission
    in the Grand Canal west water diversion route of the eastern route project of the South?to?North Water Diversion Project. Meth?
    ods The engineering layout from Nanyun west floodgate to Hongze Lake,the aquaculture along Hongze Lake,and the data of hy?
    drology and transferred water were investigated. The investigations on Oncomelania hupensis and schistosomiasis were carried out
    in the surveillance sites of Jinbao Channel and Hongze Lake. The possibilities of snail spreading and schistosomiasis transmission
    were researched. Results Oncomelania snails lacked their breeding environment and ecological condition in the Hongze Lake re?
    gion. The engineering facilities of the Jinhu and Hongze pumping stations went against the snail spreading. The water levels at all
    steps decreased gradually from Hongze Lake to Jinbao Channel. Therefore,the pumping stations were necessary when the water
    transferred to Hongze Lake. The multi?year average diverted water volume reached 2.558 billion cubic meters a year in the Jinbao
    Channel. Of the total diverted water volume,there was 75% of the volume in drought years. The Oncomelania snails were not found
    in the surveillance sites of the Jinbao Channel and the Hongze Lake region from 2008 to 2011. A total of 3 088 residents were exam?
    ined with the serology tests and the positive rate was 0.29% in 2008. Totally 4 758 overwater flow people were examined with the
    serology tests and the positive rate was 2.42% from 2008 to 2011. The serum positive rate was higher in the overwater flow people
    than that in the residents( χ2 = 0.083,P < 0.01). The stool examinations were all negative in the above mentioned serum positive people. Conclusions The Hongze Lake area has still no Oncomelania snail breeding and schistosomiasis endemic so far.
    There are also no schistosomiasis re?prevalent signs in the Jinbao Channel area where schistosomiasis was once prevalent.
    The Oncomelania snail breeding and diffusion,and schistosomiasis endemic are unlikely to appear in the Grand Canal west
    water diversion route of the eastern route project of the South?to?North Water Diversion and Hongze Lake area.·

    Longitudinal observation of epidemic dynamics of schistosomiasis in bovine in two mountainous endemic regions
    SHI Yao-jun1|LI Hao1|LU Ke1|DONG Guo-dong2|MAO Guang-qiong3|GUO Li3|MA Kun2|GAO
    2012, 24(6):  650-653. 
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    Objective To understand the endemic situation dynamics of schistosomiasis in domestic animals(mainly bo?
    vine)in mountainous endemic regions,so as to provide the reference for evaluating the control effect and improving control strate?
    gy. Methods Two representative pilots(Renmei and Dacang)in mountainous schistosomiasis endemic regions were selected for
    survey. The schistosome infection status of bovine was investigated by the miracidium hatching method,the pasture of bovine were
    investigated by home visiting,and the distributions of wild feces and Oncomelania snails,and the snail schistosome infection sta?
    tus were also investigated in April and September every year. Results The schistosome infection rates of bovine reduced by
    98.4% and 93.8% in two pilots in 2007 compared with those in 1993,and the infection intensities also showed a decline trend.
    The infection rate of wild faces was 0 in Renmei pilot since 1995,while in Dacang pilot,the infection rate of wild feces fluctuated
    in 2007,and the intensities of living snails and infected snails showed a declined trend. Conclusions Due to the special natural
    environment of mountainous endemic regions,there is a dot?like or band?like distribution of endemic areas. The strengthening of
    schistosomiasis examination and chemotherapy will rapidly reduce endemic situation. However,to completely interrupt the trans?
    mission of schistosomiasis,we should emphasize environmental modification and domestic animal management

    Anti?atherogenic effect and its mechanisms of soluble egg antigen of Schistosomia japonicum in ApoE?/? mice
    ZHANG Hui1|XING Yun2|KONG Hui3|DAI Yang1|HE Wei1|GE Song4*|ZHU Yin-Chang1*
    2012, 24(6):  654-658. 
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    Objective To study the preventive effects of soluble egg antigen(SEA)of Schistosomia japonicum on atheroscle?
    rosis in ApoE?/? mice and its immune modulatory mechanisms. Methods ApoE?/? mice were divided into an Experimental Group
    One and an Experimental Group Two. The mice in the Experimental Group One dividing into a prevention and a control subgroups
    were fed with high fat diet since the first week,the mice in the former subgroup were injected intraperitoneally with SEA while
    those in the latter one were injected with phosphate buffered saline(PBS)with 1 week interval for 4 times. The mice in the Experi?
    mental Group Two were fed with high fat diet for 14 weeks,and then they were divided into a treatment and a control subgroups,
    which were injected with SEA and PBS,respectively,since the 14th week with 1 week interval for 4 times. All the mice were
    killed in the 22nd week,and the atherosclerosis development and the change of levels of cytokines and CD4+CD25+ FoxP3+T cells
    in mice were observed. Results Immunization with SEA led to a significant reduction in the levels of cholesterol,TNF?α,and IL?
    10 in all the ApoE?/? mice. The atherosclerosis plaque area of aorta of ApoE?/? mice in the prevention subgroup reduced obviously,
    while there was no significant change in the treatment subgroup. In the 22nd week,the proportion of CD4+CD25+ FoxP3+T cells
    population in CD4+ T cells was(4.4±0.9)% in the prevention subgroup and there was a significant difference compared with that of
    the control subgroup[(2.6±0.3)%](P < 0.05). However,the change of the proportion in the treatment subgroup showed no sta?
    tistic significance(P > 0.05). Conclusion The preventive injection of SEA in ApoE?/? module mice has the effect of anti?athero?
    sclerosis by increasing the proportion of Treg cells together with the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines at the beginning of disease.

    Automatic microscopic scanning system in etiological diagnosis of schistosomiasis
    GAO Yuan|ZONG Zhao-min|YANG Pei-cai|ZHANG Hong-ying|YANG Su|WEI De-hui|YIN Wei-g
    2012, 24(6):  659-662. 
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    Objective To apply the automatically microscopic scanning system in the etiological diagnosis of schistosomia?
    sis,as an alternative to the traditional manual microscopy detection,and improve the detection rates and efficiency of examina?
    tions of fecal slides. Methods A single?blind method was used throughout the process of both the automatic microscopic scanning
    system and traditional manual microscopy reading. Each of five professionals read 20 Kato?Katz manure piece samples. The detec?
    tion results and time for each sample were recorded. The two methods were compared by the film reading speed,sensitivity,speci?
    ficity,and accuracy. Results The overall accuracy of the diagnosis of schistosomiasis of the automatically microscopic scanning
    image system was 99.00%,higher than that of the traditional manual microscopy detection(91.00%)(P <0.05);the sensitivity
    and specificity of the image system were 98.57% and 100%,respectively,and also higher than those of the traditional manual mi?
    croscopy method(90.00% and 93.33%)(all P <0.05). Conclusions The automatically microscopic scanning system is power?
    ful,the scanning speed is fast,and the operation is easy. Its speed,accuracy,sensitivity and specificity are superior to those of
    the conventional manual microscopy;therefore,it is suitable for the etiological diagnosis of schistosomiasis at the grassroots’level.

    Effect of caring for chronic filariasis patients in Huaiyin District
    TANG Yong1|JING Xiao- Ling2|YANG Wen-Zhou3
    2012, 24(6):  662-706. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of the caring for patients with lymphedema/chronic filariasis elephantiasis in Huaiyin District. Methods The chronic filariasis care sites were established and the medical workers provided the guidance regularly to patients for their self?cares. Results Through the caring for patients with chronic filariasis,their symptoms alleviated obviously,and the symptom frequency showed a significant downward trend. Conclusion The caring for the chronic filariasis patients can alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life.

    Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding aquaporin (AQP) gene from Anopheles sinensis
    TANG Jian-xia1|ZHANG Chao1|BAI Liang1|LI Ju-lin1|LIU Kun2|ZHOU Hua-yun1|CAO Jun1
    2012, 24(6):  663-667. 
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    Objective To clone and analyze the full?length sequence of aquaporin gene of Anopheles sinensis(AsAQP),so as
    to provide an insight into its biology functions. Methods The degenerate primers were used to amplify conserved region of AQP
    from An. sinensis cDNA. After then,the full?length cDNA of AsAQP was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends(RACE).
    Concurrently,the bioinformatics methods were applied to analyze the obtained sequence. Results The obtained full?length cD?
    NA of AsAQP consisted of 762 bp and 253 deduced amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 63.2 kD. Bioinformatics analy?
    sis demonstrated that AsAQP had a typical structure with six membrane?spanning domains and an internal symmetry showing two
    highly conserved Asn?Pro?Ala(NPA)motif and possessing the consensus sequence of major intrinsic protein(MIP)superfamily.
    The AsAQP shared the identities of 76% and 78% with those of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti AQPs,respectively. Phy?
    logenetic analysis indicated that AsAQP was clustered with Aedes and Culex AQPs. Conclusions The full?length AsAQP is
    cloned by degenerate primers and RACE from An. sinensis. The AsAQP gene is a member of MIP protein family,and has the typi?
    cal function region. The study lays the foundation for further research on the function of AsAQP.

    Development of a software standardizing optical density with operation settings related to several limitations
    TU Xiao-ming1 |ZHANG Zuo-heng1|WAN Cheng2|ZHENG Yu1|XU Jin-mei3|ZHANG Yuan-yuan4
    2012, 24(6):  668-671. 
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    Objective To develop a software that can be used to standardize optical density to normalize the procedures and
    results of standardization in order to effectively solve several problems generated during standardization of in?direct ELISA results.
    Methods The software was designed based on the I?STOD method with operation settings to solve the problems that one might en?
    counter during the standardization. Matlab GUI was used as a tool for the development. The software was tested with the results of
    the detection of sera of persons from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas. Results I?STOD V1.0(WINDOWS XP/WIN 7,0.5
    GB)was successfully developed to standardize optical density. A serial of serum samples from schistosomiasis japonica endemic ar?
    eas were used to examine the operational effects of I?STOD V1.0 software. The results indicated that the software successfully over?
    came several problems including reliability of standard curve,applicable scope of samples and determination of dilution for sam?
    ples outside the scope,so that I?STOD was performed more conveniently and the results of standardization were more consistent.
    Conclusion I?STOD V1.0 is a professional software based on I?STOD. It can be easily operated and can effectively standardize
    the testing results of in?direct ELISA.

    Epidemic situation and control strategy of malaria in Yancheng City|Jiang?su Province
    SUN Bo-chao|ZENG Yu-lin|XIA Miao-ying
    2012, 24(6):  672-675. 
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    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic situation of malaria in Yancheng
    City,so as to provide the evidence for proposing the control strategy of malaria. Methods A retrospective investigation was em?
    ployed. The epidemiological data of the definitely diagnosed malaria cases in Yancheng City from 2003 to 2011 were collected and
    analyzed for the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic situation of malaria. Results A total of 134 malaria cases were de?
    tected in 9 counties(cities,districts)of Yancheng City from 1993 to 2011,including 18 cases of local vivax malaria,59 cases of
    imported vivax malaria,56 cases of imported falciparum malaria and 1 cases of imported malariae malaria,which comprised
    13.43%,44.03%,41.79% and 0.75% of the total cases,respectively. From 1993 to 2011,the total incidence of malaria was 0.3
    per million to 2.9 per million,and the incidence of local malaria ranged between 0 and 0.6 per million,appearing low epidemic sit?
    uation. Since 2006,no local malaria cases were detected for 6 successive years. A total of 56 cases of oversea imported falciparum
    malaria and 1 cases of imported malariae malaria were found from 2007 to 2011,and the number of imported falciparum malaria
    cases exhibited an increasing tendency year by year. The median interval from onset to treatment for these patients was 1 day,
    58.96% of the patients went to clinic when they felt silk and the village clinic was their major choice for the first visit. All of the me?
    dian intervals from onset to blood test,to diagnosis and to treatment were 4 days. Conclusions The transmission of local malaria
    tends to be gradually eliminated in Yancheng City,and the oversea imported falciparum malaria cases obviously increase. Current?
    ly,the surveillance and control of imported malaria should be given a high priority.

    Expressions and significance of IL?17 and IL?23 in intestinal mucosa of mice infected with Blastocystis hominis
    Wu Ling-yuan1|FU Rui-jia2|LU Zuo-chao1|TANG Li-li1|ZHANG Fan|LIU Deng-yu*
    2012, 24(6):  676-680. 
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    Objective To study the expressions of interleukin?17(IL?17)and interleukin?23(IL?23)in the intestinal muco?
    sa of BABL/C mice infected with Blastocystis hominis. Methods A total of 30 BABL/C mice were randomly divided into different
    groups:an experimental group,an immunosuppressant group and a normal group. Each mouse of the experimental group and im?
    munosuppressant group was administered intraperieneally with dexamethasone(2mg,gd,for 5 days)and one of the control group
    was given physiological saline(0.2 ml). In the experimental group,each mouse was infected with Blastocystis hominis(107 para?
    sites per 0.5 ml)by the intragastric infusion method;in the immunosuppressant group and normal group,the mice were fed with
    equal physiological saline. On the fifth day post?infection,the duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon of the mice of the 3 groups
    were taken out for the tissue section. The pathological changes of bowel mucosa were determined by HE staining,and the expres?
    sions of IL?17 and IL?23 in different parts of bowel mucosa were determined by immunohistochemistry assay. Results The patho?
    logical examinations showed intestinal mucosa had various degrees of inflammatory changes. The expressions of IL?17 and IL?23 in
    the intestinal mucosa of the mice in the experimental group was significantly higher than those in the immunosuppressant group or
    normal group(both P < 0.05). The expressions of IL?17 and IL?23 in the intestinal mucosa of the mice in the immunosuppressant
    group were similar to those in the normal group(P > 0.05). The expression of IL?17 in the duodenum or jejunum or colon of the
    mice was significantly higher than that in the ileum in the experimental group( P <0.05). The expression of IL?23 in the duode?
    num or jejunum of the mice was significantly higher that that in the ileum or colon in the experimental group(P < 0.05). Conclu?
    sions IL?17 and IL?23 are highly expressed in the intestinal mucosa of the mice infected with Blastocystis hominis. IL?23 may al?
    so be involved in the immunomodulatory effects of Blastocystis hominis infection,which plays a mutual regulatory role with IL?17.

    Prediction and identification of Taenia solium oncosphere TSO45?4B antigen FnⅢ structure domain linear B cell epitopes
    WANG Yuan-yuan|WANG Xiao-li|CHANG Xue-lian|TAO Zhi-yong|XIA Hui|FANG Qiang*
    2012, 24(6):  681-684. 
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    Objective To predict and identify Taenia solium oncosphere TSO45?4B antigen FnⅢ structure domain linear B
    cell epitopes. Methods The B cell epitopes of TSO45?4B FnⅢ structure domain were predicted through the sequence analysis by
    using bioinformatics online tools and the protein space conformation was predicted by SWISS?MODEL. The peptides were synthe?
    sized according to the predicted linear epitopes. The immunoreactivity of sera of cysticercosis patients to the peptides synthesized
    was tested by using ELISA. Results Two linear B cell epitopes of TSO45?4B FnⅢ structure domain were predicted,and one of
    the predicted epitope peptides synthesized could be recognized by the sera of cysticercosis patients. Conclusion Two linear B
    cell epitopes of TSO45?4B FnⅢ structure domain are predicted and one of them has been confirmed successfully.

    Field evaluation of IgG antibody detection kits of Schistosoma japonicum and quality control analysis
    CHU Yan-hong|AI Lin|YAO Jun-min|GUO Jian|CAI Yu-chun|CHEN Jia-xu
    2012, 24(6):  685-687. 
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    Objective To evaluate the application effect of an ELISA kit for detection of IgG antibody to Schistosoma japoni?
    cum in endemic areas. Methods In two schistosomiasis endemic villages of Eryuan County,Yunnan Province,there were 505
    permanent residents enrolled in the study. Fecal examinations were carried out by using the nylon screen bag?egg concentration
    method. In paralleled testing,the ELISA kit was used for the villagers to detect the IgG antibody to S. japonicum. The assay was
    performed daily for 20 consecutive days,and the data were analyzed by comparison with the parasitological examination and by us?
    ing the L?J quality control chart method. Results In 505 examinees,290 were positive by ELISA,with a positive rate of
    57.43%. The L?J chart analysis showed that the deviation of A450 value between the quality control sera A and B was within the con?
    trollable range. The fecal examination found 20 positives with a positive rate 3.96%. Compared with the fecal examination,the pos?
    itive consistency rate of the ELISA method reached to 90.00%. Conclusion The ELISA kit for detection of IgG antibody to S. ja?
    ponicum is stable,reliable and suitable for the screening of schistosomiasis in the field.

    Systematic surveillance of water body in schistosomiasis susceptible areas in
    Nanchang County by sentinel mice
    HUANG Chao-qing|ZHAO an*|ZHU Jing|TANG Qi-qiang|ZHANG Gang-gang
    2012, 24(6):  688-690. 
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    Objective To determine the status of cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum in water bodies of the Nanchang County
    section of Poyang Lake region. Methods By using sentinel mice,the schistosome infectivity of water bodies was detected in 8
    surveillance areas(59 experimental points in total)along the Fu River,Wuxing Farm,south branch of the Ganjiang River,and
    middle branch of the Ganjiang River from June to July 2011. Results A total of 600 sentinel mice were placed in the experimen?
    tal areas and 584 were retrieved,among which 577 mice were dissected and 1 mouse was infected with S. japonicum(4 worms col?
    lected),with the infection rate of 0.17%. Conclusion By using the sentinel mouse method to survey the water body schistosome
    infectivity,the status of Oncomelania snails should be mainly considered,and the infection rate of sentinel mice is affected by wa?
    ter situation,water level,flow velocity,etc.

    Investigation on satisfaction of replacement of bovine with machine for schis?
    tosomiasis control of residents in Jiangling County|Hubei Province
    SHANG De-gao1|WANG Qiang2|ZHANG Ming-hua3|LI Shi-zhu2*
    2012, 24(6):  691-693. 
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    Objective To understand the satisfaction and the awareness rate of the replacement of bovine with machine for
    schistosomiasis control among residents in Jiangling County,Hubei Province. Methods Three villages,Yugu,Jinqi and Hua?
    zhang,were chosen randomly to be investigated,each family filled a questionnaire,and 363 questionnaires were obtained at the
    end of the survey. The data were analyzed with SPSS 11.5. Results Among 363 households,210(68.0%)households raised bo?
    vine during the last 3 years. There were no significant differences in the awareness rates of the replacement of bovine with machine
    and the knowledge of schistosomiasis control between the bovine?raising families and non?raising families(P>0.05),while the
    satisfaction rates between the bovine?raising families and non?raising showed a statistically significant difference(P<0.05).
    Among the 187 households who purchased agricultural machinery,the very satisfied,satisfied,general,unsatisfied and very un?
    satisfied rates were 9.1%,43.3%,42.2%,3.7% and 1.1% respectively in evaluating the service of agricultural machinery organi?
    zations. Conclusion The satisfaction and the awareness rate of the replacement of bovine with machine of residents in schistoso?
    miasis endemic areas are relatively perfect.

    Preliminary screening tests of molluscicidal effect of extracts from Eucalyptus
    CHEN Ting-ting1|ZHOU Xiao-nong2|ZHU Dan2|LI Ming-ya1*
    2012, 24(6):  694-696. 
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    Objective To investigate the molluscicidal effects of extracts from five Eucalyptus leaves collected from Guang?
    dong Province,China. Methods According to the WHO recommended indoor immersed method,the molluscicidal effects of ex?
    tracts from five Eucalyptus leaves with 250,100,10 mg/L of water extraction,alcohol precipitation and organic solvent extraction
    were investigated. Results The dose?effect relationship showed that all the mortality rates of Oncomelania hupensis reached 80%
    with the volatile oil from five Eucalyptus leaves immersed at the concentrations of 100 mg/L for 48 h,and the mortality rates were
    both 93.3% with the volatile oil from Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla leaves. The mortality rate was up to 95% with
    the chloroform extract,and the mortality rate reached 60% at the concentrations of 10 mg/L for 48 h. Conclusion The volatile
    oils from five Eucalyptus leaves and the chloroform extract in alcohol extraction from Eucalyptus urophylla leaves are better than
    other solvents.

    Epidemiological survey of echinococcosis in some areas of Jiangsu Province
    XU Xiang-zhen1|JIN Xiao-lin1|JIANG Wen-cai1|CAO Han-Jun1|SHEN Ming-xue1|GAO Qi1|
    2012, 24(6):  697-699. 
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    Objective To understand the prevalence of echinococcosis in some areas of Jiangsu Province,so as to provide
    the evidence for making practical control measures. Methods The cases were determined by a retrospective survey and case?
    clues survey. All canine feces were tested by immunological fecal antigen in the villages of the local infection suspected cases. The
    antigen?positive feces were detected for E. chinococcus eggs by Kato?Katz technique. A serological investigation was administrated
    to search infected persons by double methods of enzyme?labeled immune assay and point immuno?gold filtration assay in the focus
    groups around the local infection suspected cases,and some students aged from seven to twelve years in their townships and in five
    different?orientation townships sampled randomly in their counties. The antibody?positive people were confirmed further by using
    imaging detection. Results There were 10 imported cases and 16 local infection suspected cases. Twenty canine feces were posi?
    tive among 1 938 samples,and the positive rate was 1.03%. However,no pathogen was found. Of 12 473 serum samples,72 were
    positive in sera immunological antibody test(0.58%),but no cystic nodules were found by imaging detection. Conclusion There
    is no direct evidence for confirming the presence of infectious source and foci of echinococcosis in Jiangsu Province. However,the
    surveillance of echinococcosis is still needed.

    Nantong Center for Disease Control and Prevention|Nantong 226007|Jiangsu|China
    CAO Cai-qun
    2012, 24(6):  700-702. 
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    Objective To understand the construction of the examination ability with microscopy for malaria at the beginning
    of the malaria elimination project in Nantong City,Jiangsu Province. Methods At all the medical and health institution levels,
    the construction of microscopy stations,the blood slide examiners,the hardware equipment,the microscopy skill training,and so
    on were investigated in 2011. Results There were 204 microscopy stations,228 blood slide examiners,and 255 microscopes in
    Nantong City,2011. Among 228 examiners,225 persons(98.7%)received the theory and technical training,and the rate of eligi?
    bility was 98.4%. A total of 57 893 people received the blood examinations for malaria and the total population blood examination
    rate was 0.76%. In the re?examination in the microscopy stations of townships,the mean pass rates of blood slide making,dyeing,
    and cleanliness were 87.1%,86.7% and 85.6%,respectively. Among 57 medical institutions,the mean pass rates were 86.8%,
    86.0% and 85.0%,respectively. Conclusion Most of the microscopy stations in Nantong City could well carry out the blood slide
    examinations for malaria. However,the construction of the examination ability and supervision still need to be enhanced.

    Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection of children and its influencing
    factors in Chongqing City
    WU Cheng-guo|LUO Xing-jian|XIE Jun|JIANG Shi-guo|LI Shan-shan|XIAO Bang-zhong
    2012, 24(6):  703-705. 
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    Objective To understand the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis of children aged 3-12 years and its influ?
    encing factors in Chongqing City. Methods One rural county and 1 urban county were selected as investigation areas. The chil?
    dren aged 3-12 years of 5 towns from 5 different directions of each county were investigated. About 150 children were investigated
    every town. The Enterobius vermicularis eggs of children were detectedbytheadhesivecellophane anal swabmethod.Thechildren’s
    parent education levels and personal circumstances of sanitation were investigated by the questionnaire survey. Results
    Among 1 592 children investigated,the total infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis was 6.85%. The infection rates of boys and
    girls were 6.29% and 7.40%,respectively. The infection rates of rural and urban areas were 12.13% and 2.14%,respectively. The
    infection rate in children aged 5-7 years was the highest(13.56%)among all the child aged groups. There were significant differ?
    ences for the infection rates of Enterobius vermicularis among children of different aged groups,different areas,different education
    levels and occupations of parents,washing hand before meal or not,washing hand after WC or not,different classroom grounds,
    and lodging or not(P<0.01 or P<0.05). The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that aged group,different areas,classroom
    ground and lodging children were independent risk factors for Enterobius vermicularis infection. Conclusions The infection rate
    of Enterobius vermicularis in rural area is higher than that in urban area. The control emphases should be the children of low group,
    rural area,poor classroom and lodging.

    The interplay between schistosome and its snail host:a review
    WANG Fei|DAI Jian-rong*
    2012, 24(6):  707-713. 
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    As the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum,the control of Oncomelania snails serves as a major part in
    schistosomiasis control. This review mainly demonstrates the following aspects:the invasion of schistosome miracidium into
    snails,the mechanism of resistance to miracidia,and the factors influencing this process. With a view to explore the methods of in?
    terrupting every phase during miracidium infection,this article focuses on the possibility for safeguarding human health through
    protecting snails,namely,achieving snails harmlessness.

    Study on malaria vectors in malaria endemic areas of Tibet Autonomous Region
    WU Song1 |HUANG Fang2|ZHOU Shui-sen2|TANG Lin-hua2*
    2012, 24(6):  711-713. 
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    The malaria situation in Tibet has been in an active status and the malaria incidence reached the second in China
    in 2010. Malaria vector prevention and control is one of the important methods for malaria control,while the malaria vectors are still unknown in Tibet. The author summarized the past researches on malaria vectors in Tibet,so as to provide the evidence for improving malaria control investigation in malaria endemic areas of Tibet,with hopes to provide useful vector message for other researcher.

    Indirect hemagglutination test capabilities of personnel from institutes of schistosomiasis control at basic levels in lake areas
    QIN Zhi-qiang,FENG Ting,XU Jing,ZHU Hong-qing,BAO Zi-ping,LI Hua-zhong|LI Shizhu
    2012, 24(6):  714-715. 
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    Objective To understand the indirect hemagglutination test capabilities of personnel from the institutes of schisto?
    somiasis control at the basic levels in lake areas. Methods All the contestants were grouped by the operation standard,qualitative judgment,quantitative determination,and geographical location of Hunan and Hubei provinces,and their scores were statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. Results The total scores of the contestants of the two provinces were high and there was no significant difference between them. Among the professional persons,the scores of operation standard and qualitative judgment were significantly higher than those of quantitative determination. There were no significant differences among the scores grouped by the different genders,ages,professional titles and areas(all P > 0.05). Conclusions The quantitative determination of indirect hemagglutination test of personnel from the institutes of schistosomiasis control at the basic levels is not very good. Therefore,the training of test capacity still should be strengthened.

    Investigation on transmission factors of schistosomiasis after replacement of bovine with machine in Jinxian County
    WANG Xin-ying|HONG Xian-lin|FAN Yun-long|HU Shen-zhu
    2012, 24(6):  716-717. 
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    Objective To understand the changes of transmission factors of schistosomiasis after the control strategy of replac?
    ing bovine with machine was implemented in the lake region,so as to provide the evidence for long?effective management in marsh?
    lands. Methods Two villages,which had carried out the control measure of replacing bovine with machine,were selected as ob?
    served villages. The data of endemic situation before and after the replacement were collected and analyzed. The species,activi?
    ties,and stool distributions of infectious resources were surveyed. Results After the replacement was implemented in 2005,the densities of infected Oncomelania snails gradually decreased in the marshlands from 2006 to 2008;in 2009 and 2010,the densities of infected snails were both zero. The positive rates of stool examinations of residents in the villages decreased from 11.35% in 2004 to 0 in 2009 and 2010. There was still bovine and pig grazing on most of the marshlands,and 41 wild stools were examined with the negative results. Conclusion After replacing bovine with machine is implemented,the marshlands are cleaned continuously,but there are still a few livestock on the marshlands which need to be managed.

    Effect of comprehensive intervention of schistosomiasis control in construction workers in Poyang Lake region
    YANG Ping-yi|LI Li-wu|LI Zhi-jian|WAN Guo-bao|XIONG Guo-qing|ZENG Hua|CHEN Zhi-g
    2012, 24(6):  718-719. 
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    After the implementation of the comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures centering on health education for
    3 years,the awareness rate of schistosomiasis control increased by 96.56% in construction workers of Dechang highway construction engineering projects in Poyang Lake region,the number of workers adopting preventive measures increased significantly,and no schistosome infection occurred. It is suggested that the comprehensive measures focusing on health education,combined with environment depollution and public administration can prevent schistosome infection effectively among construction workers.

    Causation of Oncomelania snail recurrence in water?net areas of Jiaxing City
    XU Hui-Qing|ZHU Pei-Hua|MO Gen-Qiang
    2012, 24(6):  720-721. 
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    From 2004 to 2012,fourteen Oncomelania snail remaining spots with an area of 31.954 hm2 were found in the his?
    torical snail areas of Xiuzhou District,Jiaxing City. The recurrence time of snails was 5-39 years. These spots were mainly distrib?
    uted in the complex breeding environments,such as paddy fields(37.15%),nursery stock fields(36.93%),mulberry fields
    (16.09%),and ditches(6.82%). A total of 8 370 snails were dissected and no infected ones were found. It suggests that the nurs?
    ery stock fields should be included in the key points for snail surveillance in water?net areas where schistosomiasis transmission
    has been interrupted.

    Effect of schistosomiasis control in Wuhu County from 2008 to 2009
    SONG Bang-cai
    2012, 24(6):  722-723. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of schistosomiasis control in Wuhu County from 2008 to 2009. Methods The
    data of the investigation on schistosome infections of residents and domestic animals,and the control measures were collected and
    analyzed in Wuhu County from 2008 to 2009. Results The schistosome infection rates in residents decreased from 0.73% in 2008
    to 0.25% in 2011;the rates in domestic animals decreased from 0.37% in 2008 to 0 in 2011. The areas of habitats of infected Onco?
    melania snails decreased from 2.58 hm2 in 2008 to 0.46 hm2 in 2011;the densities of the infected snails decreased from 0.005 4
    snails/0.1 m2 in 2008 to 0.001 6 snails/0.1 m2 in 2011. Conclusions Through the comprehensive control measures based mainly
    on infectious source control,the schistosomiasis endemic situation is effectively controlled,and the prevalent level is low in Wuhu
    County. However,we still need to strengthen the infectious source control and snail control so as to consolidate the control effect.

    Effects of three kinds of molluscicides in fields of mountainous areas of Yun?nan Province
    LI Bing-gui1|LI Wen-bao1|FENG Xi-guang2,DONG Yi2,WU Ming-shou2|etc
    2012, 24(6):  724-725. 
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    The molluscicidal effects of 10% salt of quinoid? 2’,5?dichloro?4’?nitrosalicylanilide(LDS)with dusting method,
    26% amine molluscicide(MNSC)and 50% niclosamide(WPN)with insufflation method were tested in the fields of mountainous
    areas of Yunnan Province. After 7,15 and 30 days of the tests,the death rates of snails,decline rates of living snail densities,
    and occurrence rates of frames with living snails of the 10% LDS group were 72.69%-87.16% ,74.10%-88.84% ,and
    20.00%-30.00%,respectively;those of the 26% MNSC group were 66.21%-91.06%,69.55%-91.36%,and 19.44%-27.78% re?
    spectively;those of the 50% WPN group were 78.10%-90.18%,82.44%-91.60%,17.50%-20.00%,respectively. The results
    showed that the molluscicidal effects of 10% LDS,26% MNSC and 50% WPN were basically equal.

    Surveillance of soil ?transmitted nematodiasis in northern Jiangsu Province
    from 2006 to 2010
    CHEN Xiao-jun1|JIANG Wen-cai2|CAO Han-jun2|JIN Xiao-lin2*
    2012, 24(6):  726-727. 
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    Objective To evaluate the control effect on soil?transmitted nematodiasis in surveillance sites of northern Jiangsu
    Province. Methods According to“The Monitoring Program on Soil?transmitted Nematodiasis in Jiangsu Province”,the eggs of
    soil?transmitted nematodes were detected by the Kato?Katz technique and cellophane anal swab technique,and the infection rates
    were predicted by the horizontal average speed development method in the surveillance sites from 2006 to 2010. Results The
    overall infection rate of soil?transmitted nematodes declined to 3.13% and the intensities of the infections were mild in past 5 years
    in the northern Jiangsu Province,and the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides,hookworm,Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius ver?
    micularis were 0.77%,0.89%,1.49 and 1.19%,respectively. The overall infection rates showed a downtrend. The predicted re?
    sult also demonstrated that the future infection rates should keep a continuous downtrend,but the decreasing speed should be slow?
    er than before. Conclusion The infections of soil?transmitted nematodes in the northern Jiangsu Province have been controlled
    basically,and we should adjust the control strategy including surveillance and chemotherapy in the main risk population.

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in healthy voluntary blood
    donors from Shijiazhuang area
    YANG Sheng-jun1 SONG Ren-hao2*
    2012, 24(6):  728-730. 
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    The positive rates of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in healthy voluntary blood donors in Shijiazhuang area was
    4.83%,and it showed differences among the different regions,occupations,ages,education levels and nations. So the blood do?
    nors should receive the Toxoplasma infection screening in order to prevent toxoplasmosis from blood recipients.

    Detecting effect comparison between MPAIA|DDIA and IHA for screening
    advanced schistosomiasis
    TU Jia-lin1|JIANG Chang-fu|ZHANG You-jun1|YAO Lan2|YIN Qi-bo1|WEI Lan-ying2|FANG
    2012, 24(6):  729-730. 
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    Objective To evaluate the effects of the magnetic particle antibody immunoassay(MPAIA),dipstick dye immu?
    noassay(DDIA)and indirect hemagglutination assay(IHA),on detecting advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The sera of 224
    cases of advanced schistosomiasis were detected by MPAIA,DDIA,and IHA,and the positive rates were compared. Results
    The positive rates of MPAIA,DDIA and IHA,were 67.14%,14.29% and 16.52%,respectively,the positive coincidence rate of
    MPAIA is higher than the one of IHA and DDIA. Conclusion The value of MPAIA is higher than that of DDIA or IHA in screen?
    ing advanced schistosomiasis.

    Effect of comprehensive schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy in
    Runzhou District|Zhenjiang City
    ZHONG Liu-hua|TAO Heng-ye|JIANG Jun
    2012, 24(6):  731-732. 
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    The comprehensive schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy which relied mainly on Oncomelania snail con?
    trol,schistosomiasis detection and chemotherapy in residents and livestock was carried out in Runzhou District,2004-2011.
    There were no acute schistosomiasis patients for 7 years and no acute schistosomiasis occurred in livestock for 8 years. A total of
    107 331 person?times were examined by the serological test and the number of positive cases was 843(0.8%),and there were 796
    person?times who received chemotherapy from 2004 to 2011. There were no infected snails for 2 successive years. Runzhou District
    achieved the criteria of schistosomiasis endemic control in 2007 and the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission interrupted in
    2011. The comprehensive schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy is very effective in Runzhou District.

    Surveillance of soil ?transmitted nematodiasis in Xinghua City from 2007 to 2011
    SUN Rong-gui
    2012, 24(6):  733-734. 
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    Objective To understand the infection status of soil?transmitted nematodes in the population of Xinghua City,so
    as to provide the evidence for formulating the preventive strategy and measures. Methods The eggs of soil transmitted nematodes
    were detected by Kato?Katz technique in population and the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis were detected in children aged from 3
    to 12 years by the transparent adhesive tape anal swab method. Results Among 5 166 people detected,57 were infected with soil
    transmitted nematodes in 5 years,and the mean annual infection rate was 1.10%. Among 500 children examined,no Enterobius
    vermicularis infections were found. Conclusion The infection rates of soil transmitted nematodes present a down tend yearly in
    Xinghua City,which has reached the county?level control standard of Jiangsu Province. Therefore,the preventive strategy and
    measures should be adjusted.

    Analysis of advanced schistosomiasis situation in Hubei Province|2004-2011
    ZHOU Xiao-rong|HUANG Shui-sheng*|GONG Xin-guo|YANG Jun-jing|WANG Jing|CEN Li-pin
    2012, 24(6):  735-738. 
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    There were 39 996 cases of advanced schistosomiasis in Hubei Province,2004-2011,and most of them were of as?
    cites type. During the period of 8 years,the assistance rate was 97.14%,the cure rate was 14.54%,the mortality rate was 5.59%,
    and the newly increased rates and the mortality rates declined year by year.

    Diagnosis and treatment of one case of cerebral sparganosis mansoni in Jiang?su Province
    CHEN Hai-Feng1|HUA Hai-yong2|TANG Feng2|GAO Qi 2*
    2012, 24(6):  736-737. 
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    The diagnosis and treatment of one case of cerebral sparganosis suggests that stereotactic positioning operation is
    an effective treatment,and understanding of the spectrum of parasitic diseases is helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagno?
    sis. However,in non?epidemic area of sparganosis,the classical epidemiological route of transmission is difficult to satisfy the ex?
    planation of the current status of the disease.