Prevalence of mountain⁃zoonotic type visceral leishmaniasis in Yangquan City of Shanxi Province from 2015 to 2020
- ZHANG Pei⁃jun, ZHOU Zheng⁃bin, LI Yuan⁃yuan, HAO Yu⁃wan, LUO Zhuo⁃wei, LI Hong⁃yan, LI Zhong⁃qiu, YANG Li⁃min, ZHANG Yi, WU Bin, LI Shi⁃zhu
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Objective To investigate the prevalence of mountain⁃type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (MT⁃ZVL) in Yangquan City, Shanxi Province from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the MT⁃ZVL control strategy. Methods The epidemiological data pertaining to MT⁃ZVL cases in Yangquan City from 2015 to 2020 were collected and descriptively analyzed. A Joinpoint regression model was created to analyze the trend in the MT⁃ZVL incidence in Yangquan City from 2015 to 2020 using annual percent change (APC). The sandflies surveillance data and the prevalence of Leishmania infections in dogs were collected in Yangquan City in 2020, and the regional distribution of sandflies density and sero⁃prevalence of Leishmania infections in dogs were calculated. In addition, the associations of sandflies density and sero⁃prevalence of Leishmania infections in dogs with the incidence of human MT⁃ZVL were examined using the linear correlation analysis. Results A total of 162 MT⁃ZVL cases were reported in Yangquan City, Shanxi Province from 2015 to 2020, with annual mean incidence of 1.9/106, and there were 4, 7, 16, 27, 33 cases and 75 cases with MT⁃ZVL reported from 2015 to 2020, appearing a tendency towards a rapid rise (APC = 72.79%, t = 11.10, P < 0.01). MT⁃ZVL cases were reported across the five counties (districts) of Yangquan City, and the cases predominantly occurred in Jiaoqu District (35.2%, 57/162) and Pingding County (33.3%, 54/162). MT⁃ZVL cases were predominantly detected in residents at ages of 15 years and older (71.6%, 116/162) and at ages of 0 to 2 years (22.2%, 36/162), with farmers (37.4%, 61/162) and diaspora children (24.5%, 40/162) as predominant occupations. The mean density of Phlebotomus chinensis was 6.3 sandflies per trap per night in Yangquan City from during the period from May to September, 2020, with the highest density observed in Jiaoqu District (12.6 sandflies per trap per night) and the lowest in Yuxian County (1.1 sandflies per trap per night), and there was a region⁃specific mean density of Ph. chinensis in Yangquan City (H = 17.282, P < 0.01). The sero⁃prevalence of serum anti⁃Leishmania antibody was 7.4% (2 996/40 573) in domestic dogs in Yangquan City, with the highest sero⁃prevalence seen in Jiaoqu District (16.6%, 1 444/8 677), and the lowest in Yuxian County (2.3%, 266/11 501), and there was a region⁃specific sero⁃prevalence rate of anti⁃Leishmania antibody in domestic dogs in Yangquan City ([χ2] = 1 753.74, P < 0.01). The sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Leishmania antibody was significantly higher in stray dogs (20.0%, 159/794) than in domestic dogs ([χ2] = 176.63, P < 0.01). In addition, there were significant associations among the sandflies density, sero⁃prevalence of anti⁃Leishmania antibody in domestic dogs and the incidence of human MT⁃ZVL (r = 0.832 to 0.870, all P values < 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of MT⁃ZVL appeared a tendency towards a rapid rise in Yangquan City from 2015 to 2020, and systematic interventions are urgently needed for MT⁃ZVL control.