Objective To explore morphologic variations and their spatial correlation among On comelania hupensis populations from the mainland of China. Methods Twenty-seven snail popula tions from ten provinces were collected, The morphologic indices of shells and geographic distances between the snail spots were measured respectively, and the morphologic variations among snail populations and the correlations between morphologic variations and geographical distances were an alyzed. Results The median of Euclidean distances was 3. 24 (95% CI,2.88-3. 8l) among 20 snail populations of O. h. hupensis including a snail population from Guangxi Province, and was 3, 15 (95% CI: 2. 86- 3. 76) excluding the Guangxi snail population; the median was l. 69 (95% CI: 1. 33 - 2. 27) among 6 populations of O. h. robertsoni. Whether including a snail population from Guangxi Province or not, the median among O. h. robertsoni was le.ss than that among O. h. hupensrs (PO. 05). The correiation coefficient was 0. 265 5 for O. h.hupensis including a snail population from (Juangxi Province, 0. 256 7 not including it; and was 0. 312 1 for ribbcd-shell population. Conclusions Morphologic variation among O, h. hupensis is bigger than that among O. h. robertsoni, and morphologic variation among ribbed-shell populations is bigger than that among smooth-shell popuLations, There is significant spatial structure among ribbed-shell snail populations of Oncomelania hupensis distributed in the mainland of China.