### Epidemic situation and diagnosis of imported malaria before and after malaria elimination in Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province

HE Yi⁃Sha, WANG Yu, LI Yan⁃Jing, XIE Chao⁃Yong*

1. Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210003, China
• Online:2021-08-30 Published:2021-08-30

### 江苏省南京市疟疾消除前后输入性疟疾疫情及病例诊断分析

1. 江苏省南京市疾病预防控制中心（南京210003）
• 作者简介:何伊莎，女，硕士，主管医师。研究方向：寄生虫病防制

Abstract: Objective　To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of imported malaria before and after malaria elimination in Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the malaria control strategy after malaria elimination. Methods　Data pertaining to the epidemic situation and individual investigation of malaria in Nanjing City before (from 2012 to 2016) and after malaria elimination (from 2017 to 2020) were captured from the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention and were analyzed statistically. Results　A total of 178 malaria cases were reported in Nanjing City from 2012 to 2020, and all were imported cases. There were 99 malaria cases reported before malaria elimination in Nanjing City, including 78 cases with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (78.79%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (5.05%), 10 cases with P. ovale malaria (10.10%), 3 cases with P. malariae malaria (3.03%) and 3 cases with mixed infections (3.03%), and 79 malaria cases reported after elimination, including 63 cases with P. falciparum malaria (79.75%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (6.33%), 9 cases with P. ovale malaria (11.39%), 2 cases with P. malariae malaria (2.53%). There was no significant difference in the proportion of each type of malaria cases in Nanjing City before and after malaria elimination ([χ2] = 2.400, P > 0.05). Malaria cases mainly acquired Plasmodium infections in African regions, and no significant difference was seen in the proportion of malaria cases returning to Nanjing City from African countries before and after malaria elimination ([χ2] = 0.093, P > 0.05). The number of malaria cases peaked in Nanjing City in January and during the period from May to July before elimination, and there was no apparent seasonal variation in the distribution of malaria cases after elimination. The proportion of malaria cases living in Nanjing City was significantly greater after malaria elimination than before elimination (72.15% vs. 55.56%; [χ2] = 5.187, P = 0.023). The proportions of businessmen and international students were both 5.05% before malaria elimination, and increased to 15.19% and 13.92% after elimination, respectively ([χ2] = 5.229 and 4.229, both P values < 0.05). The percentage of definitive diagnosis of malaria at initial diagnosis was 18.75% in county⁃level hospitals before malaria elimination and increased to 61.11% after elimination ([χ2] = 6.275, P = 0.012), while the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses in county⁃level hospitals was 4.04% before malaria elimination and increased to 13.92% after elimination ([χ2] = 5.562, P = 0.018). During the period from 2012 to 2020, the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses within 1 to 3 days post⁃admission increased from 27.27% in Nanjing City before malaria elimination to 45.57% after elimination ([χ2] = 6.433, P = 0.011). Conclusions　The epidemic situation of imported malaria remains serious in Nanjing City during the post⁃elimination stage, and malaria parasite infections predominantly occur in African regions. In addition, there are changes in regional and occupational distributions of malaria cases and the diagnostic capability of malaria increases in county⁃level hospitals in Nanjing City after malaria elimination. Further improvements in the malaria surveillance system and the diagnostic and treatment capability of malaria in medical institutions at each level are required to consolidate malaria elimination achievements in Nanjing City.

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